Free Essay

Heat Pump

In: Science

Submitted By sandram
Words 3545
Pages 15
february 2004 • tec 6 • SuMMary

a N IN trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S chris arkins
This note TEC 6, originally published in February 1999, was reviewed by Chris Arkins in January 2004. This summary page includes recent updates to the topic since publication.

SUMMARY OF

actIONS tOwarDS SuStaINable OutcOMeS
Introduction
Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. The industry has seen a growing emergence of ground source heat pump (GSHP) installations throughout Australia over the last five years. A broad spectrum of facilities ranging from domestic housing, hospitals, education facilities, commercial offices and civic buildings to name a few, are now realising the environmental benefits offered by GSHP systems over more commonly used air conditioning systems. This summary note provides a brief overview of the previous note and provides an update on changes that have occurred since.

basic Strategies
Heat rejection is fundamental to all air conditioning systems. Typically, unsightly roof mounted air cooled condensers and cooling towers are by far the most commonly used method for rejecting heat from a building. Ground source heat pumps are somewhat different to the norm. Basically GSHP are refrigeration machines that provide heating and cooling by using ground water and the earth as a medium to reject and/or absorb heat and as such do not require air cooled condensers or cooling towers. This is made possible because ground temperatures are stable, remaining relatively constant throughout the year. During summer when space cooling is required, heat is removed from the building and transferred to the ground. In winter the reverse occurs, with heat being removed from the ground and supplied to the building.

Environmental Benefits
• Water Efficiency – Ground heat exchangers require no make up water, hence significant water savings are achieved when compared to cooling tower systems that rely on the evaporation of water and the subsequent cooling effect to reject heat from the water. Low maintenance – Ground heat exchangers require no regular chemical dosing or make up water. Energy efficiency – Ground source heat pumps achieve greater efficiencies due to constant return water temperatures from the ground. With air cooled equipment, efficiency varies with changes in ambient air temperature. On hot days, air cooled systems are less efficient as more energy is required to achieve the same cooling effect. Flexibility – Ground source heat pumps can adapt to residential and commercial buildings. They can be placed in new buildings or used as retrofits in existing buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions – Use of fossil fuels is reduced due to the energy efficient operation. Energy costs – energy costs are reduced by 10 to 30%. Aesthetics – Noise and visual exposure associated with roof top equipment is eliminated. Legionnaires’ control – Since cooling towers do not form part of the system, the risk of Legionnaires’ disease is eliminated. Ground source heat pumps are therefore particularly attractive for health care facilities.

• •

• • • • •

changes in the Industry
The principles of GSHPs have not changed, however the following indicative costs reflect current market costs compared to those published in the previous note. Installation costs vary according to site conditions, site accessibility, ground structure, size of heat exchanger and appointed contractor. The following unit rates are suitable for preliminary costing purposes. Final costing should obviously be confirmed by a qualified professional for each specific project. For drilling, piping and grouting of vertical bore holes, horizontal header pipework and horizontal trenching from the building line to the ground heat exchanger field, allow around $45 to $50 per meter of pipe.

february 1999 • tec 6 • PaGe 1

a N IN trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S chris arkins
Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. Whilst still a developing market in Australia, ground source heat pumps (GSHP) offer environmental advantages over more commonly used air conditioning systems. This Note introduces the GSHP and provides an overview of applications, benefits and system types.

1.0 INtrODuctION
Heat rejection is fundamental to all air conditioning systems. Whilst ground heat rejection, or geothermal heat rejection as it is commonly called, is seldom used in Australia, it is not a new technology and has been used for many years in other countries. Ground source heat pumps have often been misunderstood or misapplied. This has led to reservations by some practitioners to specify such systems. Such systems can, however, be used successfully. The new Nursing Faculty building at the University of Newcastle is a recent example within Australia of where geothermal technology has been successfully employed. The building has since won the 1998 Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) Award of the NSW Chapter of the RAIA. This note attempts to dispel the myths and provide guidance to encourage application of ground source heat pumps in both residential and commercial buildings.

