Free Essay

In: Science

Submitted By clauds29

Words 2354

Pages 10

Words 2354

Pages 10

Thermal Systems Design

MEM 440 Design Project Group 1: Alexandria Ruggeri & Yong Peng Zhou

9/1/2012

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 3

System Definition and Problem Definition.................................................................................................. 4

Results .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

Discussion and Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 9

References .................................................................................................................................................. 10

Appendix A ................................................................................................................................................. 11

2

Executive Summary

In order to design a good system for heat recovery from exhaust air, optimization on cost and performance is the most important. To maximize the performance and reduce the heat cost and annual cost on the recovery system, heat exchangers are the main part for the optimization. The use of the Newton‐Raphson method is the most effective way to find the minimum cost of the recovery system. There are four constraint equations and six unknowns for the given system. MATLAB is used as the main method to solve them. The total cost of the system including initial cost, electrical heating cost, pump power cost, and the component’s cost is $13251 for a year. The initial cost is $7240, which is half of the total cost. The initial cost mainly comes from the design of the heat exchanger. For instance, fin spacing, number of rows of tubes, length of tubes, etc. The most important finding is to use different methods to determine the optimization of the thermal system.

3

System Definition and Problem Definition

For this design project, students were given the challenge of optimizing an ethylene glycol runaround system for heat recovery from exhaust air. A physical illustration of the system to be optimized can be seen below in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Heat‐recovery system to be optimized

To optimize this system means to optimize, or set up parameters to obtain the best possible solution, the heating cost. The savings to be maximized can be found as the maximum difference between the the reduced heating costs and the annual costs. The optimum system for a set of heat exchangers with a pump for the ethylene glycol and an electric heater should consist of the most favorable combination of the following variables: length of the tubes in the coil, height (or number of tubes high) of the coil, number of rows of tubes deep (parallel to the path of the airflow), fin spacing, and glycol flow rate.

These variables are dependent upon each other as well as a few other unknowns to the system.

Some data to include in the problem was given. The outdoor‐air and exhaust‐air flow rates

should both be 3.0 m3/s, the coil circuiting is made up of vertical headers that feed horizontal tube circuits in parallel, which can be seen in Figure 2.

4

Figure 2. Schematic of the heating system

The flow of glycol through the U bends can be considered counter to the air flow, and pure counterflow can be assumed for the coils. The copper tubes have an OD of 16mm and wall thickness of 1 mm. Tube spacing (both horizontal and vertical) is 41mm, and the average outdoor temperature is 5⁰C for 250 days of 24 hour operation. The life of the system is 10 years with 0% interest rate. Electricity cost is $0.16 per kWh, and both the motor and pump efficiencies are 75%. The initial costs of the pump and motor are to be assumed as $400 each, while the interconnecting piping is assumed constant at $150.

5

Results

A diagram of all of the components can be seen in Figure 2. As stated earlier, the students were to minimize the cost of running this system using constraint equations. In these constraint equations, it is best to minimize the variables: length of the tubes in the coil (L), height (or number of tubes high) of the coil (NR), number of rows of tubes deep parallel to the path of the airflow (W), fin spacing (NF), and glycol flow rate (Veg). Some other variables seen in the constraint equations are Ta,I, which is the temperature of the air right before the electric heating occurs, and Qeg, which is the volumetric flow rate of the ethylene glycol.

With all of this being said, the objective function is to minimize cost. There are a few cost equations that are to be considered, and the total of all of these will be the function to minimize. The cost equations to be considered are as follows:

Initial Cost:

0.26

18

0.024

500

1

Electrical Heating Cost:

0.75

3 1.77 24

,

10 250 24 0.16

Pump Power Cost:

0.75

10 250 24 0.16

Initial Cost of Pump, Motor, & Piping:

400

400

150

This would make the total cost:

In order to minimize this equation, we must give it some constraints. First, we can substitute Qeg with the given area of 0.000154m2 times the velocity of the glycol, so that C3 becomes

0.75

0.000154

10 250 24 0.16

6

Then, we have an equation for the pressure differential in terms of W, L, and Veg, so that we can substitute the following equation into the C3 equation, but also use it as a constraint.

