Free Essay


In: Science

Submitted By mktg
Words 18186
Pages 73

Medicinal Plants & Extracts
North America Africa Western Europe India Eastern Europe China

No. 18 March 2006

This note has b een prepared, without formal editing as a service to exporters and industries in developing countries by the Market News Service (MNS), Division of Product and Market Development, International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO. No part of this report may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing of the MNS/ITC Geneva. Copyright © MNS/ITC 2006. All rights reserved

Prepared by Mr. Josef Brinckmann, ITC Consultant

International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO 54-56 rue de Montbrillant, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Tel : (4122) 730 01 11 - Fax: (4122) 733 44 39 E-mail: ; URL: Postal address: International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland


MNS Medicinal Plant and Extracts report is a formatted version of a news and information bulletin prepared by the International Trade Centre to promote international trade in medicinal plants and botanical extracts. The revised version of the report includes substantially more information on the structure and function of the market. These additional features have been included after extensive consultation with existing subscribers and trade experts. For subscription details please contact MNS in Geneva at the address given below. Coverage: Issue No. 18 includes six regional reviews and a special features section. 1. North America 2. Western Europe 3. Eastern Europe 4. China 5. India 6. Africa The regional reviews cover the six main producing regions of the world. Information on Latin America, Caribbean and Pacific countries will be covered from time to time in the special features section of the bulletin (see below) Scope: Each regional section includes news on • Demand and supply trends including industry news • Indicative prices of raw materials • Indicative prices of herbal extracts • Trade specifications commonly used in each region. • Trade fairs and conferences Prices: Prices and quotations are in US dollars per kilo unless otherwise stated. They should be considered indicative only and reflect the price of a product of a specific phytochemical characteristic from a specified origin. The level of marker compounds (for chemical standardization of extracts) referred to in quotes are those commonly found in the industry. They do not imply any sort of “trading standard”. Great care should be taken when comparing prices of medicinal plants and extracts from differing origins as form structure and biochemical activity may differ considerably between very similar products. Specifications: The selected specification sheets given are actual industry specifications commonly used by exporters and importers. We do not guarantee their content or accuracy nor wish to imply that they have any legal status in trade. Subscriptions: To subscribe to the MNS Medicinal Plants and Extracts report or learn more about the many other MNS services provided by ITC please contact: Market News Service (MNS) International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland Tel: +4122 730 01 11 Fax: +4122 730 05 72 E-mail for general enquiries E-mail for subscriptions: Website :


SPECIAL FEATURES Global Herb Trade Association Directory: Each edition includes a regularly updated directory with contact information for herb trade associations, councils and export promotion organizations that represent the growers, wild collectors, processors, and traders of medicinal herbs and extracts. Trade Specifications: Each edition contains trade specifications for medicinal herbs or extracts from each of six covered regions. In this issue you will find specifications for medicinal herbs of the Papaveraceae family, California Poppy Flower (North America), Corydalis Yanhusuo Tuber (China), Greater Celandine Herb (Eastern Europe), Opium Poppy Latex (India), Red Poppy Extract (Western Europe) and Red Poppy Petals (Northern Africa). Each edition also includes a reference list of trade specifications that are available in back issues of the MNS. Some Useful Terminology: ABC: American Botanical Council AEZ: Agri Export Zones AHP: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia AHPA: American Herbal Products Association API: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India BfArM: Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Germany) BMVEL: Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture (Germany) BTFP: BioTrade Facilitation Programme CBD: Convention on Biodiversity cfu/g: Colony-forming units per gram C&F: Cost & Freight; means the price includes cost and freight charges CFR: Seller has the same responsibilities as when shipping FOB, but shipping costs are prepaid by the seller CIF: Cost Insurance Freight; means the price includes cost, freight and insurance CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora & Fauna C/S: Cut and sifted COMTRADE: Commodity Trade Statistics Database COSEWIC: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada Dept of AYUSH: Dept. of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathy (India) EMEA: European Medicines Agency (EU) EU: European Union Extract: Concentrated preparations of liquid, dry or semi-solid consistency obtained from botanical raw materials, prepared by maceration, percolation or other methods using solvents (e.g. water, ethanol) or by supercritical fluid (CO2) technology EXW: Ex works - Buyer arranges for pick up of goods at the seller's location. Seller is responsible for packing, labeling, and preparing goods for shipment on a specified date or time frame Farm Gate Price: Refers to the dollar value of agricultural products that you receive from direct farm sales or the value of primary products used for processing FAS: Free alongside ship - Buyer arranges for ocean transport. Seller is responsible for packing, labeling, preparing goods for shipment and delivering the goods to the dock. FAS Value: Value of exports at the seaport, airport, or border port of exportation, based on the transaction price including inland freight, insurance, and other charges incurred in placing the merchandise alongside the carrier at the port of export FCA: Free carrier: seller is responsible for costs until the buyer's named freight carrier takes charge FDA: Food and Drug Administration (USA) FOB: Free On Board - means that the price only includes the cost of the item. Seller arranges for transport of the goods, preparing goods for shipment, and loading the goods onto the vessel FOR & FOT: Free On Rail or Free On Truck; Both refer to goods being carried by rail and should only be used when the goods are carried by rail. The risk of loss or damage is transferred when the goods are loaded onto the rail. FTA: Free Trade Agreement GACP: Good Agricultural and Collection Practice GAP: Good Agricultural Practice



Good Manufacturing Practice Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (German Technical Cooperation) Hectare High Performance Liquid Chromatography Harmonized System Code International Trade Centre Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK) Not less than Natural Health Product (Canada) Natural Health Products Directorate (Canada) National Medicinal Plants Board (India) North American Industry Classification System Not Elsewhere Specified Or Included Not more than National Organic Program of the United States Department of Agriculture European Pharmacopoeia Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China Over the Counter medicines: Medicines sold without a prescription State Drug Administration (People’s Republic of China) Swiss Import Promotion Programme Tea bag cut Traditional Chinese Medicine Traditional Herbal Medicine Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (EU) Traditional Herbal Medicine Registration Scheme (UK) Thin Layer Chromatography United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Plant Savers United States Agency for International Development United States Dollar United States Department of Agriculture United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary Value Added Tax World Health Organization


SUPPLY AND DEMAND — SELECTED HIGH-DEMAND MEDICINAL & AROMATIC HERBS & EXTRACTS USA: TOTAL HERB & SPICE EXPORTS CLIMBED AGAIN IN 2005 U.S. exports of “Tropical Products” rose nearly 3% to USD $2.2 billion in calendar year (CY) 2005, despite declines in the exports of both ginseng root and essential oils compared to 2004. In 2004, exports of Tropical Products rose 5% over 2003. Tropical Products is a USDA category that includes herbs & spices, such as American ginseng root (Panax quinquefolius) and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale), essential oils including peppermint leaf oil (Mentha × piperita) and spearmint leaf oil (Mentha spicata), herbal teas, as well as cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and coffee beans (Coffea spp.). AMERICAN GINSENG ROOT: HS 1211200020 & HS 1211200040 USA: The increased export value for USA Tropical Products occurred despite the continued decline in value of American ginseng root exports [See Table 1]. In 2004, the U.S. exported 295.4 metric tons (MT) of cultivated American ginseng root, but in 2005 only 121.7 MT [See Table 3], a change of -58.8%. Jan 06 exports of ginseng root are, however, 12.66% higher than same period 2005; 17.8 MT vs. 15.8 MT. Main destinations for cultivated American ginseng root were China (42.6 MT), Hong Kong (36.3 MT), Canada (26.3 MT), Singapore (8.0 MT), and Taiwan (2.9 MT). Main destinations for wild American ginseng were Hong Kong (64.4 MT), China (27.1 MT), and Singapore (4.2 MT). CANADA: Continued declines in U.S. exports of ginseng root appear to have benefited Canadian exports, which have been increasing over the past 5 years [Tables 1 & 4]. Main destinations for Canadian ginseng in 2005 were Hong Kong, China, the USA, Singapore, Chad, Malaysia, and Taiwan. TABLE 1: Canada & USA Total Exports: Ginseng Roots / Latest 5 Years / Value: Thousands of USD
CANADA Total Exports: HS 121120 - GINSENG ROOTS Latest Five Years / Value in Thousands of U.S. Dollars ALL COUNTRIES (Total) USA Total Exports: HS 121120 - GINSENG ROOTS Latest Five Years / Value in Thousands of U.S. Dollars ALL COUNTRIES (Total) 2001 44,313 2001 25,651 2002 47,970 2002 34,028 2003 49,122 2003 39,657 2004 47,021 2004 33,344 2005 60,022 2005 23,535

ESSENTIAL OILS: HS 3301 USA: Exports of essential oils declined nearly 6% in 2005 after having reached a record near $1 billion export value in 2004. One exception in the essential oils subcategory was peppermint leaf oil [HS 3301240000]. Exports of peppermint oil in 2005 were 2,666.6 MT compared to 2,192.6 MT in 2004 [See Table 3]. Main destinations for USA peppermint oil were the UK (660.5 MT), Mexico (409.7 MT), Japan (262.5 MT), Netherlands (196.7 MT), Germany (152.1 MT), Belgium (131.8 MT), Colombia (101.1 MT), Brazil (69.9 MT), Canada (64.9 MT), Switzerland (59.9 MT), France (57.8 MT), Denmark (52.9 MT), and Korea (50.8 MT). GINGER RHIZOME: HS 0910100000 USA: After an average annual production of 2,720 MT in both 2003 and 2004, Hawaiian ginger production dropped further to 2,310 MT in 2005 [See Table 2]. Exports, however, were up in 2005, at 716.1 MT compared to 564.0 MT in 2004. Canada was the #1 importer of USA ginger (259.9 MT), followed by Russia (134 MT), Mexico (126.3 MT), and China (76.5 MT), among others. TABLE 2: HAWAII: Production, Area, and Value of Ginger Year Production Harvested Area Metric tons Hectares 2000 6,120 110 2001 8,160 150 2002 6,530 130 2003 2,720 60 2004 2,720 60 2005 2,310 50

Farm Price USD $ / kg $1.46 $0.99 $0.66 $1.32 $1.98 $1.76

Farm Value US Dollars $8,910,000 $8,100,000 $4,320,000 $3,600,000 $5,400,000 $4,080,000