2.0 WHat are GrOuND SOurce Heat PuMPS?
In elementary terms, a ‘heat pump’ is a device which pumps heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature level. This applies for all refrigeration machines. However, the label ‘heat pump’ has evolved to define those refrigeration machines which are configured to provide both cooling and heating, commonly referred to as ‘reverse cycle’. The term is unfortunate, as every refrigeration machine pumps heat even if it is in one direction. Ground source heat pumps, as the name implies, are refrigeration machines that provide heating and cooling by using ground water and earth as a medium to reject or absorb heat. This is made possible because ground temperatures are stable, remaining relatively constant throughout the year. During summer when space cooling is required, heat is removed from the building and transferred to the ground. In winter the reverse occurs, with heat being removed from the ground and supplied to the building.

Figure 1. Soil temperature profile

PaGe 2 • tec 6 • february 1999

EnvironmEnt DEsign guiDE

Ground source heat pumps use water as the medium in which to transfer heat between the building and ground. The heat pumps are essentially water cooled package units which can either be diversely located as smaller units throughout a building or housed collectively with a lesser number of larger units in central plantrooms. The system configuration used will depend on building function and use. The interface used to transfer/absorb heat with the ground is referred to as a ground heat exchanger. Ground heat exchangers are configured either as a closed loop circuit or as an open circuit. These different types of ground heat exchangers are discussed in more detail in the following section.

+

figure 3. Heat pump operation heating mode

3.0 DeScrIPtION Of Heat PuMP OPeratION
When in cooling mode, the heat pump removes heat from the space and transfers it to the ground via circulating water. The water temperature leaving the heat pump is in the range of 30–38°C. When this warm water passes through the ground heat exchanger it is cooled by the ground which would be approximately 19°C , (the actual temperature is dependent on geographic location). The heat from the water is dissipated by the earth and, if present, ground water aquifers. This is in contrast with conventional air conditioning systems which, in cooling mode, reject waste heat to the air via air cooled condensers or cooling towers.

4.0 tyPeS Of GrOuND Heat eXcHaNGerS
4.1 closed loop
The most commonly used ground heat exchanger is a closed loop system. This is comprised of high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe distributed in the ground. The pipe can be buried horizontally in trenches below the ground, sunk in vertical boreholes, or placed on the bottom of a large pond or lake. Most sites can accommodate one of these three closed loop designs. The attributes of each system type are discussed below.
Vertical

Vertical loops provide the most economical use of land and are an ideal choice when available land surface area is limited. The vertical bore holes are usually arranged in a 4.5m x 4.5m grid pattern. Rectangular shaped fields are preferred over square fields as they provide a greater area of exposure to the earth mass and can result in a reduced field size. Drilling equipment is used to bore holes usually 150mm in diameter to a depth of between 50 to 100 metres.

figure 2. Heat pump operation cooling mode

When in heating mode the heat pump transfers heat from the ground to the building. Simplistically, the heat pump now operates in reverse (reverse cycle), cooling the earth and heating the building. The ground is now used to provide a ‘dummy’ heating load for the heat pump. (In cooling mode this heat load is supplied by the building.) In the reverse of the cooling cycle, waste heat from the heat pump is now used to heat the building. This is in contrast with conventional air conditioning systems, where heating is achieved via hot water boilers, reverse cycle or electric heater units.

figure 4. Vertical closed loop ground heat exchanger

Once the required number of holes is drilled, two HDPE pipes are fed down each bore hole. The bottom ends of these pipes are fusion welded together with a U-bend to close the circulation loop. The pipework is usually 20–25mm in diameter. When all vertical

EnvironmEnt DEsign guiDE

february 1999 • tec 6 • PaGe 3

pipes have been interconnected with horizontal header pipework the system as a whole is pressure tested for around 24 hours to identify any leaks that may be present in the system. After testing, each bore hole is pressure filled from the bottom up with a grout slurry made from bentonite clay. The grout plays a critical role in ensuring that a good thermal junction is made between the earth and pipework. Any air cavities will act as insulation barriers thus reducing the performance of the system.

figure 6. Pond closed loops

Pond

figure 5. Horizontal closed loop ground heat exchanger

Pond (lake) loops are very economical to install when a body of water is available, as excavation costs are virtually eliminated. Coils of pipe are simply placed in banks on the bottom of the pond or lake. Evaporation and exposure of the water to the lake floor will help to regulate the pond temperature thus providing a stable temperature for the coils. If the pond or lake is susceptible to large changes in water volumes, for example during times of drought, then this type of system is not appropriate.

