Free Essay

Henkel Group

In: Business and Management

Submitted By connic
Words 977
Pages 4
1. Einleitung
Diese Fallstudie hat das Ziel, das Geschäftsportfolio der Henkel-Gruppe zu illustrieren.
Auf der historischen Entwicklung der Henkel-Gruppe aufbauend, werden die unterschiedlichen
Geschäftsfelder der Gruppe kurz vorgestellt sowie deren Bedeutung für den Konzern aufgezeigt.
2. Vorstellung der Henkel-Gruppe
2.1 Historische Entwicklung
Den Grundstein der Henkel-Gruppe bildet die im September 1876 in Aachen von
Fritz Henkel und zwei weiteren Kaufleuten gegründete „Universalwaschmittelfabrik“
Henkel & Cie. Bereits 1878 verlegte Fritz Henkel seine Firma nach Düsseldorf, wo heute noch der Sitz des Konzerns ist. Ab 1907 eroberte Henkel & Cie mit dem
„selbsttätigen“ Waschmittel Persil die unangefochtene Führung auf dem deutschen
Waschmittelmarkt. Der Erfolg von Persil ließ die Mitarbeiterzahl von 494 im Jahre
1909 auf 1799 im Jahre 1918 ansteigen und prägte das Unternehmen insgesamt als
Markenartikelhersteller.
In den ersten Jahrzehnten seines Bestehens wurde das Unternehmen durch die
Entwicklung der Geschäfte im Deutschen Reich dominiert, wobei Fritz Henkel frühzeitig die Chancen und die Bedeutung einer länderübergreifenden Geschäftsausweitung erkannte. Von Beginn an (1878) verkaufte Henkel seine Waschmittel im Ausland, was auf der einen Seite durch firmeneigene Außendienstmitarbeiter erfolgte.
Auf der anderen Seite schloss Firmengründer Henkel Verträge mit ausländischen
Firmen ab, die die Erzeugnisse aus Düsseldorf importierten und auf den jeweiligen
Märkten absetzten. Im Jahre 1886 entstand die erste eigene Filiale in Wien. In den folgenden Jahren wurden, teilweise aus den Vertretungsfirmen heraus, vermehrt auswärtige Vertriebsniederlassungen, Verkaufsbüros und Agenturen gebildet. Um
Transport- und Zollkosten zu sparen und um die Märkte besser bearbeiten zu können, folgte die Verlagerung der Produktion ins Ausland, welche – neben der Vergabe von Lizenzen – zunächst über „Lohnaufträge“ aufgebaut wurde. Somit wurden die
Produkte von Fremdfirmen vor Ort produziert und auch vertrieben. Im Folgenden wurde der Einfluss durch den Erwerb von Beteiligungen und/oder die Übernahmen bzw. Neugründungen von Gesellschaften unmittelbarer. 1914 waren in allen wichtigen europäischen Ländern Vertretungen für Henkel tätig.
Die Weltkriege behinderten bzw. beendeten die Auslandsaktivitäten Henkels (z.T.
Verlust des Auslandsvermögens bzw. der Markenrechte), welche in den Nachkriegsjahren unter großem Aufwand wieder aufgenommen wurden. So waren nach 1945 die internationalen Aktivitäten deutscher Unternehmen durch den erneuten Verlust ihrer internationalen Markenrechte stark eingeschränkt. Nur auf Grund hoher Ablösezahlungen für die Markenrechte erhielt Henkel in den fünfziger Jahren des zwanzigsten
Jahrhunderts nach und nach die Markenrechte zurück, bspw. an der Marke Persil.
Dies geschah teilweise in Verbindung mit dem Rückerwerb alter Produktionsstätten
(verloren blieben die schwedischen und norwegischen Gesellschaften sowie alle osteuropäischen Henkel-Firmen). Die Markenrechte für Persil in Frankreich und
Großbritannien konnte Henkel nicht zurückerlangen; diese sind seither im Besitz des
Konkurrenten Unilever. Diese Probleme erklären die auffällige Abwendung vom Markenartikelbereich in den Folgejahren und die anfängliche Konzentration auf Chemieprodukte in zahlreichen Auslandsmärkten. Im Jahre 1951 gründete Henkel in Südaf3 rika die erste Übersee-Firma, worauf auf dem amerikanischen Kontinent Brasilien
(1955), Mexiko (1959), die USA (1960) und als damals schon wichtigster asiatischer