TABLE 3: USA: SELECTED HERB IMPORTS & EXPORTS (including re-exports) Herb Name / HS 10-Digit Code / CY: 2003-2004-2005 / Quantities: metric tons (MT) HERB NAME HS CODE 2003 2004 2005 2003 2004 IMPORT IMPORT IMPORT EXPORT EXPORT American or Asian 1211200020 465.3 598.4 495.4 284.0 295.4 ginseng root, cultivated (Panax quinquefolius or P. ginseng) American- and/or Asian 1211200040 48.0 15.9 157.0 188.6 119.2 ginseng root, wild Asian ginseng root, crude 1302194020 708.0 529.0 628.5 0 0 extracts Capsicum fruit 0904202000 12,428.3 14,134.9 21,343.3 7,054.5 6,446.0 (Capsicum spp.), dried, crushed or ground Coca leaf, dried 1211300000 111.7 90.7 45.4 0 0 (Erythroxylum coca) Flax seed (Linum 1204000090 36,037.0 42,209.1 50,996.8 66,953.4 31,598.8 usitatissimum) 1204000000 Garlic bulb, powder 0712904020 8,686.7 13,781.2 13,298.8 1,832.3 2,004.7 (Allium sativum) Garlic bulb, dried, 0712904040 26,731.0 20,924.2 19,446.5 4,656.8 4,171.2 whole, cut, sliced or broken (not powdered) Garlic essential oil 3301295015 78.9 99.6 79.1 0 0 Ginger rhizome (Zingiber 0910100000/ 27,349.1 29,002.4 32,026.5 647.3 564.0 officinale) 2000/4000 Green tea leaf, dried 0902100000 12,053.5 11,772.6 14,146.4 1,996.5 2,138.9 (Camellia sinensis) 0902101000 0902109000 0902200000 0902201000 0902209000 Hemp oil (Cannabis spp.) 1515908010 742.4 328.3 286.6 0 0 Hop strobile, whole 1210100000 2,325.5 813.1 139.8 631.6 425.5 (Humulus lupulus) Hop strobile, pellets 1210200020 2,609.0 2,762.4 3,576.3 4,915.9 5,898.6 Hops, ground or powder 1210200040 35.5 11.5 15.0 508.9 409.3 Hop strobile extracts 1302130000 86.2 80.4 79.4 4,917.3 5,527.7 Jojoba bean oil 1515906000 303.1 258.5 643.4 148.2 209.5 (Simmondsia chinensis) Lavender flw essential 3301230000 432.0 496.4 424.0 44.6 52.2 oil (Lavandula spp.) Lemon peel essential oil 3301130000 3,848.7 3,244.3 4,580.0 871.5 1,101.0 (Citrus x limon) Licorice root, dried 1211100000 11,675.4 9,764.3 7,165.2 160.0 106.0 (Glycyrrhiza spp.) Licorice root extracts 1302120000 4,547.5 3,281.0 3,209.6 5,180.1 8,158.0 Maté leaf, dried (Ilex 0903000000 984.6 849.7 1,093.7 39.7 62.9 paraguariensis) Mint leaf, unprocessed 1211902000 123.2 177.0 156.3 ? ? (peppermint, spearmint) Mint, used as herbal tea 1211904020 121.6 82.3 178.9 ? ? Mint leaf, cut, crsh, pwd 1211904040 177.8 171.9 124.1 ? ? Mint leaf essential oil 3301250010 981.4 884.5 869.0 ? ? (cornmint)

2005 EXPORT 121.7

96.1 0 5,483.1 0.2 87,541.4 2,426.3 4,845.1

0 716.1 1,979.1

0 504.2 5,054.5 75.3 4,613.8 263.4 75.7 1,579.2 48.5 12,204.3 10.6 ? ? ? ?


TABLE 3 (Cont.): USA: SELECTED HERB IMPORTS & EXPORTS (including re-exports) Herb Name / HS 10-Digit Code / CY: 2003-2004-2005 / Quantities: metric tons (MT) HERB NAME Mint leaf essential oil (peppermint leaf) Mint leaf essential oil (spearmint leaf) Mint leaf essential oil (other mints: NESOI) Opium poppy exudate (Papaver somniferum) Orange peel essential oil (Citrus sinensis) Psyllium seed husk (Plantago spp.) Other herbs used as herbal teas (single species), NESOI Other herbs used as herbal teas (mixed species), NESOI Other herbs used in pharmacy, NESOI Other medicinal herbal extracts and saps, NESOI HS CODE 3301240000 3301250020 3301250050 3301250060 1302110000 1302110002 3301120000 1211909020 1211909080 2003 IMPORT 623.0 505.3 80.6 260.4 12,292.3 14,012.2 7,182.9 2004 IMPORT 635.1 618.7 113.5 44.6 10,097.7 13,584.8 7,272.0 2005 IMPORT 798.7 758.2 86.6 91.3 19,072.6 14,441.4 6,680.7 2003 EXPORT 2,406.2 769.3 429.7 63.4 7,164.0 0 1,400.7 2004 EXPORT 2,192.6 865.3 456.5 20.9 8,129.5 0 1,806.4 2005 EXPORT 2,666.6 807.6 234.0 18.0 6,813.9 0 2,567.3

2106906587 2106909987 1211909090 1211909095 1302190000 1302194040

1,920.0 16,429.8 23,579.3

1,991.4 16,280.4 25,291.6

1,505.8 19,627.2 21,548.5

6,889.9 5,595.7 6,691.4

14,443.5 7,617.3 5,885.8

14,925.3 7,223.3 6,817.6

TABLE 4: CANADA: SELECTED HERB IMPORTS & EXPORTS (including re-exports) Herb Name / HS 10-Digit Code / CY: 2003-2004-2005 / Values: In Thousands of U.S. Dollars HERB NAME HS CODE 2003 2004 2005 2003 2004 2005 IMPORT IMPORT IMPORT EXPORT EXPORT EXPORT Amer / Asian 1211200020 6,781.1 6,871.2 9,205.3 49,121.6 47,020.9 60,021.7 ginseng rt 1211200040 Caraway frt 0909400000 188.9 124.2 128.9 2,259.2 2,138.7 2,041.2 Coriander frt 0909200000 358.7 445.3 463.7 2,747.2 3,439.9 3,647.5 Flax seed 12040000 6,528.5 10,810.0 12,406.9 204,249.6 182,780.7 209,861.4 Ginger 0910100000 4,257.3 8,668.1 8,598.5 209.7 652.9 478.3 rhizome Hop strobile, 1210100000 48.4 95.2 372.6 250.5 270.4 56.7 whole Hops, grnd, 1210200020 5,000.3 5,078.3 4,964.9 32.9 0 5.7 pwd, pellet 1210200040 Hop strobile 1302130000 3,953.2 4,351.3 4,111.4 0 89.9 79.6 extracts Lavender flw 3301230000 529.5 640.7 697.9 70.4 103.1 37.8 essential oil Lemon peel 3301130000 3,280.3 2,502.1 3,902.2 1,878.8 2,205.7 3,686.4 essential oil Licorice root 1211100000 219.2 206.0 265.1 286.9 45.9 0.9 Licorice root 1302120000 530.5 569.1 809.9 0 13.0 0 extracts Maté leaf 0903000000 431.7 299.2 324.9 3.7 1.2 34.4


TABLE 4 (Cont.): CANADA: SELECTED HERB IMPORTS & EXPORTS (including re-exports) Herb Name / HS 10-Digit Code / CY: 2003-2004-2005 / Values: In Thousands of U.S. Dollars Mint leaf essential oil 3301240000 2,313.6 2,072.7 2,006.4 42.5 91.9 137.9 (peppermint) Mint leaf essential oil 330125 2,449.3 2,364.6 1,669.3 3.247.9 2,561.4 3,075.2 (other mints) Opium poppy exudate 1302110000 9.6 1.3 36.8 0 0 3.4 Orange peel essential oil Other herbs used in pharmacy Other herbal extracts 3301120000 121190 130219 8,993.0 35,537.8 21,318.9 5,327.3 39,406.9 24,288.2 6,896.9 42,817.2 26,903.9 4,635.4 3,987.1 4,104.7 3,296.9 12,711.3 4,895.3 4,069.2 9,817.3 6,320.4

SOURCES: (1) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) Circular Series FTROP 1-06, March 2006. Available at:; (2) Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics. HS 10-Digit Exports, Jan-Dec Quantities, 2001-2005. (3) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA, Horticultural and Tropical Products Division; (4) Industry Canada. Trade Data Online: Trade By Product (HS) – HS Codes.

BOTANICAL RAW MATERIALS (Indicative prices: USD $ / kg) Product Source American ginseng root (Panax quinquefolius): — whole, mature roots, good quality — powdered bi-product, low quality Burdock root (Arctium lappa)** Caraway fruit (Carum carvi) Catnip herb powder (Nepeta cataria)** Coriander fruit (Coriandrum sativum) Echinacea flowering tops (Echinacea purpurea)** Echinacea pallida root (Echinacea pallida) ** Echinacea purpurea root (Echinacea purpurea)** Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum)** Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale): — conventional — organic ** — organic ** Hop strobile (Humulus lupulus) Nutmeg seed (Myristica fragrans) Peppermint leaf (Mentha × piperita)** Red clover blossom (Trifolium pratense) ** Rhubarb root (Rheum spp.) ** Slippery elm bark (Ulmus rubra) * Spearmint leaf (Mentha spicata)** * Wild collected — **Certified organic Canada Not declared USA Canada USA Canada USA USA USA Canada Canada Hawaii Costa Rica Mexico USA Jamaica USA USA USA USA USA

Price 19-29 12 10.5 1.23 4.9-7.1 0.772 4.6-7.1 7.1-10.6 22.4-25.3 4.4-6.6 0.224-0.26 1.8 11 6.8-7.7 10.3-10.5 9.25 6.2-7.9 4.8-9.1 5.5-12.3 22.7 8.8

Destination FOB Ontario FOB New York FOB Pacific NW SPOT New York FOB Pacific NW SPOT New York FOB Pacific NW FOB Pacific NW FOB Pacific NW FOB Pacific NW I/S Thunder Bay FARM PRICE Hawaii CIF US Port FOB Pacific NW FOB Washington SPOT New York FOB Pacific NW FOB Pacific NW FOB Pacific NW FOB West Coast FOB Pacific NW