Average heat rejection in cooling mode is approximately 1 kW per 15m length of bore hole and can be as high as 1kW per 20m. The capacity and efficiency of the soil and rock to absorb and diffuse heat obviously varies for each site. It is recommended that a geotechnical consultant is engaged to advise site suitability, conductivity of soil and other parameters that effect the design of the system. These issues are discussed in more detail below. Installation costs vary according to site conditions, ground structure, size of heat exchanger and appointed contractor. However, the following unit rates are suitable for preliminary costing purposes. Drilling, piping and grouting for vertical bore holes is in the order of $22–$25 per vertical metre. Allow $80–$90 per bore hole for the horizontal header pipework and $50–$65 per metre of pipe for the horizontal trenching from the building line to the ground heat exchanger field.
Horizontal

figure 7. Pond open loop

4.2 Open loop
Open loop systems utilise ground water as a direct energy source. In ideal conditions, an open loop application can be the most economical type of geothermal system. The water that circulates in an open loop system is sourced from a lake, river, or well. Rather than being recirculated as with closed loop systems, the water is returned to its source or to another acceptable discharge point. Open loop systems can only be used at sites that have a plentiful supply of water, and where local councils do not prohibit it. A similar concept to open loop heat exchange is used in Sydney with the Opera House and Power House Museum which both use the harbour water as a heat sink enabling simultaneous heating and cooling. Similarly, in Hong Kong, buildings reject heat to the harbour in lieu of cooling towers, due to shortage and cost of providing fresh water to cooling tower systems.

Horizontal loops are often considered when adequate land surface is available, for example a car park, park or playing field. Horizontal installations are simpler to construct as the HDPE pipes are placed in shallow trenches at a depth of 1.5–2 metres. However, because the earth temperature at shallow depths varies, longer lengths of pipe are required to overcome the variations in soil temperature and moisture content. Horizontal closed loop systems are more appropriate for domestic applications due to the simplicity of installation and lower cost. Horizontal fields will limit future development opportunities on the site, as the field cannot be easily built over and may need to be fully or partially relocated.

PaGe 4 • tec 6 • february 1999

EnvironmEnt DEsign guiDE

Flexibility – Ground source heat pumps can adapt to residential and commercial buildings. They can be placed in new buildings or used as retrofits in existing buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions – Use of fossil fuels are reduced due to the energy efficient operation. Energy costs – Energy costs are reduced by 10 to 30%. Aesthetics – Noise and visual exposure associated with roof top equipment is eliminated. Legionnaires’ control – Since cooling towers do not form part of the system, the risk of Legionnaires’ disease is eliminated. Ground source heat pumps are therefore particularly attractive for health care facilities.

6.0 SuItabILIty Of SIte
Site suitability is a function of many variables and extends to include: figure 8. Well open loop

• • • • • •

thermal conductivity (ability to diffuse heat) of the soil and rock allowable area of field (existing/future structures) including space for future capacity drilling conditions (slope of site, trees) species of flora with aggressive root systems should be removed from the proposed site quantity and diversity of heat to be rejected to the field when considering suitability of the site, all underground and above ground services, both present and future, need to be taken into account an allowance should be made at the plantroom header for connecting a cooling tower at a later date, should extra capacity be required and where additional field loop is unable to be laid.

4.3 Hybrid
Hybrid systems can be used in large commercial buildings where the cooling load is much greater than the heating load. With such a system, the ground heat exchanger is supplemented with a conventional cooling tower to cope with peak cooling periods. This allows a reduction in the initial installation cost of the system, by reducing the amount of ground heat exchanger required.

5.0 WHat beNefItS DO GrOuND SOurce Heat PuMPS PrOVIDe?
Diversity of use - Each heat pump operates only when the zone it serves is occupied. Simultaneous heating and cooling is possible for different parts of the building. Spacial planning – Plantroom sizes are reduced by 2050% over more traditional systems, allowing an increased net lettable area or a reduction in the size of the building. Mechanical equipment such as chillers, boilers and cooling towers are no longer required. Durability – Ground source heat pumps last longer than conventional systems as they are protected from the weather. The unit is housed indoors and the loop underground. Cooling towers have a economic life of 10 to 25 years, air cooled package units have an economic life of 10 to 15 years, while the ground heat exchanger has an expected life of over 50 years. Low maintenance – Ground heat exchangers require no regular chemical dosing or make up water. Energy efficiency – Ground source heat pumps achieve greater efficiencies due to constant return water temperatures from the ground. With air cooled equipment, efficiency varies with changes in ambient air temperature. On hot days, air cooled systems are less efficient as more energy is required to achieve the same level of cooling.