5.2 0.15

0.0875

1

0.3

.

This leads to a new C3 equation of

0.75

0.000154

0.3

10 250 24 0.16

.

5.2

0.15

0.0875

1

In order to optimize a system, there must be more unknowns, n, than constraint equations, m.

Since the number of constraints must be less than the unknowns, we have a perfect amount to continue with our analysis, since there are 4 equations with 6 unknowns and m>n. To solve for an optimum solution when there are multiple constraints and unknowns, it is best to use a processing software, such as Matlab. This was done by the students. In this case, it was also ideal to use the Newton‐Raphson method, which uses successive substitution until a value converges to have very little error. The entirety of the code can be seen in the Appendix, but a snip of it below in Figure 3 shows the equations used.

Figure 3. Snip of Matlab code containing the equations used

As seen in the Appendix, the code was set up with initial guesses for the unknowns were given as well as all of the constraint equations. Then, a while loop was set up to reiterate the function of converging using error found in the matrices that were set up. The Newton‐Raphson method was set up, and then at the end of the code, the total for each cost, as well as the overall cost can be seen.

An optimized solution was found using this method. There were a few issues along the way, but

the results were found, nonetheless. As for the results, the individual costs as well as total costs can be seen below in Table 1.

7

Table 1. Cost of the System

Initial Cost

$7,240.20

Electic Heating Cost

$3,845.00

Pump Power Cost

$1,215.90

Cost of Pump, Motor, & Piping $950.00

Total Cost

$13,251.10

The initially guessed values were changed during the iterations. The optimum values for each of these can be seen below in Table 2.

Table 2. Optimized Values for Unknowns

Unknown

NR

W

L

NF

Veg

Tai

Initial Guess

5

1

0.5

15

10

23.9

8

Optimum Value

5

1

0.5

15

35.69

24

Discussion and Conclusion

By using the Newton‐Raphson method, the students were able to solve for an optimized system

for the given heating system. There were a few complications when using Matlab. The main issue was that there was an issue with the number of iterations that were performed. This was solved by simply changing the initial values so that it would converge to the optimum solution. There were no assumptions in values that needed to be made to simplify the number of unknowns and constraints.

Overall, the students learned about optimization, the Newton‐Raphson method, Matlab coding,

and thermal systems. This project was a well‐rounded assignment that students were able to gain much experience from.

9

References

Janna, W.S. (2009). Design of Fluid Thermal Systems (3rd ed.). Thomson Learning.

Stoecker, W.F. (1989). Design of Thermal Systems (3rd ed.). Mc‐Graw‐Hill.

1 0

Appendix A: Matlab Script

% Solve non-linear algebraic equations using Newton-Raphson method

% Problem 6.15 (Stoecker Text)

% The problem formulation gives the following system of equations:

%

f(1)= 0.26*(18+0.024)*(x(4)+500)*x(2)*(x(3)*(x(1)+1)); %%initial cost

%

f(2)= 0.75*3*1.77*1005.7*(24-x(7))*10*250*24*0.16; %%electrical heating cost % f(3)= 0.75*x(6)*0.000154*x(5)*10*250*24*0.16; %%pump power cost

%

f(4)= 400+400+150; %%cost of pump, motor, and piping

%

f(5)= f(1)+f(2)+f(3)+f(4);

%

f(1)=

0.26*(18+0.024)*(x(4)+500)*x(2)*(x(3)*(x(1)+1))+0.75*3*1.77*1005.7*(24x(7))*10*250*24*0.16+0.75*x(6)*0.000154*x(5)*10*250*24*0.16+400+400+150;

% This Program starts with initial guesses and continuously updates the

% solution

% set initial guess clear all; clc; %initial guess x(1)=5; x(2)=1; x(3)=0.5; x(4)=15; x(5)=10; x(6)=23.9999;