Quality Standards: Standards for American Ginseng, Caraway, Echinacea, Ginger, Peppermint, and Red Clover, and are published in the United States National Formulary (USP-NF), standards for Coriander, Fenugreek, Flaxseed (=Linseed), Hops, and Rhubarb in the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur), standards for Spearmint in the French Pharmacopoeia (PhFr), and Slippery Elm Bark (=Elm) in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). Notes on status of wild-collected botanicals: (1) Wild American ginseng is a protected species under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The CITES Appendices I, II and III can be viewed at: Additionally, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has certain export restrictions in place and


in Canada, it is listed as an ‘endangered species’ by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC); (2) Wild goldenseal is listed as a ‘threatened species’ by the COSEWIC. EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS (Indicative prices: US $ / kg) Product Standardization American wild yam root (Dioscorea villosa) Total saponins Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) Triterpene glycosides Chá-de-bugre (Cordia ecalyculata) 4 : 1 (w/w) Echinacea purpurea herb Total phenolic compounds Echinacea purpurea root 4 : 1 (w/w) Peppermint leaf oil (Mentha × piperita) Various grades Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare)** Carvacrol Rose hip oil, (Rosa canina) ** Oleic acid Sage leaf essential oil (Salvia officinalis)** N/A Saw palmetto fruit (Serenoa repens) Total fatty acids " " ** certified organic % 6.0 2.5 N/A 4.0 N/A >70 0.5 N/A 45 25 Price 75-85 46-81 32-37 30-33 62-65 33-55 187.4-264.5 36 264.5 40-45 28-36

BOTANICAL PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS * CALIFORNIA POPPY HERB – A Product of USA * This specification is based on a certificate of analysis for a specific lot number Product: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name: Plant part used: Cultivation method: Physical Analysis Appearance: Odor / Taste: Particle size: Bulk density: Extraneous matter: Moisture content: Total ash: pH: Chemical Analysis Contaminants Heavy Metals: Pesticide Residues: Microbiological Tests Total viable aerobic count Total molds and yeast Escherichia coli Salmonella: California poppy Eschscholzia california CHAMISSO [Papaveraceae] Eschscholziae Herba Dried aerial parts Certified organic agricultural methods Medium green with some orange and white pieces Grassy, floral, characteristic 10 – 15 mm pieces 5.5 g / 20 ml 0.01% 7.6% 2.2% 5.52 Contains alkaloids (e.g. cryptopine) and carotenoids 0.3 24/6 N/A 80.0 0.8 0.3/3.0 0.25-0.35

Price 59.7 CFR 44.5 CFR 168-315 50-70 3.75-5.5 40-50 80-120 200-300 95.5 CFR 75-125 47-75 46 60-70

Product: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name : Plant part used: Storage: Chemical Analysis Anthocyanosides Organoleptic Appearance: Color: Odor: Taste: Red Poppy dry extract Papaver rhoeas L. [Papaveraceae] Papaveris rhoeados flos extractum Dried petals Store in closed container protected from light and moisture 1% Fine powder Dark reddish violet Almost odorless Slightly bitter and somewhat mucilaginous

Microbiological Load (According to Ph. Eur. 3rd ed., 5.1.4, cat. 3B): Total Viable Aerobic Count: Not more than 104 (2.6.12) Fungi: Not more than 102 per gram (2.6.12) Enterobacteria: Not more than 102 per gram (2.6.13) Salmonella (in 10 g): Absent (2.6.13) Escherichia coli (in 1 g): Absent (2.6.13) Staphylococcus aureus (in 1 g) Absent (2.6.13)


April 20-21, 2006 EVENTS DURING THE AUSTRIAN PRESIDENCY 2006: COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL HERBAL PRODUCTS (HMPC) IN VIENNA Venue: Vienna, Austria Contact: Dr. Heribert Pittner, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Frauen (BMGF), Radetzkystraße 2, 1030 Wien, Austria TEL: +43 1 711004198 / FAX: +43 1 711004284 / E-MAIL: WEB: Attendance is limited to a restricted circle of participants. This will be the first informal meeting of the delegates of the HMPC. It provides a forum for the exchange of ideas on issues which cannot be adequately discussed at the regular meetings in London due to lack of time. These issues include the current status of the development of herbal lists and monographs or the provision of sufficient personnel for the tasks of the committee. The HMPC’s regular 2006 meeting dates in London are posted at: May 9-11, 2006 VITAFOODS INTERNATIONAL 2006 Venue: Palexpo Centre, Geneva, Switzerland Contacts: Nicola Mason, Managing Director, TEL: +44(0)20.7915.5656 / FAX: +44(0)20.7915.5021 / E-MAIL: Vicky Coope, Event Director, TEL: +44(0)20.7915.5133 / FAX: +44(0)20.7915.5021 E-MAIL: / WEB: Attendee profile: Executive managers of ingredient purchasing and procurement, research and development, food and pharmaceutical technology, sales and export, etc. from the herbal, dietary supplement, nutritional, and pharmaceutical industries, respectively. Exhibitor profile: Suppliers of botanical raw materials and extracts, essential oils and oleoresins, phytochemicals, algae, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical ingredients, nutritional and functional food ingredients, and OTC pharmaceutical ingredients. Confirmed exhibitors of medicinal herbs and/or extracts include, among many others: • Alchem International Ltd. (New Delhi, India) • Ayush Herbs Inc. (Bellevue, Washington, USA) • Bionorica Extracts GmbH (Neumarkt, Germany) • Burgundy Botanical Extracts (Reyssouze, France) • China Chamber of Commerce of Medicines and Health Products (P.R. China) • Decas Botanical Synergies (Massachusetts, USA) • Dynadis (Auterive, France) • Exxentia (Madrid, Spain) • Frutarom Switzerland (Wadenswil, Switzerland) • Gehrlicher GmbH (Eurasburg, Germany) • Indo World Trading Corporation (New Delhi, India) • Linnea S.A. (Locarno, Switzerland) • Möller Pharma (Recklinghausen, Germany) • Monteloeder S.L. (Alicante, Spain) • Naturex (Avignon, France) • Pharmachem Labs (New Jersey, USA) • PhytoTrade Africa (London, UK) • Plantextrakt (Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany) • Renaissance Herbs Inc. (California, USA) • Sabinsa Corporation (Piscataway, New Jersey, USA) • Stryka Botanics (Hillsborough, New Jersey, USA) • Valensa International (Eustis, Florida, USA) • Vidya Herbs PVt Ltd (Bangalore, India) • Yerbalatina Phytoactives (Culombo, Brazil)


June 27, 2006 ORGANIC HERB PRODUCTION Venue: Rutland Organics, Brooke, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Contact: Soil Association Producer Services TEL: 0117 914 2400. For media enquiries: Clio Turton, Press Office, 0117 914 2448 E-MAIL: This event is part of The Organic Pathfinder Programme in the East Midlands (TOPP). September 7-10, 2006 SANA: 18th INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS – NUTRITION, HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT Venue: Bologna Fairground, Bologna, Italy Organizer: SANA S.r.l., via San Vitore, 14 20123 Milan, Italy Contact: Siere E Comunicazioni S.R.l, Via S. Vittore, 14 20123 Milano TEL: +39 02 86451078 / FAX: +39 02 86453506 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor Profile: Herbs, officinal plants and essences, herbal and phytotherapeutic products, organic products, diet products, natural products, and more. November 14-16, 2006 HEALTH INGREDIENTS EUROPE 2006 Venue: Messe Frankfurt GmbH, Hall 3.0, Ludwig-Erhard-Anlage 1, 60327 Frankfurt, Germany Organizer: CMP Information, a division of United Business Media Contact: CMP Information, PO Box 200, 3600 AE Maarssen, The Netherlands TEL: + 31 346 559 444 / FAX: + 31 346 573 811 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Suppliers of beneficial algae, fats and oils, flavors and aromas, fruit and vegetable products, ginkgo extract, ginseng, organic ingredients, phytochemicals, plant oestrogens, soy ingredients, spirulina, among other natural and herbal ingredients. March 30-April 1, 2007 EXPOSALUD 2007: Salón de la Salud y Calidad de Vida. Productos Naturales, Ecológicos y Dietéticos Venue: Palacio de la Metalurgia, Recinto Ferial de Montjuïc, Fira Barcelona. Supporters: Asociación Española de Fabricantes de Preparados Alimenticios, Dietéticos y Plantas Medicinales (AFEPADI), Federación Española de Asociaciones de Herbodietética (FENADIHER), Gremio de Herbolarios, Apicultores y Alimentación Dietética y Biológica de Cataluña, y Productores de Agricultura Ecológica (PRODECOL). Collaborators: Asociación Catalana de Productores de Plantas Aromáticas y Medicinales (ACPPAM), Asociación de Productores, Elaboradores y Comercializadores de Productos Agroalimentarios Ecológicos (APECPAE), y CENTRO TECNOLÒGICO FORESTAL Contact: INTERALIA, Avda. Diagonal, 474 7º4ª, 08006 Barcelona TEL: 93 416.1466 / FAX: 93 415.0095 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Natural and organic agricultural products, medicinal plants, natural therapies, health products, natural fibers, and more.