The number and depth of bore holes required will depend on the type of soil or rock and their formations below the proposed site as well as the peak heat capacity to be rejected. A check list for what should be performed in the geotechnical survey includes: • • a check to determine if underground aquifers exist and to what depth standing water will rise any fault lines or unusual geological formations should be noted along with any reasons why drilling on the proposed site may be inadvisable. Any other unsuitable conditions which may effect drilling or installing the proposed field should be highlighted local ground stability, over time advice as to what depth conventional trenching equipment can reach without requiring blasting (the trench for header pipes should preferably be dug without blasting) the potential variability of the geological conditions over the entire proposed field should be noted and the advisability or necessity of drilling further test holes to gain a more reliable estimate, stated

• •



EnvironmEnt DEsign guiDE

february 1999 • tec 6 • PaGe 5



site gradient, soil surface conditions and weight bearing capacity (to determine site suitability for supporting drilling machinery) soil temperature and moisture content at 5 metre intervals.



International Ground Source Heat Pump Association 1989, Soil and Rock Classification for the Design of Ground Coupled Heat Pump Systems: Field Manual, Oklahoma State University.

7.0 DeSIGN PrecautIONS
Ground heat exchanger installation - The installation of the ground loop heat exchanger should be carried out by a specialist contractor who is suitably qualified in the following areas: • • • boring of vertical holes, horizontal trenching and back fill heat fusion of the high density polyethylene pipework pressure grouting of vertical bores.

bIOGraPHy
Chris Arkins, BE (Mech), an Associate of Steensen Varming, is responsible for the development and coordination of Steensen Varming’s ability to provide specialist environmental and sustainable design services. Chris has completed a variety of challenging projects encompassing the design of innovative, low energy mechanical and passive systems. He has developed specialised fields of competence in geothermal heat pump systems, solar slab heating, natural ventilation, daylighting and mixed mode ventilation systems. Chris has specialised in ESD design for the past ten years and has participated in the following key projects: • The Richardson Wing, University of Newcastle, which won the RAIA New South Wales Chapter Ecologically Sustainable Development Award 1998 and the Master Builders Association National Energy Award – Commercial. Life Sciences Building, University of Newcastle, which won the 2001 Sulman Award. Interactive Learning Centre, Charles Sturt University, Dubbo which won the RAlA Environmental Architecture Award 2002. Gold Medal, The Francis Greenway Society, 2002 Green Building Award, Fry Street Residential Development. Gold Medal, The Francis Greenway Society, 2003 Green Building Award, Masterplan for Martin Bright Steel.

Preferably, the contractor should have current International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) certification or equivalent. Site management – During the drilling of vertical bore holes, a significant amount of water can be expelled (particularly if aquifers are present). Allowance should be made for the capture, treatment and removal of this waste-water. Treatment of this waste-water usually entails provision of silt traps and pump stations to prevent silt entering local stormwater drains. Drilling equipment can generate excessive noise levels which may cause noise pollution problems, both on site and for adjoining properties. Thermal changes – Geothermal heat pump systems are not suitable for 24 hour operation over extended periods, unless during that period heating and cooling is performed. Continued heat extraction or dumping can result in a sustained change in the temperature of the field, and associated loss in system performance. To avoid this the field needs time to regain thermal equilibrium with the surrounding earth. An annual heat balance is desirable. That is, during summer the earth is heated while during winter the earth is cooled, in this way the net thermal balance is maintained. If the earth is just continually heated its capacity to act as a heat sink will progressively reduce over time. This will vary depending on geographic location and heat load diversities.

• •





refereNceS aND furtHer reaDING
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 1996, Ground Source Heat Pump Manual. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association 1988: Closed-Loop/Ground Source Heat Pump Systems: Installation Guide, Oklahoma State University. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association 1997, Closed-Loop/Ground Source Heat Pump Systems: Design and Installation Standards, Oklahoma State University.