% Here x(1) is NR, x(2) is W, x(3) is L, x(4) is NF, x(5) is Veg, x(6) is

% Qeg and x(7) is Tai disp(sprintf('Initial Condition:\n')); disp(sprintf('NR W

L

NF

Veg

Tai')); disp(sprintf('------------------------------------------------------')); disp(sprintf('%0.1f

%0.1f

%0.1f

%0.1f

%0.1f

%0.1f\n',x(1),x(2),x(3),x(4),x(5),x(6)));

% initialize the function array f = zeros(length(x),1);

% initialize the derivative array df = zeros(length(x),length(x));

% initialize the 'error' error=1E8; % initialize iteration number i = 0; maxi = 30; disp(sprintf('Solution:\n')); 1 1

disp(sprintf('Iteration No.

NR

W

L

NF

Veg

Tai')); disp(sprintf('-------------------------------------------------------------------')); % do the iteration while error > 1E-5 i = i + 1;

% calculate the f values f(1)= 0.26*(18+0.024)*(x(4)+500)*x(2)*(x(3)*(x(1)+1)); %%initial cost f(2)= 0.75*3*1.77*1005.7*(24-x(6))*10*250*24*0.16; %%electrical heating cost f(3)= 0.75*5.2*(0.15*x(2)*x(3)+0.0875*(x(2)1)+0.3)*(x(5)^1.75)*0.000154*x(5)*10*250*24*0.16; %%pump power cost f(4)= 400+400+150; %%cost of pump, motor, and piping

%

f(5)= 5.2*(0.15*x(2)*x(3)+0.0875*(x(2)-1)+0.3)*x(5); %%constraint equation for differential pressure

% calculate the derivative values

% df(1,1) stores the value of derivative df1/dx1 df(1,1) = (0.26*(18+0.024)*(x(4)+500)*x(2)*x(3)); df(1,2) = 0.26*0.024*(x(4)+500)*x(3)*(x(4)+1); df(1,3) = 0.26*(18+0.024)*(x(4)+500)*x(2)*(x(1)+1); df(1,4) = 0.024*0.26*x(2)*x(3)*(x(1)+1); df(1,5) = 0; df(1,6) = 0; df(2,1) = 0; df(2,2) = 0; df(2,3) = 0; df(2,4) = 0; df(2,5) = 0; df(2,6) = 0.75*3*1.77*1005.7*10*250*24*0.16; df(3,1) = 0; df(3,2) = 0; df(3,3) = 0; df(3,4) = 0; df(3,5) = x(6)*0.75*10*250*24*0.16*0.000154; df(3,6) = x(5)*0.75*10*250*24*0.16*0.000154; df(4,1) = 0; df(4,2) = 0; df(4,3) = 0; df(4,4) = 0; df(4,5) = 0; df(4,6) = 0;

%

df(5,1) = 0;

%

df(5,2) = 0.52*x(5)*(0.15*x(3)+0.0875);

%

df(5,3) = 0.52*x(5)*(0.15*x(2));

%

df(5,4) = 0;

%

df(5,5) = 5.2*(0.15*x(2)*x(3)+0.0875*(x(2)-1)+0.3);

%

df(5,6) = 0;

%

df(5,7) = 0; df; f; y=-df/f'; 1 2

%x(1)=x(1)+y';

%x(2)=x(2)+y';

%x(3)=x(3)+y';

%x(4)=x(4)+y';

%x(5)=x(5)+y';

%x(6)=x(6)+y';

%x(7)=x(7)+y';

error=sqrt(y(1)*y(1)+y(2)*y(2)+y(3)*y(3)+y(4)*y(4)+y(5)*y(5)+y(6)*y(6)); error(i)=sqrt(f(1)*f(1)+f(2)*f(2)+f(3)*f(3)+f(4)*f(4)+f(5)*f(5)); % set the 'A' marix