Markt, Japan (1957), folgten. In den Folgejahren wurden die Auslandsaktivitäten intensiviert, was dazu führte, dass die Antriebskräfte des Wachstums des Gesamtunternehmens seit den siebziger Jahren im Ausland stärker waren als im Inland. Die internationalen Geschäfte wurden quer durch alle Geschäftseinheiten (siehe folgende
Abschnitte) ausgebaut, wodurch Henkel in den achtziger Jahren zu einem der international am stärksten ausgerichteten deutschen Unternehmen wurde und sich damit vom deutschen Markenartikelhersteller zum weltweit tätigen „Spezialisten für angewandte Chemie“ (wie sich das Unternehmen bis Ende der neunziger Jahre definierte) entwickelte. Die sich in den letzten Dekaden weiter intensivierende internationale
Ausrichtung des Konzerns – sowie die strategische Neuausrichtung auf Markenartikel und anspruchsvolle Prozess-Chemikalien und Technologien – wird nicht zuletzt in der Wahl eines in englischer Sprache formulierten, seit 2001 gültigen, neuen
Unternehmensleitsatzes „Henkel – A Brand like a Friend“ dokumentiert.
2.2 Unternehmenskennzahlen und Geschäftsfelder
Im Jahre 2009 erwirtschaftete Henkel einen Umsatz von 13.573 Mio. Euro (Umsatz
2008: 14.131 Mio. Euro; 2007: 13.074 Mio. Euro). Übersicht 1 gibt einen Überblick über die historische Umsatzentwicklung der Henkel-Gruppe.
1.903 2.693 3.271
4.333
5.201
7.597 7.892
8.975 9.410 9.656 9.436
10.592
11.974 12.740
516 834
1.445
1.811
2.058
3.312 3.469
3.804 3.650
0
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002* 2003 2004 2005 2006
Umsatz des Fortgeführten Geschäftes Umsatz des Chemiegeschäftes
* Veräußerung des klassischen Chemiegeschäfts im Jahre 2001
(Cognis & Anteile am Joint Venture Henkel-Ecolab)
Umsatzanteil in Mio. Euro
Übersicht 1: Umsatzentwicklung der Henkel-Gruppe (in Mio. EUR)
Quelle: Henkel
Der Verkauf des klassischen Chemiebereichs signalisiert den Fokus auf das Markengeschäft und technologienahe Produkt- und Systemgeschäfte. Henkel ist in drei strategischen Geschäftsfeldern aktiv: Wasch-/Reinigungsmittel, Kosmetik/Körper4 pflege sowie Klebstoffe, Dichtstoffe und Oberflächentechnik. Die Geschäftsfelder sind wiederum in drei weltweit tätige Unternehmensbereiche gegliedert: Wasch-/Reinigungsmittel (z.B. Persil, Somat, Pril), Kosmetik/Körperpflege (z.B. Fa, Theramed, Taft, Dial), Klebstoffe, Dichtstoffe und Oberflächentechnik (z.B. Pattex, Ceresit, Pritt, Loctite).
Übersicht 2 zeigt die Umsatzverteilung der Unternehmensbereiche. Die Internationalisierung der einzelnen Bereiche – gemessen am erzielten Umsatz außerhalb Europas
– weist Unterschiede auf: Adhesive Technologies – insbesondere das Industrieund
Systemgeschäft – ist am weitesten globalisiert, die Akquisitionen von Sovereign,
Orbseal und National Starch unterstreichen dies. Mit dem Erwerb von Dial und ARL sowie dem Erwerb verschiedener Körperpflegemarken von Procter & Gamble (bspw.
Right Guard, Soft & Dri und Dry Idea) wurde jedoch auch das Markenartikelgeschäft in Nordamerika ausgebaut und die Internationalisierung des gesamten Konsumgütergeschäfts vorangetrieben. Übersicht 2: Umsätze der Unternehmensbereiche 2009 (in Mio. EUR)
Quelle: Henkel
*Corporate = Umsätze die nicht den Unternehmensbereichen zugeordnet werden können
Generell verfolgt Henkel die Strategie, dass nur Geschäftsfelder, in denen eine führende
Position auf den jeweiligen Märkten erreicht werden kann, bearbeitet werden.
Der Fokus in den Bereichen Markenartikel und Technologien liegt auf der Intensivierung der Auslandsaktivitäten. Auf Grund der hohen Marktpotenziale war Henkel z.B. eines der ersten Unternehmen in China und plant, dieses Engagement weiter zu intensivieren

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