The views expressed in this Note are the views of the author(s) only and not necessarily those of the Australian Council of Building Design Professions Ltd (BDP), The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) or any other person or entity. This Note is published by the RAIA for BDP and provides information regarding the subject matter covered only, without the assumption of a duty of care by BDP, the RAIA or any other person or entity. This Note is not intended to be, nor should be, relied upon as a substitute for specific professional advice. Copyright in this Note is owned by The Royal Australian Institute of Architects.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Specific Heat

...compressor is replaced by an absorber, a pump and a generator. The second is that, in addition to the refrigerant, the absorption refrigeration cycle uses a secondary fluid, called the absorbent. The condenser, expansion device, and evaporator sections, however, are the same. Refrigerant solutions and the absorbent, are mixed inside the chiller in various concentrations. The term dilute solution refers to a mixture that has a relatively high refrigerant content and low absorbent content. A concentrated solution has a relatively low refrigerant content and high absorbent content. An intermediate solution is a mixture of dilute and concentrated solutions. The absorption refrigeration cycle The four basic components of the absorption refrigeration cycle are the generator and condenser on the high-pressure side, and the evaporator and absorber on the low-pressure side. The pressure on the high-pressure side of the system is approximately ten times greater than that on the low-pressure side. [pic] Starting on the high-pressure side of the cycle, the purpose of the generator is to deliver the refrigerant vapour to the rest of the system. It accomplishes this by separating the water (refrigerant) from the lithium bromide-and-water solution. In the generator, a high-temperature energy source, typically steam or hot water, flows through tubes that are immersed in a dilute solution of refrigerant and absorbent. The solution absorbs heat from the warmer steam or......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Pump

...Formulas for Centrifugal Pumps I know what maximum PSI and maximum GPM I need. What size pump do I need? Centrifugal Pump Formula: Minimum Horsepower Required = ((Max GPM) X (Max PSI) / 1710) / (Efficiency in Percentage) X (Specific Gravity of Material) How do I calculate PSI (Pressure in Pounds Per Square Inch) or TDH (Total Dynamic Head)? Assuming you have one measurement for your pump but not the other: PSI = TDH / 2.31 TDH = PSI X 2.31 How do I calculate Brake Horsepower Required for a centrifugal pump? Brake Horsepower Required = GPM Required X (Total Dynamic Head) / 3940 / Efficiency General Equations (1) Barrel = 42 gallons Gallons Per Minute = Barrels Per Day X .0292 GPM = BPD * .0292 HorsePower = Torque in Inch Pounds X (Revolutions Per Minute) / 63,025 HP = ((Torque in Inch Pounds) * RPM) / 63,025 1 US Liquid Gallon = 231 Cubic Inches 1 US Liquid Gallon = 231 Inches^3 1 US Liquid Gallon = 0.13368 Cubic Feet 1 US Liquid Gallon = 0.13368 Feet^3 1 US Liquid Gallon = 3.78541 Liters 1 Liter = 0.26417 US Liquid Gallons 1 Cubic Foot = 7.84 US Liquid Gallons 1 Foot^3 = 7.84 US Liquid Gallons 1 Cubic Foot = 28.31685 Liters 1 Foot^3 = 28.31685 Liters Cubic Feed Per Day = Cubic Feet Per Minute X 1440 Feet^3 Per Day = (Feet^3 Per Minute) * 1440 Cubic Feet Per Minute = Cubic Feet Per Day Divided by 1440 Minutes Per Day Feet^3 Per Minute = (Feet^3 Per Day) / 1440 Minutes Per Day Chart of Relative Density / Specific......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems

...Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Clinton Ward COM155 February 17, 2013 Joyce Keeling Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Air conditioners and heat pump systems are used by most people in the world today. They are used to cool in the summer time and to heat in the winter time. These machines are bought and used when most people do not even understand the principle on which they work. The machines are expected do what they are designed to do, and when they cease to do this, they can be costly to repair. Air conditioners and heat pumps are similar in appearance and operation, but while using the same components they can perform completely different tasks. Knowing the difference between the two and the principle in which they perform their tasks will enable each person to make an informed decision when the time comes to repair or replace a piece of equipment. Air conditioners and heat pumps have several components that work in the same way. The compressor is the heart of the system. It is present in both an air conditioner and a heat pump. The compressor pumps the refrigerant throughout the system and enables the system to heat and cool. A few other components in an air conditioner and a heat pump are the metering device, the indoor coil, and the outdoor coil. These four basic components must be present for the cooling process to take place. There are a few components in heat pumps that do not show up in air conditioners. These devices are what make......