A=[

df(1,1) df(2,1) df(3,1) df(4,1) x=[

df(1,3) df(2,3) df(3,3) df(4,3) df(1,4) df(2,4) df(3,4) df(4,4) df(1,5) df(2,5) df(3,5) df(4,5) df(1,6); df(2,6); df(3,6); df(4,6)]; x(1); x(2); x(3); x(4); x(5); x(6)]; f=[

df(1,2) df(2,2) df(3,2) df(4,2) f(1); f(2); f(3); f(4)]; % calculate dx xc=linsolve(A,f); % correct the solution (x) x=x-xc; disp(sprintf('\t%d \t\t\t%0.3f\t%0.3f \t%0.3f

\t%0.3f\t%0.3f\t%0.3f\t%0.3f',i,x(1),x(2),x(3),x(4),x(5),x(6)));

% calculate the relative error error=max(abs(xc/x)); if (i > maxi) error = 0; s=sprintf('****Did not converge within %3.0f iterations.****',maxi); disp(s) end

% continue loop end f(1)

1 3

f(2) f(3) f(4) f(1)+f(2)+f(3)+f(4) 1 4

Premium Essay

...Group Case Study Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc. Current State Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc. has been a leading designer and manufacturer of specialized industrial heat transfer equipment for more than 10 years. The company’s primary products are transformer coolers, hydro generator coolers, air-cooled heat exchangers and transformer oil coolers. Their USP are Fin tube type heat exchangers and long lasting products. “… A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. …” The company is into highly customized heat equipments. Presently, due to entry of new competition from European and Korean companies they have changed their corporate policy, which emphasize on reducing the variety and standardizing the product. The new business policy also aims at reducing the current lead time from 14 weeks to 6 weeks. Problem Statement The Materials Department headed by Rick Coyne has to take many initiatives internally to incorporate the various implications of the new strategy, and submit his report to his boss Max Brisco with the changes suggested by him within a week. The major challenges that Rick faces include: • Change from responsive to anticipatory model of production. • Increase inventory turns from present 4 times to 20 times. • Eliminate material shortages and stock outs.......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

...the secondary fluid to the heat exchanger may change with time. This means that in order to maintain a consistent secondary fluid outlet temperature, the heat supplied to the heat exchanger must also vary. This can be achieved by using a control valve on the inlet to the primary side of the heat exchanger, as shown in Figure 13.2.1. Fig. 13.2.1 Typical temperature control of a steam/water shell and tube heat exchanger A control valve is used to vary the flowrate and pressure of the steam so that the heat input to the heat exchanger can be controlled. Modulating the position of the control valve then controls the outlet temperature of the secondary fluid. A sensor on the secondary fluid outlet monitors its temperature, and provides a signal for the controller. The controller compares the actual temperature with the set temperature and, as a result, signals the actuator to adjust the position of the control valve. For a constant heating area and heat transfer coefficient, the rate at which heat is transferred from the steam to the secondary fluid for a particular heat exchanger is determined by the mean temperature difference between the two fluids. A larger difference in mean temperatures will create a large heat transfer rate and vice versa. On partially closing the control valve, the steam pressure and the temperature difference fall. Conversely, if the control valve is opened so that the steam mass flow and hence pressure in the heat exchanger rise, the mean......

Words: 4745 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

...Classification Of Heat Exchangers Introduction Heat: is energy in transit from one mass to another because of a temperature difference between the two. A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and transferred from a body at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature. Heat energy will move from a high energy state to that of a lower energy state. The process will continue until a state of equilibrium is reached. Equilibrium is the energy state where the material is at the same energy level as its surroundings. A heat exchanger is defined as device used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between the solid surface and a fluid. The fluids can be single compounds or mixtures. The typical applications of heat exchangers include cooling or heating of fluid stream of concern, evaporation or condensation of multi-component or single fluid stream. They are also used in heat rejection or heat recovery from a system. The heat exchanger: Is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another? The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. Heat exchangers are found in most chemical or mechanical systems. They serve as the system's means of gaining or rejecting heat. Some of the more common applications are found in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, radiators on internal combustion engines, boilers, condensers,...