NEW EUROPEAN UNION SUMMARY REPORT INCLUDES MEDICINAL PLANT PRODUCTION DATA FROM EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES The Interactive European Network for Industrial Crops and their Applications (IENICE), a project funded under the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission. has just published a 129-page report entitled “Summary Report for the European Union 2000-2005,” which includes medicinal plants and extracts production data for some of the newly accessed States in Eastern Europe. For example: q Bulgaria has 32,000 ha of essential oil plants (rose (Rosa spp.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and mint (Mentha × piperita); this area has increased because of increased interest and support through a state fund). 3.9-4.3 tonnes of rose oil are produced each year from 43,000 tonnes of rose flowers. q Hungary produces 8,000-10,000 tonnes of dry poppy capsules (Papaver somniferum) annually, manufactures 10% of worldwide medical morphine, 30% of that used in Europe originates from one Hungarian factory. Additionally, 214 other plant species are sold for medical purposes. q Lithuania has 6,500 ha of caraway fruit (Carum carvi). q Romania grows approximately 12,000 ha of medicinal and aromatic herbs annually. 28 new varieties have been created in Romania and cultivation techniques established for around 50 species. The new varieties have increased production (a 6-33% increase in quantity) and increased the content of active principles by 12-45%. q Poland has about 35,000 ha of herbal crops under cultivation, 20,000 ha of which are medicinal plants and herbs for pharmacy and cosmetics. Additionally, the report includes country-specific annexes that include a more in depth look at the medicinal plant sector in each country. For example, the Statistics for Hungary annex includes acreage and production for Hungary’s most important cultivated and wild collected medicinal plants, as well as export volumes. Here are the direct links to three of the relevant annexes: q Statistics for Hungary: q Statistics for Poland: q Statistics for Romania:
SOURCE : Holmes CA. Summary Report for the European Union 2000-2005. Interactive European Network for Industrial Crops and their Applications (IENICE). 2005. Available at:

BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA WORKSHOP ON POTENTIAL IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR THE ISSC-MAP On 5th-6th May 2006, there will be a workshop in Teslic, BiH on potential implementation strategies for the International Standard for the Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). This is a side event to the 1st IFOAM International Conference on Organic Wild Production, sponsored by Manfred-Hermsen-Stiftung (Bremen, Germany) and organized by WWF Germany and TRAFFIC. The aim of the workshop is to involve practitioners active in the collection, trade and processing of wild plants in the development of concrete implementation strategies for wild collection criteria, which are adapted to their working and market situations. Special focus is on South-Eastern Europe. There will be presentations on the importance of a sustainable use of plants in the aromatic and medicinal, health care and food sectors; the status of the ISSC-MAP and potential links to the organic sector; and potential implementation scenarios for sustainable collection criteria in South Eastern Europe, as well as discussion on potential scenarios for the implementation of stricter sustainability criteria in the organic sector, and bilateral discussions with ISSC-MAP Steering Group representatives on request. Workshop abstract: Registration form: For more info, see “Meetings and Conferences Eastern and Southeastern Europe” on the following page.
SOURCE: ISSC-MAP Documentation and Download Site:


BOTANICAL RAW MATERIALS & ESSENTIAL OILS Product Aniseed fruit (Pimpinella anisum) Caraway fruit (Carum carvi) Coriander fruit (Coriandrum sativum) Coriander fruit essential oil (C. sativum) “ “ Dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale)** Eleuthero root (Eleutherococcus senticosus) — conventional — certified organic ** English lavender essential oil (L. angustifolia) Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Garlic bulb, dried (Allium sativum) Rhodiola root (Rhodiola rosea) Rosemary leaf (Rosmarinus officinalis) Sage leaf (Salvia officinalis) Schisandra fruit (Schisandra chinensis) ** Wild thyme essential oil (Thymus serpyllum)
* wild collected — ** certified organic

(Indicative prices: Source Turkey East Europe Russia Bulgaria Russia East Europe Russia: Bulgaria Turkey Albania Russia Turkey Albania Russia Bulgaria

USD $ / kg) Price Destination 3.64 Spot New York 1 FOT Rotterdam 0.5 CIF Europe 60-65 FOB Sofia 39 CRF Europe ports 10.5 FOB Germany 1.7-2.4 2.8-4.2 45-47 0.75 0.59-1.27 25.6-27.0 1.3 2.5 10.6-13.2 148-155 FOB USA FOB USA FOB Sofia Spot New York Wholesale Albania FOB USA Spot New York Spot New York FOB USA FOB Sofia

Note: Monographs containing quality standards and tests for most the above-listed herbs and essential oils are published in either the Farmakopea Polska VI (2002), the Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII (1986), or in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics XI (1987-1990). Most also appear in the currently valid edition of the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur V). Standards for Dandelion root are published in the Austrian Pharmacopoeia (ÖAB 1991).

BOTANICAL PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS GREATER CELANDINE HERB — a product of HUNGARY Product name: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name: Plant part used: Storage: DESCRIPTION Color: Odor: Taste: IDENTIFICATION Macroscopic: Microscopic: Thin-layer chromatography: TESTS Total alkaloids: Greater Celandine Herb Chelidonium majus L. [Fam.: Papaveraceae] Chelidonii herba Dried, whole or cut aerial parts, collected during flowering Store in a well-closed container protected from light and moisture. Bluish-green and greenish-brown fragments Characteristic and unpleasant Bitter and somewhat pungent As per PhEur monograph As per PhEur monograph As per PhEur monograph Not less tan 0.6% of total alkaloids, expressed as chelidonine with reference to the dried herb Maximum 10.0% Maximum 10.0% Maximum 13.0%

Foreign matter: Loss on drying: Total ash: MICROBIOLOGICAL Total viable aerobic count Not more than 107 per gram Total molds and yeast Not more than 105 per gram Escherichia coli Not more than 102 per gram POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS According to the German Commission E monograph, preparations of greater celandine herb are indicated for treating cramp-like disorders of the biliary ducts and gastrointestinal tract.


March 16, 2006 VIII Konferencje: INTERHERBA 2006 Venue: Miedzynarodowych Targów Poznanskich, Pawilon 11 (Iglica), ul. Glogowska 14 60-734 Poznan, Poland Organizer: Instytut Roslin i Przetworów Zielarskich, ul. Libelta 27, 61-707 Poznan TEL: 0-61/665-95-50 / FAX: 0-61/665-95-51 / E-MAIL: Contact: TEL. 061 665 95 40 / FAX: 061 665 95 51 / E-MAIL: WEB: May 3-4, 2006 1st IFOAM CONFERENCE ON ORGANIC WILD PRODUCTION Venue: Hotel Kardial, Banja Vrucica in Teslic: Sponsors: International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), and Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Srpska – Banja Luka Organizers: Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Srpska – Banja Luka, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Contacts: (1) Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Srpska – Banja Luka E-MAIL: (2) Gunnar Rundgren, Grolink AB, Torfolk 684 95 Höje, Sweden TEL: +46 563 72345 / FAX: +46-563 7206 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibition: An exhibition w be linked to the conference. It is expected that exhibitors will be ill producers, buyers/processors and service providers (consultants, certification bodies, institutes). Target groups: Producers of wild plants, Communities involved in collection of wild harvested products, Processors of wild plants, Buyers and users of wild plants, Developers of standards and certification systems for wild plants and their collection, Governmental or intergovernmental organizations involved in the sector, Service providers to any of these groups (consultants, researchers etc.). May 5, 2006 SUSTAINABLE WILD COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS: WORKSHOP ON IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD Venue: Spa and conference center Banja Vrucica in Teslic, located approximately 2,5 hours North of Sarajevo. Sponsor: Manfred-Hermsen-Stiftung, Bremen, Germany Organizers: Susanne Honnef and Britta Pätzold, WWF Germany and TRAFFIC, Rebstöcker Str. 55, 60326 Frankfurt a. Main, Germany E-MAIL: WEB: Target groups: Individuals or companies involved in collection of plants from the wild, buyers, processors and users of wild plants, developers of standards and certification systems, governmental or intergovernmental organisations involved in the sectors, service providers to any of these groups May 29-June 1, 2006 FOURTH CONFERENCE ON MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OF SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (4th CMAPSEEC) Venue: Assembly Hall of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi, România Organizers: "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University (Iasi), University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" (Iasi), University of Bacau (Bacau), and Association for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries (AMAPSEEC) Contact: Prof. Dr. Gogu Ghiorghita, University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 157, 600115 Bacau, România



TEL: ++40-234/571.012 / FAX: ++40-234/545.753 / E-MAIL:

May 30-June 1, 2006 FOOD INGREDIENTS CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE Venue: Industrial Palace of the Prague Exhibition Grounds, INCHEBA PRAHA spol. s r. o., Areál Výstavištì Praha, P. O. BOX 44, 170 90 Výstavištì Praha 7 – Holešovice, Czech Republic Organizer: CMP Information is a division of United Business Media Contact: Expoconsult B.V. trading as CMP Information, PO Box 200, 3600 AE Maarssen, The Netherlands TEL: +31 346 559444 / FAX: +31 346 573811 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Suppliers of medicinal and culinary herbs and spices, seasonings, essential oils, natural flavors, natural colors, nutraceuticals, functional foods, oleoresins, organic products, soy products, fruits, nuts and seeds, and more. June 7-10, 2006 1st INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CHAMOMILE — RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION Venue: University of Presov, Slovak Republic Contact: Dr. Ivan Salamon, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Humanity and Natural Sciences, Presov University, 01, 17th November St., SK 071 16 Presov, Slovak Republic TEL: ++421 51 7725 361 / FAX: ++421 51 7725 547 / MOBILE: ++421 907 186 500 E-MAIL: WEB: October 13-15, 2006 ECOLIFE 2006 — 22nd Healthy Lifestyle and Food Fair Venue: ul. Traugutta 3a, Tarnów, Poland Contact: POLISH SOCIETY OF HEALTHY LIFE and FOOD PROMOTION, 33-106 Tarnów 8 skr.poczt. 40 ul. Bernardynska 24 / TEL / FAX: (48-14) 626-00-40 WEB: Exhibitor profile: Apicultural and herbal products, tea, fruits and vegetables, ecological fertilizers, natural cosmetics, fitness and rehabilitation equipment, trade literature, natural medicaments. About 65 exhibitors and 8,000 attendees. November 17-19, 2006 HERBARIUM 2006 — 12th LUBLIN HERB FAIR Co-located with “Tea & Coffee 2006: 11th Coffee and Tea Fair” Venue: Lublin International Fair, ul. Dworcowa 11, 20-406 Lublin, Poland Contact: TEL: (48-81) 532-44-62 / FAX: (48-81) 534-92-95 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Processed and unprocessed medicinal herbs, medicaments, natural cosmetics and herbal teas, herb production, healthy foods. April 29-May 4, 2007 I MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS CONFERENCE ON CULINARY HERBS Venue: Antalya, Turkey Contact: Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Baktir or Prof. Dr. Kenan Trugut, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya, Turkey TEL: (90)2423102469 or (90)2423102414 FAX: (90)2422274564 E-MAIL: or


SUPPLY AND DEMAND 2005 EXPORTS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINAL PRODUCTS UP 10.27% China Customs Statistics for 2005 shows China's exports of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) products increased 10.27% compared to 2004 reaching a trade value of USD $153 million. When including total exports of TCM products, traditional Chinese botanical raw materials & extracts, and prepared Chinese medicines, the trade value reached USD $830 million, representing 6% of total medical exports. In terms of volume, in 2005, China exported about 14,212 tons of TCM products, 2% more than in 2004. In 2005, China exported USD $112.8 million-worth TCM products to neighboring Asian countries, representing a 9.21% increase. Exports to Europe and North America increased by 24.89% and 7.07% respectively.
SOURCES: (1) Anon. TCM Exports Up 10.27% in 2005. Xinhua News Agency. 10 February 2006; (2) Anon. China's exports of medical products reach 13.8 billion US dollars. People’s Daily Online. 06 February 2006.