Words: 1495 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pumps

...Mechanical pumps may be submerged in the fluid they are pumping or external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valveless pumps. Positive displacement pump A lobe pump lobe pump internals Mechanism of a scroll pump A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation. Positive displacement pump behavior and safety Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the......

Words: 3276 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Pump Product

...oSlurry pump solutions for the oil and gas industry Weir Minerals Hazleton Excellent Minerals Solutions Weir Minerals is committed to delivering long term solutions to the petroleum industries’ most difficult pumping needs. When the petroleum industry expose their pumping systems to erosive materials, such as coke, catalyst, sand, ash, coal or shale the pumps selected need to be durable, reliable, and of the highest quality. Since 1916, Weir Minerals has supplied long term slurry pumping solutions focused on longevity and reliability to meet the demands of challenging applications for the petroleum industry. The petroleum industry demands performance and pump reliability. Weir Minerals specializes in slurry systems and has been able to exceed the robust demands of the petroleum industry. Our Engineered-ToOrder slurry pumps are designed with longevity in mind to deliver reduced process down time and maintenance costs by extending mean times between planned maintenance intervals. To meet the customer’s requirements Hazleton slurry pumps are engineered to order for each application and incorporate design features and standards that not only ensure durability and reliability, but also differentiate us from the competition. Some of which include: • Hydraulic design incorporates unique “Controlled Diffusion” process to minimize erosive vortices and reduce volute velocities for longer wear life Utilization of materials and specialty coatings to achieve maximum wear......

Words: 1868 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Heat

...Heat of Fusion of Water 4-1: Heat of Fusion of Water The molar heat of fusion for a substance, ∆Hfus, is the heat required to transform one mole of the substance from the solid phase into the liquid phase. In this assignment, you will use a simple coffee cup calorimeter and a thermometer to measure the molar heat of fusion for water. 1. Start Virtual ChemLab, select Colligative Properties, and then select Heat of Fusion of Water from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Calorimetry laboratory with a beaker of ice on the balance and a coffee cup calorimeter on the lab bench. 2. Click on the Lab Book to open it. Record the mass of the ice on the balance in the data table. If the mass is too small to read, click on the Balance area to zoom in. Note that the balance has already been tared for the mass of the empty beaker. 3. 100 mL of water is already in the coffee cup. Use the density of water at 25 C (0.998 g/mL) to determine the mass of water from the volume. Record the mass in the data table. Make certain the stirrer is On (you should be able to see the shaft rotating). In the thermometer window, click Save to begin recording data to the lab book. Allow 20-30 seconds to obtain a baseline temperature of the water. 4. Drag the beaker from the balance area until it snaps into place above the coffee cup and then pour the ice into the calorimeter. Click the thermometer and graph windows...

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Troubleshooting Pumps

...Troubleshooting Checklist for Pumps and Control Panels |PUMP OPERATION | |PROBLEM |POSSIBLE CAUSE |REMEDY | |Pump will not start. |No power to motor. |Check for blown fuse or open circuit breaker. | | |Selector switch may be off. |Turn to "On" position. | | |Control circuit breaker may be tripped. |Reset the circuit breaker. | | |Overload heater in starter may be tripped. |Push to reset. | | |Overload heater in starter may be burnt out. |Replace the heater. | |Pump will not start and overload heaters |May be improperly grounded. |Turn power off and check motor leads with megger or | |trip. |Motor windings may be imbalanced. |ohmmeter. | | |Impeller may be clogged, blocked, or damaged. |Check resistance of motor windings. If three-phase, | | ...