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

...Design of heat exchangers required for a 50-100kW superheated Rankine cycle MECH 421 Huzeyfe SHAHIN Gokce SAGIR Usman Arshad SHAH 28th December 2015 Table of Contents 1. ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................................. 3 2. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 3 3. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................................. 3 4. SIMPLE DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1 Evaporator at 800 kPa (Counter Flow) ................................................................................................ 4 4.1.1 Preheater ..................................................................................................................................... 4 4.1.2 Boiler ............................................................................................................................................ 4 4.1.3 Superheater ................................................................................................................................. 5 4.2 Evaporator at 800 kPa (Shell & Tube) ............................................

Words: 6124 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

...Effectively Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers To make the most of exchanger design software, one needs to understand STHE classiﬁcation, exchanger components, tube layout, baffling, pressure drop, and mean temperature difference. Rajiv Mukherjee, Engineers India Ltd. T hermal design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHEs) is done by sophisticated computer software. However, a good understanding of the underlying principles of exchanger design is needed to use this software effectively. This article explains the basics of exchanger thermal design, covering such topics as: STHE components; classiﬁcation of STHEs according to construction and according to service; data needed for thermal design; tubeside design; shellside design, including tube layout, baffling, and shellside pressure drop; and mean temperature difference. The basic equations for tubeside and shellside heat transfer and pressure drop are wellknown; here we focus on the application of these correlations for the optimum design of heat exchangers. A followup article on advanced topics in shell-and-tube heat exchanger design, such as allocation of shellside and tubeside ﬂuids, use of multiple shells, overdesign, and fouling, is scheduled to appear in the next issue. • baffles; and • nozzles. Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass partition plates, impingement plate, longitudinal baffle, sealing strips, supports, and foundation. The Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association......

Words: 11381 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

...School of Mechanical and Design Engineering Dublin Institute of Technology Bachelor of Engineering Technology in Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 2 Plate Heat Exchanger Assignment Robert O’Donovan Student Number: C12756051 Due Date: 24/10/2014 Lecturer: Jim Ffrench Dublin Institute of technology Bolton Street, Dublin 1. I. Abstract Heat exchangers are a piece of process equipment used for heat transfer between two media. The media do not come into direct contact and there is no mixing. Heat is transported from the hot medium to the cold medium by way of a heat conducting partition. In this experiment, we analysed the working principle of parallel and counter flow. We observed different fluid temperatures, fluid flow rates and how this affected the heat exchangers performance. Calculations were needed to determine the variation of the two configurations. There are some possible percentage errors that need to be considered in the experiment, these include the tube changeover from parallel to counter flow, the fluid loss will have an effect on the readings. Also if the unit is not allowed enough time to stabilise when changing the flow rates, the readings will not be accurate. 1"Vh"(L/min) Parallell"flow Counter"flow Vs U"= U"= 3"Vc"(L/min) 2.9"W/m 2 K 3.5"W/m 2 K The percentage difference between the U values is 20.6 %. II. Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION ...............

Words: 2209 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

...EG2002 Process Engineering Continuous Assessment Report Heat Exchange Laboratory By Thomas A. Lindie 51011245 School of Engineering University of Aberdeen Kings College 2011-12 Table of Contents Contents Table of Contents I List of Figures II List of Tables II Symbols and Abbreviations III 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Aims and Objectives 1 1.3 Structure of the Report 2 2. Background Theory 3 3. Experimental Methodology 6 4. Results 8 4.1 Tables of Co-Current and Counter-Current flow taken from Result Table 8 4.1.1 Table of Co-Current Flow at Steady State 8 4.1.2 Table of Counter-Current Flow at Steady State 8 4.2 Log Mean Temperature Different (LMTD) Calculations 9 4.3 Calculating the Duty of the HEX and the Efficiency 10 4.4 Graphs of Results for Co-Current and Counter-Current Flow 12 5. Discussion and Analysis 13 5.1 Log Mean Temperature Different (LMTD) Calculation Analysis 13 5.2 Efficiency of the Heat Exchanger 14 5.3 Errors in Laboratory 14 6. Conclusions and Recommendations 15 Bibliography 16 List of Figures Figure 1: 3D View of Shell and Tube heat exchanger taken from http://www.secshellandtube.com/ 3 Figure 2: Shell and Tube heat exchanger flow pattern taken from http://www.cheresources.com/content/articles/heat-transfer/specifying-a-liquid-liquid-heat-exchanger 3 Figure 3: Screenshot taken from co-current experiment on Armfield Programme 7 Figure 4:Graph of Co-Current Flow 12 ...