SFDA: NEW APPLICATION & APPROVAL PROCESS FOR IMPORTING MEDICINAL HERBS Effective 01 February 2006, the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) began a trial implementation of measures to strengthen quality control of medicinal herbs imported into the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The measures set out detailed provisions on the application, examination, approval, registration, inspection, supervision, administration and liability in respect of imported medicinal herbs. Under the measures, imported medicinal herbs must be examined and approved by SFDA on the basis of the application made by the applicant. Technical evaluation and administrative examination of medicinal herbs produced abroad for sale and use in the PRC will be conducted by SFDA, and will decide whether to allow each import. Applicants must be enterprises with a drug production license or drug business license. SFDA is responsible for the approval of medicinal herbs imports and supervision of the registration and inspection processes. Food and drug administration authorities at provincial, autonomous region or municipal levels are responsible for the supervision and administration of the imported medicinal herbs. The local food and drugs administration bureaus at the ports or border checkpoints allowing the medicinal herbs imports are responsible for registering the imported medicinal herbs, making arrangements for inspection, and controlling and administering the inspection process. The China Institute for the Inspection of Drugs and Biological Products is responsible for the random checking of medicinal herbs imported for the first time and the verification of quality standards. Drug inspection bodies designated by SFDA are responsible for inspecting the imported medicinal herbs at the ports. The measures require that medicinal herbs must be imported at ports or border checkpoints approved by the State Council. At border checkpoints where the import of medicinal herbs is allowed, only medicinal herbs produced in adjacent countries or regions can be imported.
SOURCE: Hong Kong Trade Development Council. Industrial Policy: Measure for the Administration of Imported Medicinal Herbs. 01 January 2006.

TCM1.COM INC: A NEW INTERNATIONAL MARKETPLACE AUCTION WEBSITE FOR TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS AND FINISHED TCM PRODUCTS According to their website, the vision of TCM1.COM is to be No. 1 in global e-commerce of TCM, and their mission is to help buyers and sellers in China and abroad explore trade channels , conduct business on-line and cut transaction costs. TCM1.COM, which is available on-line at, is a joint-venture funded by Compaq of U.S., Hong Kong New World Group, WI Harper Group of U.S., Advance Engineering (B.V.I.) Co., Ltd. of Taiwan, Chengdu Brilliant Development Group, INC., Sichuan Internet Information Ltd. and Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. As one of the trial projects for e-commerce co-sponsored by the Information Center under the State Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization (Sichuan) Base and the State Drug Administration, TCM1.COM will provide business management solutions and an e -commerce trading platform for transaction markets, manufacturers and trading communities in pharmaceutical sector. By using Internet technology, innovative solutions and services, TCM1.COM intends to change the traditional method of trading medicinal plants and extracts. The on-line auction aims to benefit suppliers and buyers by improving trade process efficiency so as to reduce costs and increase revenue. TCM1.COM


claims to offer updated information on TCM, including rapid, accurate and reliable market information, science and technology development, laws and polices, TCM resources, foreign trade, healthcare as well as minority ethnic medicine. The auction site includes a “Supply & Demand” section where members can issue and update supply & demand information and also carry out transactions directly. There is an “International Auction” section where traders can find product details , carry out on-line bid and auction, select trade partners, trade channel, product, bidding price, purchase as well as invite public bidding. All takes place on-line in real-time, including negotiation, placing order, payment and account settlement. There is also an “Agency,” which offers on-line negotiation and signing of Agency Agreements. In the “Service Center” section of the website, extensive information is offered in the areas of Credit Standing Analysis (data on any trading company), Shipping Service (obtain shipping quotes and schedules for any port in the world), Foreign Exchange (up-to-date currency exchange rates), and Tariff data. The Tariff data section includes H.S. Codes for the China’s most important medicinal plants, along with English name, Chinese name, total import duty rate %, export license requirements, and any other documentation requirements for trade. See Table 1 for an excerpt from the Customs Tariffs of China (CTC) section of the website, showing selected medicinal herbs. The CTC provides comprehensive information about China's tariffs and non-tariff control on importation and exportation. The CTC includes complete, latest list of import duty rates, VAT rates, consumption tax rates, licensing, quota, inspection etc. For each CTC listing, you can click for more detailed data on the selected herb. For example, see Table 2 for customs details on codonopsis root, Codonopsis tangshen (HS Code: 12119013), including its import customs duty rate, value-added tax (VAT), consumption tax, and total import duty rate, as well as export license requirements. TABLE 1: EXCERPT FROM CUSTOMS TARIFFS OF CHINA (CTC) FOR SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS H.S Code English description Total Chinese Import description Duty Rate % Import Export License Export License Other Import Document Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Food Hygiene Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Food Hygiene Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate Export License Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate

12112010 American ginseng



Wild ginseng (other 12112020 than American ???(?????) ginseng) 12112091 Fresh Ginseng roots Other Ginseng roots Radix angelicae sinensis Radix pseudoginseng


Export License Export License Export License Export License




???? ?? ??






12119013 Radix codonopsitis ??



TABLE 2: Example of Custom Tariff Details for Codonopsis root (Codonopsis tangshen) Id English description Chinese description Import Customs Duty Rate % 10 Import Quota Import Registration Import & Export Inspection Other Import Document Export Duty Rate %
SOURCE: TCM1.COM INC., Rm A.B.H, 21/F, First City Plaza, 308 Shuncheng Avenue, Chengdu 610017 China:

631 Radix codonopsitis

H.S Code


Value-added Tax (VAT) % 13 Consumption Tax % 0 Total Import Duty Rate % 24.3

Import Export License Export License

Animal or Plant Quarantine Certificate; Pharmaceutical Products Inspection Certificate

BOTANICAL RAW MATERIALS (Indicative prices: USD $ / kg) Product Source Price Astragalus root (Astragalus membranaceus) China Garlic bulb (Allium sativum), pwd China Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) China Gynostemma herb (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) China Jujube date (Ziziphus jujuba), powder China Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) China Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) ** China Lycium fruit, powder, Chinese (Lycium barbarum)China Schisandra fruit (Schisandra chinensis)** China Star anise fruit (Illicium verum) China ** Certified organic 8.5-10.5 2.53-2.86 2.0-2.2 8.5-9.5 9 4.36 6.9-7.2 9.8 7.75 3.19

Destination USA Spot New York Spot New York CIF San Francisco FOB New York FOB Tianjin, China CIF USA Ports FOB New York C&F San Francisco Spot New York

Note: Monographs providing quality standards and tests for most the above listed Chinese herbs are published in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China (PPRC English Edition 2005). Many are also published in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP XIV, English Edition 2001). BOTANICAL EXTRACTS (Indicative prices: USD $ / kg) Product Standardization Andrographis herb Andrographolide Asian ginseng root (from bi-product) Ginsenosides Asian ginseng root (from whole root) Ginsenosides Asian ginseng root (from whole root) Ginsenosides Asian ginseng root Ginsenosides (by UV) Bitter orange Synephrine Bitter orange Synephrine Cordyceps extract N/A Eleuthero root Eleutherosides Epimedium herb Flavonoids (as icariin) Epimedium herb Flavonoids (as icariin) Ginger rhizome 4 : 1 (w/w) % 20 5 7 20 80 6 30 N/A 0.8 10 20 N/A Price 62 18-19 58 139 58 9.8-10.5 34-39 58 10-40 38-40 48 15-18


Ginger rhizome Ginger rhizome Ginkgo leaf Gingko leaf Green tea leaf Gynostemma herb Kudzu root Licorice root Licorice root, organic* Lycium fruit Rhodiola root Rhodiola root Rhodiola root Schisandra fruit Sea buckthorn fruit Soybean Tribulus fruit Tribulus fruit

Essential oil Pungent compounds Flavonglycosides/Lactones Flavonglycosides/Lactones Polyphenols (by UV) Gypenosides 4 : 1 (w/w) Glycyrrhizin Glycyrrhizin Polysaccharides Salidroside Rosavins Rosavins Schisandrins Flavonoids Isoflavones Saponins (by UV) Saponins

4 5 10/2.5 24/6 50 30 N/A 12 12 10 2 3 4 9 8 40 40 90

38 te 115 27.6-31 8-8.5 39 17 33-38 46 45-53 56 80 125 53 53 98-105 17.1-18 75

Product name: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name: Plant part used: Corydalis yanhusuo tuber Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. WANG [Fam.: Papaveraceae] Rhizoma Corydalis (PPRC) or Corydalis Tuber (JP) Dried tuber, collected in early summer when the plant is withered, removed from fibrous root, washed clean, boiled in water until the centre of the cut surface is just devoid of white core, and dried in the sun. Store in a well-closed container protected from light and moisture. 25 kg lined drum. Light yellow fine powder 80 mesh Light yellowish-brown Slight Bitter As per JP or PPRC monograph As per JP or PPRC monograph As per JP or PPRC monograph Not less tan 0.08% of dehydrocorydaline (as dehydrocorydaline nitrate), calculated on the basis of dried material Maximum 15.0% Maximum 4.0% Maximum 1.5% Maximum 20 ppm Maximum 2 ppm Not more than 107 per gram Not more than 105 per gram Not more than 102 per gram

Storage: Pack size: DESCRIPTION Appearance: Particle size: Color: Odor: Taste: IDENTIFICATION Macroscopic: Microscopic: Thin-layer chromatography: TESTS Dehydrocorydaline: Loss on drying: Total ash: Acid-insoluble ash: Heavy metals: Arsenic: MICROBIOLOGICAL Total viable aerobic count Total molds and yeast Escherichia coli


POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS According to the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, preparations of corydalis yanhusuo tuber are indicated for treating chest pain, epigastric pain, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, blood stasis after childbirht, traumatic swelling and pain. For Quality Control Standards, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP XIV) monograph is available on-line at:

April 4-5, 2006 SUPPLY EXPO JAPAN 2006 Venue: Tokyo International Forum Organizer: Health Business Magazine Co., Ltd., Address: 9F, 6-13-10 Sotokanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0021 Japan TEL: +81-3-3839-0751 FAX: +81-3-3839-0753 Contact: Megumi Maneyama E-mail: WEB: Exhibitor Profile: Suppliers of botanical raw materials and extracts, science-based materials, functional foods, contract manufacturers, and other supply-related categories. Attendee Profile: Manufacturers of nutrition/health foods, trading companies, distributors, vitamin/supplement manufacturers, personal care manufacturers, distributors from pharmaceutical companies, direct sales professionals, mail order companies, doctors/pharmacists from hospitals/ clinics, independent practitioners, and business professionals interested in ingredients and supplyrelated goods & services. April 15-20, 2006 99th CHINA CANTON FAIR: CHINESE EXPORT COMMODITIES FAIR Venue: CECF Liuhua Complex, 117 Liu Hua Road, Guangzhou, P.R. China Contact: TEL: +86-10-84634451, 84634452 FAX: +86-10-84634872 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor categories include: Traditional Chinese Medicines: Dried Medicinal Herbs, Chinese Patent Medicines, Chinese Medicinal Wine, Western Medicines: Pharmaceuticals, Western Patent Medicines, Health-care and Beauty Products. July 3-6, 2006 4th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE Venue: Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore Organizers: Singapore Botanic Gardens, National Parks Board, and Raffles Museum – Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore Contact: Secretariat, E-mail: TEL: +65 64651833 FAX: +65 64674832 WEB: Theme: Advances in the study of biodiversity, phylogeny, conservation and economic importance of Asiatic members of the Zingiberaceae Family.


August 17-21, 2006 2006 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION OF THE MODERNIZATION OF CHINESE MEDICINE & HEALTH PRODUCTS Venue: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Hall 2, 1 Harbour Road, Wanchai, HK Organizer: Hong Kong Trade Development Council and The Modernized Chinese Medicine International Association Ltd WEB: Contact: Exhibitions Department, Hong Kong Trade Development Council, Unit 13, Expo Galleria, Hong Kong Convention & Exhibition Centre, 1 Expo Drive, Wanchai, Hong Kong FAX: (852) 2824-0026 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Chinese botanical raw materials and extracts, finished medicinal herbal products, certified organic herbal ingredients, health products (herbal supplements, functional foods, nutraceuticals, organic foods), research and development services and trade associations. September 27-30, 2006 CHINA TEA EXPO Venue: World Trade Exhibition Center, Beijing, P.R. China Organizers: The Trade Development Bureau, Ministry of Commerce, PRC, China National Native Produce and Animal By-Products Import & Export Corporation Supporters: FAO of the United Nations, International Tea Committee, European Tea Committee, Tea Council UK, German Tea Association, Malaysia Tea Association, Ethnic Tea Cooperative Group, JAPIT (Japan Association for the Promotion of International Trade), India Tea Board, Sri Lanka Tea Board, Kenya Tea Board Contact: Secretary General: Ms. Sun Wei TEL: +86-10-64283287 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Tea leaf growers, producers, packagers, and exporters from all over Asia. December 14-16, 2006 ORGANIC & NATURAL 2006 — 5th SEOUL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIC & NATURAL PRODUCTS SHOW Venue: Convention & Exhibition Center (COEX) Atlantic Hall + Convention Hall, Seoul, Korea Organizer: Korea Organic Farming Association (KOFA) Contact: COEX, World Trade Center Samsung-dong, gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-731, Korea TEL: 02-557-6776 FAX: 02-557-0870 E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Organic botanical raw materials, organic fruits and vegetables, essential oils, spice extracts, ginseng and tea products, herbal medicinal products, honey products, functional foods, health supplement foods, environmentally friendly natural foods, and more.


DEMAND AND SUPPLY DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT DATA FOR MEDICINAL HERBS & EXTRACTS India Department Of Commerce (DOC) posts export totals for all commodities including medicinal plants & extracts. The 12 month totals provided by India DOC are not based on the calender year, however, but rather on the April through March season. See next page, Table 1, for export totals of selected Indian medicinal herbs & extracts comparing the 2002/2003, 2003/2004, and 2004/2005 seasons, as well as the first two quarters (Apr-Sept) of the current 2005/2006 agricultural season. The exchange rate used in the 2004/2005 values was 1US$ = Rs. 44.9315. SICKLE-POD SENNA SEED: HS 09109915 For the 2004/2005 season, total value of India’s exports of sickle-pod senna seed (Cassia tora) was USD $0.58 million, corresponding to 1,131,060 kg. About 55.5% of the total was exported to Taiwan [628,000 kg valued at $0.22 million]. Other significant quantities of sickle-pod senna seed were exported to Japan (190,000 kg), Germany (166,000 kg). and the USA (34,100 kg). In the first 6 months of the 2005/2006 season, 1,090,180 kg have already been exported, about 52% of the total to Japan (564,150 kg), and about 13.4% to Taiwan (146,200 kg). SENNA LEAF & POD: HS 12119022 For 2004/2005 season, total value of India’s exports of senna leaf and pod (Cassia angustifolia) was USD $6.10 million, corresponding to 10,571,780 kg. About 26% of the total was exported to the China [2,701,630 kg valued at $1.35 million]. About 25,000 ha of senna are under cultivation, mainly in Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi. Other significant quantities of senna were exported to Germany (1,329,110 kg), Japan (1,068,700 kg), USA (719,570 kg), Poland (571,310 kg), Spain (382,980 kg), Brazil (333,570 kg), Thailand (332,900 kg), Netherlands (330,110 kg), Switzerland (243,350 kg), Turkey (221,330 kg), Italy (217,902 kg), Mexico (203,200 kg), Hong Kong (165,050 kg), Egypt (164,880 kg), and Vietnam (145,700 kg), among others. In the first 6 months of the 2005/2006 season, 5,143,400 kg have already been exported, about 23% of the total to China (1,176,870 kg), 17.3% to Japan (887,300 kg), and about 12.6% to Germany (648,300 kg). PSYLLIUM HUSK: HS 12119032 For 2004/2005 season, total value of India’s exports of psyllium husk (Plantago ovata) was USD $34.27 million, corresponding to 18,814,846 kg. About 60% of the total was exported to USA [11,281,170 kg valued at $19.6 million]. Psyllium cultivation occurs in districts of Banaskantha and Mehsana in North Gujarat, to a lesser extent in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, as well as West Bengal, Karnataka, and Coromandal Coast. Significant quantities of psyllium husk were also exported to UK (893,130 kg), Spain (789,320 kg), France (659,610 kg), Bangladesh (650,680 kg), Hong Kong (510,000 kg), Australia (491,800 kg), Pakistan (449,250 kg), Germany (396,990 kg), Indonesia (354,600 kg), Japan (313,350 kg), Mexico (275,480 kg), Malaysia (194,160 kg), China (194,000 kg), Canada (164,630 kg), and Denmark (159,200 kg). In first 6 months of 05/06 season, 12,302,980 kg have already been exported, about 55% of to USA (6,734,200 kg) and about 13% to Pakistan (1,627,130 kg), which is 3.6 times more than Pakistan imported from India in the previous entire year. PSYLLIUM SEED: HS 12119013 For the 2004/2005 season, total value of India’s exports of psyllium seed (Plantago ovata) was USD $1.78 million, corresponding to 1,131,390 kg. About 50% of the total was exported to the USA [571,680 kg valued at $0.63 million]. Other significant quantities of psyllium seed were exported to Bangladesh (105,000 kg), the UK (76,870 kg), Spain (76,820 kg), Germany (64,050 kg), and Denmark (40,000 kg). In the first 6 months of the 2005/2006 season, 207,210 kg have been exported, about 49% of the total to the USA (101,840 kg) and about 15.4% to Bangladesh (32,000 kg). OPIUM SAPS & EXTRACTS: HS 13021100 In the 2004/2005 season, the value of India’s exports of saps & extracts of opium was USD $10.42 million, representing 216,280 kg. The majority (112,070 kg: $8.67 million) was exported to Japan. Only 1,460 kg have been shipped so far in the first 6 month period of the current season.


TABLE 1: INDIA: SELECTED HIGH DEMAND HERB EXPORTS (including re-exports) Herb Name / HS 8-Digit Code / Apr-Mar 2002-2003-2004-2005 / Quantities: kilograms (kg) HERB NAME Ajowan fruit (Trachyspermum ammi) Asafetida gum resin (Ferula assa-foetida) Black tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) Coriander fruit (Coriandrum sativum) Garcinia fruit & rind (Garcinia cambogia) Garcina extract (Garcinia cambogia) Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Greater galangal rhizome (Alpinia galanga) Green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) Gymnema leaf powder (Gymnema sylvestre) Gymnema leaf extract (Gymnema sylvestre) Henna leaves & powder (Lawsonia inermis) Indian frankincense gum (Boswellia serrata) Myrrh oleo gum resin (Commiphora spp.) Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) Opium exudate (Papaver somniferum) Psyllium husk (Plantago ovata) Psyllium seed (Plantago ovata) Senna leaves & pods (Cassia angustifolia) Sickle-pod senna seed (Cassia tora) Turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa) HS CODE 09109914 13019013 090230 090240 09092010 09092090 12119033 12119096 13021918 091010 12119042 090210 090220 12119024 13021917 14041011 14041019 13019032 13019031 12119023 13021100 12119032 * 12119013 12119022 09109915 091030 Apr-Mar 2002-2003 kg 222,110 473,910 180,719,300 13,929,250 63,330 867,850 8,531,140 364,400 897,470 278,960 43,060 2,537,500 57,620 ? ? 250,050 682,550 1,114,740 9,638,470 2,366,910 32,444,010 Apr-Mar 2003-2004 kg 1,070,680 744,210 Apr-Mar 2004-2005 kg 1,101,470 731,640 Apr-Sept 2005-2006 kg 355,170 287,460

172,861,050 172,866,870 69,339,910 18,344,220 137,790 920,160 4,602,570 119,360 1,384,920 88,180 56,970 3,123,380 7,990 11,860 42,690 258,010 7,235,620 3,520,040 10,973,690 1,881,090 37,042,260 30,632,290 107,230 541,690 14,551,580 323,400 1,860,680 118,530 19,740 3,924,600 12,080 11,700 155,650 216,280 18,814,840 1,131,390 10,571,780 1,131,060 37,322,140 13,887,230 24,540 150,420 3,321,640 56,400 772,410 10,600 11,590 1,686,750 7,910 0 91,450 1,460 12,301,980 207,210 5,143,400 1,090,180 25,844,340


* NOTE: Imports of Psyllium Husk into the USA employ an HS Code [1211909020] different from the code employed by India [12119032], which may explain some discrepancies. Also, the 2002/2003 export data for this item is obviously inaccurate. Presumably, most of the psyllium in that year was grouped under another HS Code. SOURCE: Government of India Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Commerce, Export Import Data Bank. Accessed on 12 March 2006.