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Adsorption Heat Pumps Using the Zeolite-Water Pair

...Impianti chimici II Monographic Thesis ADSORPTION HEAT PUMPS USING THE ZEOLITE-WATER PAIR: Operating principle and applications Author: Federica FURNARI 1 SUMMARY Introduction ___________________________________________________________________ 3 Chapter 1 Why choosing water-zeolite? ____________________________________________________ 5 Chapter 2 Operating principle of water-zeolite heat pump ____________________________________ 8 Chapter 3 Technological applications _____________________________________________________ 11 Solar-powered adsorption icemakers _____________________________________________________ 12 Self chilling beer kegs _________________________________________________________________ 15 Solar-powered adsorption air conditioners ________________________________________________ 16 Chapter 4 Key issues for future development _______________________________________________ 18 The heat/mass transfer issue ___________________________________________________________ 19 Heat recovery _______________________________________________________________________ 21 Bibliography _________________________________________________________________ 24 2 Introduction Although adsorptive processes have been extensively studied for gas separation, catalysis, etc., it is only recently that they have been proposed for heat management. The interest in adsorption systems started to increase, firstly due to the oil crisis in the 1970s that lead......

Words: 4863 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Heat

...HEAT 4.1 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM 1. Define: The measure of the degree of hotness of an object. (a) Temperature Measured in SI unit Kelvin, K A hot object is at a higher temperature than a cold object. Form of energy, measured in Joules, J (b) Heat Heat is transferred from hotter object (higher temperature) to colder object (lower temperature) When an object is heated, it will absorb heat energy and the temperature will increase. When an object is cooled, it will release heat energy and the temperature will decrease. (c) Thermal Two objects are in thermal contact when heat energy contact can be transferred between them. (d)Heat transfer When two objects with different degrees of hotness come into thermal contact, heat energy is transferred between the two objects. (e) Mechanism of Thermal Equilibrium Energy is transferred at a faster rate from the hotter object to the colder object. Energy is also transferred from the colder object to the hotter one, but at a slower rate. There is a net flow of energy from the hotter object to the colder object. (f) Thermal When two objects are in thermal equilibrium, there is Equilibrium no net flow of heat between them. Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature 60 The hotter object cools down while the colder object warms up . After some time, energy is transferred at the same rate between the two objects. There is no net heat transfer between the objects. The two objects are said to be in thermal......

Words: 3461 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Heat

...Running head: HEAT 1 Heat Adrienne Branch Professor Olivia Uitto Science 110- Introduction to Physical Science April 27, 2012 HEAT 2 How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? The philosophers Democritus and Lucretius stated that matter is composed of particles. They also believed that these particles were in constant motion and in the state of solid, liquid, or gas (Gibbs, 2010). They called this theory the Kinetic Theory of Matter after the word kinema, which is Greek (Gibbs, 2010). In the study of heat we learn that whenever heat is added to a substance, molecules and atoms vibrate faster. Due to the quickly vibrating atoms, the area between the atoms get larger (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). The state of the matter of the particular substance is determined by the motion and space between the particles. The more an object expands, the more space it takes up (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). During this process, the mass of the particular object will not change. Solids, liquids, and gas all expand when heat is added. When an object cools, molecules vibrate at a slower pace. The atoms start moving closer together again and the matter begins to contract. During this process as well, the mass will remain the same (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). Several good examples of the Kinetic Theory of Matter relating to heat is with sidewalks and railroad tracks which are solids. They......

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Heat

...“How does the study of heat relate to the Kinetic of matter?” Heat is transferred into motion. This is done by kinetic matter. It moves at a rapid motion, making the heat that’s being transferred combine with the motion of atom and molecules. Therefore, matter takes on changes when heat is constantly being applied. For this reason, the process is called the kinetic theory. Heat takes on 3 stages and they are solid, liquids and gases. Solids forms there shape by arrangements of molecules. For example, ice has a shape but, changes when melting. Solids form around a fixed close position fitting making it stronger and Causing solids to maintain its shape. Liquids are closer together but, will change its form because space is provided. Gases are higher and 10 times the distance between that of solids and liquids. Therefore, allowing the particles to move freely and use the space available to them. “What is heat?” Heat can be describing that something that move between object when 2 objects of different temperature are brought together or energy transfer that move between object of different temperature (energy transfer). For example, when you rub your hand together, then you will feel the heat (warm) in center of your hand. There are two kind of energy. It’s call “External energy” and “Internal energy”. External energy is define as the total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday-sized object. Internal energy is the total kinetic and potential......