Words: 3933 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

...lean/rich MEA heat exchanger E-114. This heat exchanger is a counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger and is designed to heat up the rich MEA stream flowing from the CO2 absorber to the stripper. The principle that is applied is heat exchange between cold stream and hot stream which in this case the heat energy is transferred from the lean MEA stream to the rich MEA stream. Apart from this, the chemical engineering design for this heat exchanger includes the determination of its dimensions and heat exchange coefficient as well as pressure drop. The mechanical design covers the design of pressure vessel, head, supports and piping. In addition, the operating design which includes the commissioning, start-up, shutdown and maintenance procedures, process control, and HAZOP study is considered. 2.0 Process Description Figure 2.1 Schematic of rich/lean MEA heat exchange process flow sheet The lean/rich MEA heat exchange process is presented in Figure 2.1. The MEA-2 stream containing rich CO2 is flowing from CO2 absorber and enters the heat exchanger to be heated up from 61°C to 80°C by MEA-7 before entering the stripper. The MEA-7 is then cooled down from 105°C to 84°C when pass through the heat exchanger and recycle back to the CO2 absorber. The cold stream in this case is MEA-2 and MEA-3 while the hot stream is MEA-7 and MEA-8. 3.0 Chemical Engineering Design 3.1 Design Methodology The rich/lean MEA heat exchanger is a counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger.......

Words: 3516 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

...journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng Optimization of heat exchanger network Moﬁd Gorji-Bandpy, Hossein Yahyazadeh-Jelodar, Mohammadtaghi Khalili* Noshirvani University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol, Iran a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 September 2010 Accepted 26 October 2010 Available online 2 November 2010 Keywords: Heat exchanger network (HEN) Optimization Genetic algorithm Pinch Analysis Method Mathematical Optimization Method Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) a b s t r a c t In this paper, a new method is presented for optimization of heat exchanger networks making use of genetic algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming. The optimization problem is solved in the following two levels: 1- Structure of the optimized network is distinguished through genetic algorithm, and 2- The optimized thermal load of exchangers is determined through Sequential Quadratic Programming. Genetic algorithm uses these values for the determination of the ﬁtness. For assuring the authenticity of the newly presented method, two standard heat exchanger networks are solved numerically. For representing the efﬁciency and applicability of this method for the industrial issues, an actual industrial optimization problem i.e. Aromatic Unit of Bandar Imam Petrochemistry in Iran is veriﬁed. The results indicate that the proposed multistage optimization algorithm of heat exchanger networks is better in all cases than those obtained using......

Words: 4334 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

...SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS INC. On June 10, Rick Coyne, materials manager at Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc. (Spartan), in Springfield, Missouri, received a call from Max Brisco, vice president of manufacturing: “What can materials department do to facilitate Spartan’s new business strategy? I’ll need your plan in next week.” SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS Spartan was a leading designer and manufacturer of specialized industrial heat transfer equipment. Its customers operated in a number of industries such as steel, aluminium smelting, hydroelectricity generation, pulp and paper, refining, and petrochemical. The company’s primary products included transformer coolers, motor and generator coolers, air-cooled heat exchangers, and transformer oil coolers. Spartan’s combination of fin-tube and time-proven heat exchanger designs had gained wide recognition bot in North America and internationally. Sales revenues were $25 million and Spartan operated in a 125,000-square-foot plant. Spartan was owned by Krimmer Industries, a large privately held corporation with more than 10,000 employees worldwide, head-quartered in Denver. Rick Coyne summarized the business strategy of Spartan during the past ten years: “We were willing to do anything for every customer with respect to their heat transfer requirements. We were willing to do trial and error on the shop floor and provide a customer with his or her own unique heat transfer products.” He added, “Our design and manufacturing people derived......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...CHAPTER – 1 Introduction:- Heat exchangers are very helpful in chemical process, engineering application and also in daily use applications, such as, dairy industry, chemical industry, environment engineering, power production, air conditioning and also in food industry. Shell & Tube heat exchanger is commonly used in energy industries and petrochemical industry. Plate Heat Exchanger is commonly used in a wide range of chemical process and so many industrial functions. So many effort have been made to increase the heat transfer of heat exchanger, reduce the heat transfer time and also increase the energy utilization. The mixture of fluid (base liquid) and Nanoparticles (nanometer sized) are called 'nanofluid'. Latest technology gives benefit...