Words: 923 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

What Is Heat

...Intro to Physical Science Assignment # 2 Johnnie Currie JR. November 8, 2011 Strayer University 1. How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? Theory for ideal gases makes the following assumptions the gas consists of very small particles, all no zero mass. The number of molecules is large such that statistical treatment can be applied. These molecules are in constant, random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with the walls of the container. 2. What is heat? Heat is energy that is transferred from one body, region or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact or thermal radiation when the systems are at different temperatures. 3. What is temperature? Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses those common notions of hot and cold. Object of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperature are referred to as warm or hot. 4. What is the relationship between heat and temperature? The relationship between heat and temperature is heat is a form of energy that exists on its own that is manifested of the total energy moving from one substance to another. Temperature is a material property it is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of molecules vibrating in a substance. 5. How are they different? The difference is heat is a thermal energy transferred from one object to another because of a temperature difference, and temperature is a......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pump

...Table 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Centrifugal Pumps* | ADVANTAGES | Volute Pumps | Diffuser Pumps | Turbine Pumps | Propeller Pumps | Available in a wide range of sizes | X | X | X | X | Simple construction | X |   |   | X | Relatively quiet operation | X | X | X | X | Robust with a long life | X | X |   | X | Available in a wide variety of materials | X | X |   | X | Can handle liquids containing solids | X | X |   | X | Can handle liquids with a high proportion of vapor |   |   | X |   | Self-priming |   |   | X |   | Variable speed drive units not required to adjust the capacity | X | X | X | X | Pressure and power developed are limited at shutoff | X | X | X | X | DISADVANTAGES |   | Unsuitable for pumping high viscosity liquids | X | X | X | X | Heads developed are limited | X | X | X | X | Close clearances |   |   | X |   | * After Holland and Chapman, 1966. | Table 2.  http://www.slideserve.com/Olivia/pumps-and-pumping Propeller Pumps | Available in a wide range of sizes | X | X | X | X | Simple construction | X |   |   | X | Relatively quiet operation | X | X | X | X | Robust with a long life | X | X |   | X | Available in a wide variety of materials | X | X |   | X | Can handle liquids containing solids | X | X |   | X | Can handle liquids with a high proportion of vapor |   |   | X |   | Self-priming |   |   | X |   | Variable speed drive units not required to adjust the capacity | X | X | X |......

Words: 259 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Heat

...First discuss how energy can be converted from one form to another, giving specific examples. The seven major forms of energy are: sound, chemical, radiant (light), electrical, atomic (nuclear), mechanical, thermal (heat). Remembered as “SCREAM Today” The two states of energy are potential and kinetic. (Clarkson, edu.2008). Energy can be converted to useful forms by various means. Energy and its conversion between forms can be expressed quantitatively. When converting energy, a significant fraction of that energy can be lost from the system (in the form of heat, sound, vibration, etc.) For example: in a power plant burning coal will produce heat energy, heat energy transfers to the water causing water to turn into steam, steam move the turbine due to pressure, energy is now transfer from heat to mechanical energy, then mechanical energy is converted to electrical by the generators, here we have a good example of energy converted to another form. Another example: leave a stone from a certain height and it will fall straight down. all the potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy. (YahooAnswers.com, 2012). Define what we mean by fossil fuels and explain why there an attractive source of energy. Fossil fuel consists of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content. They are attractive because they are or were, readily available, can be easily transported and can be refined to......

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Heat Exchanger

.................................... 11      2    Executive Summary  In order to design a good system for heat recovery from exhaust air, optimization on  cost and performance is the most important. To maximize the performance and reduce the  heat cost and annual cost on the recovery system, heat exchangers are the main part for the  optimization. The use of the Newton‐Raphson method is the most effective way to find the  minimum cost of the recovery system. There are four constraint equations and six unknowns  for the given system. MATLAB is used as the main method to solve them. The total cost of the  system including initial cost, electrical heating cost, pump power cost, and the component’s  cost is $13251 for a year. The initial cost is $7240, which is half of the total cost. The initial cost  mainly comes from the design of the heat exchanger. For instance, fin spacing, number of rows  of tubes, length of tubes, etc. The most important finding is to use different methods to  determine the optimization of the thermal system.  3      System Definition and Problem Definition  For this design project, students were given the challenge of optimizing an ethylene glycol  runaround system for heat recovery from exhaust air. A physical illustration of the system to be  optimized can be seen below in Figure 1.     Figure 1. Heat‐recovery system to be optimized  To optimize this system means to optimize, or set up parameters to obtain the bes......

Words: 2354 - Pages: 10