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

...Various Parts of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Shell Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. Shell is the costliest part of the heat exchanger. Cost of shell and tube heat exchanger sensitively changes with change in the diameter of shell. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger. As per the TEMA standard, shell size ranges from 6 in (152 mm) to 60 in (1520 mm). Standard pipes are available up to 24 in size (600 mm NB). If shell size is fabricated by rolling a plate. Shell diameter depends on tube bundle diameter. For fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger, the gap between shell and tube bundle is minimum, ranging from 10 to 20...

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...CHAPTER 5 CFD ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER AND SIMULATION This chapter deals with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of the turbulent flow through a 2 pass Double pipe heat exchanger using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 software. 5.1 Geometry and Modeling 5.1.1 Specifications of Geometry and Boundary conditions The analysis is performed on a double pipe heat exchanger with the inner diameter of inner pipe is 0.019 m & outer diameter of inner pipe is 0.025 m, similarly for annulus pipe, the inner diameter of outer pipe is 0.05 m & outer diameter of outer pipe is 0.056 m and the total length of heat exchanger is 2.36 m (2-pass). The mass flow rate of hot water, mh (kg/s), is constant over annulus...

Words: 1372 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

...1. Spartan Heat Exchanger currently manufactures specialized industrial heat exchangers. The new business strategies for Spartan are emphasized on reducing product variety and standardize the product line. There are various implications associated with this strategy; firstly, Spartan’s current product line is based on job shop manufacturing operation where individual parts are produced in several departments and finally assembled in assembly area. Secondly, Spartan has multiple vendors for raw material supply and the materials department is using approximately 350 vendors. Thirdly, in the existing strategy, Spartan is using unique skilled workers. Finally, poor inventory management which reflects Spartan manufacturing operations are facing material shortage and stock outs. In order to opt for new strategy, Spartan has to make many changes and this process will certainly require time and efforts. For example, Spartan has to shift the manufacturing from batch process to assembly process. This will eventually require process reengineering; the reengineering will modify the existing department structure of manufacturing process. On the other side, Spartan has to reduce the number of suppliers; selection of the suppliers would be tedious task. In the assembly line manufacturing, Spartan will need skilled employees and hence, spend on the training on existing employees. Finally, the Spartan will have to improve their inventory management in order to avoid stock......

Words: 1579 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

...the steam generator, with both consequences resulting in a loss of profit to the operating utility. Specific problems associated with steam generator materials that are discussed include denting, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), phosphate thinning, as well as vibration and mechanical problems. A connection is established between material issues that affect steam generators and capacity losses as well as decreased lifetime. Finally, solutions are discussed to prevent decreases in capacity and diminished lifetime. Introduction Steam generators are a critical component of PWR. The function of a steam generator in a PWR is to serve as a heat exchanger between the primary and secondary. The heat exchange that occurs between the primary and secondary creates steam, the steam turns a turbine, the process of which generates electricity. The generation of electricity for profit is the purpose of nuclear power plants, therefore material problems associated with steam generators that reduce the capacity of a nuclear power plant to generate electricity are an important profit consideration. Another significant cost and profit consideration is steam generator replacement cost and replacement power costs during the outage. The solving of steam generator tube-related material problems and the maximization of...

Words: 1771 - Pages: 8