BOTANICAL RAW MATERIALS (Indicative prices: US $ / kg) Product Source Ajowan (seed) fruit (Trachyspermum ammi) Amla fruit (Phyllanthus emblica) Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna) Ashwagandha root (Withania somnifera) Beleric myrobalan fruit (Terminalia bellerica) Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum) Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) (small) Cassia bark (Cinnamomum aromaticum) Chebulic myrobalan fruit (Terminalia chebula) Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) Coriander fruit (Coriandrum sativum) Costus root (Saussurea costus) Fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgare) Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Garlic bulb (Allium sativum) Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Gotu kola herb (Centella asiatica) Guggul oleo-gum-resin (Commiphora mukul) Holy basil leaf (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Psyllium husk (Plantago ovata) — Uncleaned, conventional — 95% Pure , organic ** Rauwolfia root (Rauvolfia serpentina) Saffron stigma filaments (Crocus sativus) ** Senna leaf (Cassia angustifolia) — Conventional (Grade No. 1) — Certified organic ** Senna pod (Cassia angustifolia) — Conventional — Certified organic ** Turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa) * Wild Collected — ** Certified Organic Kurnool India India India India Cochin Vandan-Mettu Chennai India India Mumbai Gasa (Bhutan) Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Cochin India India India India: Sojat Road India India Kashmir India: India :

Price 0.38-0.89 0.57-0.79 0.18 1.24-2.0 0.09-0.11 1.66 4.22 1.15 0.18-0.23 1.13 0.68-0.94 4.43-6.64 1.4 0.46 0.55 0.96-1.19 1.01-1.8 2.26-4.4 0.45 0.59/0.76 3.6-4.9 2.2-2.3 585-615 0.33-0.4 0.50-0.75

Destination Andhra Pradesh Delhi Market Delhi Market Delhi Market Delhi Market Cochin Market Auction price Chennai Market Delhi Market Delhi Market Maharashtra Bhutan Mumbai Market Mumbai Market Mumbai Market Cochin Market Delhi Market Delhi Market Delhi Market Rajasthan Market FOB India Delhi Market C&F/Air FOR Gujarat FOB India FOR Gujarat FOB India Mumbai / Cochin

0.51 0.70 Mumbai / Cochin 0.58-1.2

Notes: (1) 2006 Psyllium Crop: We have received reports that, due to unseasonalable rains, there is significant damage to the current psyllium crop that is due to be harvested in April 2006. In the last few days, the prices for psyllium husk in India have increased significantly due to crop damage estimates. The pricing listed above does not reflect the sudden unstable pricing. (2) Quality Standards: Monographs providing quality standards and tests for most all of the above listed herbs can be found in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Parts I, II & III), as well as in the Standardisation of Single Drugs Used in Unani Medicine (Parts I, II & III) and/or the Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia Revised Edition 2002.


Product name: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name: Plant part used: Storage: DESCRIPTION Appearance: Raw Opium Papaver somniferum L. [Fam.: Papaveraceae] Opium crudum Air-dried latex obtained by incision from the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum L. Store in well-closed, light-resistant containers. Masses of various sizes which tend to be soft and shiny and, after drying, hard and brittle ; usually in somewhat irregularly shaped masses (natural opium) or moulded into masses of more unifrom size and shape (manipulated opium) Blackish-brown Strong and characteristic Very bitter As per Indian Pharmacopoeia monograph As per Indian Pharmacopoeia monograph As per Indian Pharmacopoeia monograph Not less than 10%, calculated with reference to the dried substance Not less than 2%, calculated with reference to the dried substance Not more than 3%, calculated with reference to the dried material Maximum 15.0% Maximum 6.0%

Color: Odor: Taste: IDENTIFICATION Macroscopic: Microscopic: Thin-layer chromatography: TESTS Morphine: Codeine: Thebaine: Loss on drying: Total ash:

Potential applications According to the Indian Pharmacopoeia, opium poppy latex is used as a narcotic analgesic. Crude opium is also used to make Opium Powder and Opium Tincture.

March 25-27, 2006 BOTANICAL PRODUCTS CONFERENCE & EXPO Venue: Birla Convention Centre, Statue Circle, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Contact: Natural Products Laboratories, Department Of Chemistry, University Of Rajasthan, J. L. N. Marg, Jaipur, India TEL: +(91)-(141)-3947611/+91-9414207830 FAX: +(91)-(141)-2706142 WEB: Exhibitor profile: Botanical raw materials & supply-related products, herbal extracts, nutraceuticals, spice oleoresins, essential oils, aroma chemicals, natural fragrances, cosmaceuticals, encapsulation equipment, environmentally safe products, nutritional drinks, culinary herbs and spices, organic botanical products, natural personal care, spa products, dental care, fragrances, water products, traditional herbal medicines (Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha & homeopathic).


May 5-7, 2006 AROGYA 2006 (Sri Lanka) Venue: BMICH, Convention Center, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Organizer: National Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka (NCCSL) in partnership with the Private Health Sector Development Unit of the Ministry of Health Contact: NCCSL Headquarters Building, 450, D.R. Wijewardana Mawatha, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka TEL: +94 11 2689603,5374801-3 FAX:+94 11 2689603 E-Mail: WEB: Exhibitor Profile: Herbal Product Producers & Distributors, Herbal Treatment, Pharmaceutical Companies, Health Care Centres, Equipment Producers & Importers, Hotels (Herbal), and more. May 23-26, 2006 IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS Venue: Raipur (Exact venue to be notified later) Sponsor: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO-CIMAP, Near Kukrail Picnic Spot, Lucknow - 226 015, India TEL: +91-522-2359623 FAX: +91-522-2342666 E-MAIL: WEB: May 24-28, 2006 SEMINAR ON MEDICAL RESEARCH AUTHENTICATION ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AND DIVERSITY OPTIONS FOR PEOPLE ACTION Venue: Imphal (Manipur) Sponsor: Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, Post Box 4911, New Delhi-110029 Contact: Dr. S.I. Singh, Secretary & Principal Investigator, Medicinal-Non Medicinal Plants Conservation and Research centre, Kangla Sangomsang, Imphal East District, P.O. Lamlong - 795010 (Manipur) WEB: July 17-20, 2006 IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS Venue: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO-CIMAP, Near Kukrail Picnic Spot, Lucknow - 226 015, India TEL: +91-522-2359623 FAX: +91-522-2342666 E-MAIL: WEB: September 12-15, 2006 IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS Venue: Gandhinagar, Gujarat (Exact venue to be notified later) Sponsor: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO-CIMAP, Near Kukrail Picnic Spot, Lucknow - 226 015, India TEL: +91-522-2359623 / FAX: +91-522-2342666 E-MAIL: WEB: November 13-16, 2006 IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS Venue: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO-CIMAP, Near Kukrail Picnic Spot, Lucknow - 226 015, India / TEL: +91-522-2359623 / FAX: +91-522-2342666 E-MAIL: WEB:


REGIONAL NETWORK FOR MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAPN) OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA (AARENINA) The regional network of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPN) has a new website: MAPN was comprised initially from national research institutions in AARINENA region. The International and Regional organizations which have interest in promoting medicinal and herbal plant production or processing as well as donor countries and the private sector, including all stakeholders in the medicinal and herbal chain from cultivation to processing and marketing, may also join the network as members. The network has been established as a partnership among all the different bodies and stakeholders in each of the participating member countries that are involved in any manner throughout the overall medicinal plant chain, starting from cultivation and production to processing, marketing, and research and funding support and include: NGOs, Private Sector, Research Institutions (Both Governmental and Non- Governmental) and universities as well as other national and international supporting organizations. Northern Africa MAPN focal points include: q q q

Egypt: Prof. Dr. M.S.A. Safwat, Chairman of the Board (MAPN) of (AARINENA), TEL: 02/5250310 / MOBILE: 012/3236751 / E-MAIL: Morocco: Dr. Mohamed Boutfirass, E-MAIL: Sudan: Dr. Awatif A. Siribel, E-MAIL:

SOURCE: MHP Network Secretariat, National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), P.O.Box 639 –Baqa 19381,- AMMAN- Jordan, E-MAIL:, TEL: 00962 6 4725071 /299, FAX: 00962 6 4726099, WEB:

AFRICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE CITES PLANTS COMMITTEE AGENDA FOR JULY MEETING Two high demand African medicinal plants will be on the agenda at the 16th meeting of the Plants Committee of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to be held in Lima, Peru, from 3-8 July 2006 at Swissôtel Lima, Vía Central 150, Centro Empresarial Real, San Isidro, Lima, Peru. On the agenda are devil’s claw secondary roots (Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. and/or H. zeyheri L. DECNE.) and hoodia ( Hoodia gordonii (M ASSON) SWEET ex DECNE .) More information on the Implementation of the Annotation for Hoodia spp. agenda point can be accessed at: Parties interested in knowing more about these agenda points may contact either the Secretariat or the Chairman directly at the following address: Prof. Dra. Margarita Clemente Muñoz, Chairman of the CITES Plants Committee, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba Avda. de Linneo s/n, E-14004 CORDOBA, Spain, TEL: +34.957.200077, FAX: +34.957.295333, E -MAIL: In related news the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) has adopted a new trade recommendation for Hoodia gordonnii raw materials and finished products containing Hoodia gordonii: “AHPA recommends that, to be consistent with federal labeling regulations at 21 CFR 101.4(h), the common or usual name for Hoodia gordonii is “Hoodia gordonii;” and the part of the plant should be accurately identified, and usually consists of parts that should be described as “aerial parts” or “aboveground parts.” Further, any use of the long-established herbal extract ratio terminology, stated as a ratio of two numbers (e.g., “20:1”), must be consistent with established practice and with AHPA’s Guidance for Retail Labeling of Dietary Supplements Containing Soft or Powdered Extracts, such that the first number in any such ratio must represent the amount of dehydrated starting plant material and the second number must represent the amount of a finished extract; and further, that such ratios should not be used on any product that is not, in fact, an extract.”
SOURCES: (1) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Sixteenth meeting of the Plants Committee, Lima, Peru, 3-8 July 2006. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES:; (2) American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). AHPA Code of Ethics and Business Contact. Silver Spring, MD: AHPA. January 2006:


INVESTMENT IN CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE AGENDA AT THE FIRST AFRICA HERBAL ANTIMALARIA MEETING The 1st Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting takes place 20-22 March 2006, at ICRAF House, Nairobi, Kenya. See « Meetings and Trade Shows » section for details. Meeting objectives are to encourage greater collaborative research and development and to facilitate investment in the cultivation, processing, testing, manufacturing, and distribution of safe and effective herbal antimalarials, including the production and processing of Artemisia. These objectives can be achieved, in part, by identifying issues affecting the conservation, cultivation and production of potent medicinal plant species relevant to malaria treatment, encouraging appropriate investment in the growing, processing and distribution of herbal antimalarials, and developing appropriate Africa-wide quality control and quality assurance standards for cultivation, production and distribution of herbal antimalarials. The meeting schedule will include topics such as standards and specifications (GAP / GMP), marketing and marketing strategies, market size (demand, supply and pricing), sourcing of raw material (qualtiy, quantity and consistency), technology transfer and finance and investment. Meeting sessions of relevance to the medicinal herb trade in Africa include: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), ICRAFs medicinal plants programme Anthony Simons Kenya The CDE herbal programme in Africa Problems of commercialisation of herbals in Africa Henriette DodetMalenge Ulrich Feiter Centre for the Development of Enterprise (CDE), Belgium Parceval, South Africa Antony Ellman Consulting, UK Association for African Medicinal Plant Standards (AAMPS), Mauritius Advanced Bio Extract, Kenya BIONEXX, Madagascar Traditional Medicines Centre, Mali Pharmacy and Poisons Board, Kenya

Cultivation of Artemisia annua – Links Antony Ellman to the market AAMPS, developing the potential of African medicinal plants Progress on Artemisia production in East Africa Products from Madagascar Products from Mali Kobus Eloff Lisa Amenya / Barney Gaston Charles Giblain Chiaka Diakite

Market/product and regulatory issues Joseph Yano in Kenya Excursion to plantations Import and distribution – a businessman's point of view

Jonathan Muriuki / ICRAF / Natural U O. Icharia Victor Attufua Vicdoris Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Ghana ICRAF, Kenya

Herbal cultivation and agro-business – Anthony Simons Mini presentations

SOURCE: Center for the Development of Enterprise (CDE). Africa Herbal Antimalarial Meeting March 20th to 22nd 2006.

MOROCCO As one result of a 3-day stakeholder workshop that took place in Fès, Morocco in September 2005, “Valorization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) – Higher Quality and New Markets” (For details, see MNS 17, December 2005), a survey of MAP producers has been undertaken in order to determine current availabilities of exportable botanical raw materials for the world market. See Table 1 (next page) for a listing of herbs sorted by English common name with Latin botanical names, harmonized system (HS) tariff codes, and quantities presently available, if known, and certified organic or non-organic designation. To obtain more details on the specific Moroccan companies and their current lists of product offerings, contact Mr. EL ASRI Aboubakr at


TABLE 1: 2006 Availability of Moroccan MAPS Herb Name / Botanical Name / HS Tariff Code / Quantities Available HERB NAME BOTANICAL NAME HS CODE Artichoke leaf Cynara scolymus 1211909090 Basil herb Ocimum basilicum 1211909040 Carob fruit Ceratonia siliqua 121210 Celery fruit Apium graveolens 09109911 Chaste tree fruit Vitex agnus-castus 1211909090 Cilantro leaf Coriandrum sativum ?? Cumin seed Cuminum cyminum 09093021 English lavender flower Lavandula angustifolia 1211909090 Eucalyptus leaf Eucalyptus globulus 1211909090 Fenugreek seed Trigonella foenum-graecum 09109912 & 09109924 Juniper fruit Juniperus communis 09095021 Lemon verbena leaf Aloysia triphylla 1211909090 Oregano leaf Origanum vulgare 1211909090 Rock rose leaf Rosemary leaf Sage leaf Spearmint leaf Thyme herb Cistus incanus Rosmarinus officinalis Salvia officinalis Mentha spicata Thymus vulgaris 1211909090 12119094 1211909050 12119020 & 12119040 09104020 & 09104030

QUANTITIES 120+ tons: non-org 20+ tons: non-org 300+ tons: non-org 20+ tons: non-org 100 tons: non-org 10 tons: non org 35 tons: non-org 100+ tons: non-org 20+ tons: non-org 90+ tons: non-org 20 tons: organic 160+ tons: non-org 82+ tons: non-org 105+ tons: non-org 1+ ton: organic 26+ tons: non-org 250+ tons: non-org 90+ tons: non-org 1+ ton: organic 240+ tons: nonorganic

SOURCES: Agriculture Partnerships for Productivity and Prosperity (AP3). Mr. ZAHIRI Fouad, and Mr. EL ASRI Aboubakr, E-MAIL:

BOTANICAL RAW MATERIALS & EXTRACTS (Indicative prices: US $ / kg) Product Source Price Caraway fruit essential oil Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) Clove flower bud (Syzygium aromaticum) Fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgare) — conventional — conventional — certified organic ** Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) — conventional — certified organic ** Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Gum arabic (Acacia senegal; Acacia seyal) Egypt Madagascar Madagascar Egypt: 95 1.15 3.17 0.8 1.477 1.34-1.47 0.6 1.44 1.45 1.82 4.2 4.8 1.4-1.5 225-240 5.2-5.3 6 1.3 1.7 65.8-75.0

Destination fwd FOB CIF Europe CIF Europe CIF Europe Spot New York CFR Europe ports CIF Europe CFR Europe ports CIF Europe Spot New York CIF Europe ports FOB Kurdufan FOB Dakar FOB Eastern USA FOB Eastern USA CIF North America Spot New York Spot New York FOB Eastern USA

Hibiscus flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Hoodia gordonii extract (20:1) Rooibos herb (Aspalathus linearis) — conventional cultivated — cultivated, certified organic & fair trade certified** Rosemary leaf (Rosmarinus officinalis) Morocco Thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris) Morocco Yohimbe bark, 8% yohimbine (Pausinystalia johimbe) West Africa
** Certified Organic — * Wild Collected

Morocco Egypt Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Sudan Senegal South Africa South Africa:


Quality Standards: Official monographs providing quality standards and tests for most the above listed botanical raw materials can be found in either the Egyptian Pharmacopoeia (3rd edition, 1984; available in Arabic and English editions), the Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1992), and/or the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur 5th edition 2005).

BOTANICAL PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS RED POPPY PETAL — a product of MOROCCO Product name: Botanical name: Pharmacopoeial name: Plant part used: Storage: DESCRIPTION Color: Odor: Taste: IDENTIFICATION Macroscopic: Microscopic: Thin-layer chromatography: TESTS Colouring capacity: Foreign matter: Loss on drying: Total ash: MICROBIOLOGICAL Total viable aerobic count Total molds and yeast Escherichia coli Red Poppy Petal Papaver rhoeas L. [Fam.: Papaveraceae] Papaveris rhoeados flos Dried, whole or fragmented petals Store in a well-closed container protected from light and moisture. Do not store for longer than one year since the petal color fades. Dark reddish violet Almost odorless Slightly bitter and somewhat mucilaginous As per PhEur monograph As per PhEur monograph As per PhEur monograph As per PhEur monograph; The absorbance measured at 523 nm is not less than 0.6 Maximum 2.0% fragments of capsules and maximum 1.0% of other foreign matter Not more than 12.0% Not more than 11.0% Not more than 107 per gram Not more than 105 per gram Not more than 102 per gram

March 20-22, 2006 THE AFRICA HERBAL ANTIMALARIAL MEETING Venue: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) House, Nairobi, Kenya Sponsors: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), EU ACP Centre for Development Enterprise (CDE), The World Bank, The Association for the Promotion of traditional Medicine (PROMETRA) Contacts : Dr Anthony Simons, ICRAF, P.O. Box 30677 – 00100, Tel +254 20 7224151, Tel +254 20 7224255, Nairobi, Kenya E-MAIL: / WEB: Mr. Denzil Philips, Denzil Phillips International Ltd, 25 Stanmore Gardens, Richmond, Surrey TW9 2HN; United Kingdom, Tel (44) 20 8940 4100, Fax (44) 20 8948 2673 E-MAIL: / WEB: Ms. Stella Muasya, ICRAF, P.O. Box 30677 – 00100, Tel +254 20 7224229, Tel +254 20 7224255 Nairobi, Kenya / E-MAIL:


April 9-10. 2006 EAST AFRICAN ORGANIC PAVILION AT NATURAL PRODUCTS EUROPE Venue: Grand Hall Olympia, Lond, UK, EPOPA Organic From Africa Pavillion Stand: 2351 Contact: Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa (EPOPA), c/o AgroEco, P.O. Box 63, NL-6720 AB Benekom, The Netherlands, Deepa van Staalduine, TEL: +31 318-420 405, FAX: +31 318-414 820, E-MAIL:, WEB: October 3-7, 2006 THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM & EXHIBITION ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF AFRICAN BOTANICA TO HUMANITY Venue: Hôtel Nimba, N'Zérékoré, Republic of Guinea, West Africa Sponsors : Université pour le Développement Communautaire de Guinée (UDECOM), Société Internationale Science Horticole (SISH), LYCEUM/INAABD, Groupe Kamosale Inc, Collections Canada Contact: Dr. Kenneth Keirstead or Dr. Nianga Malo, Co-Chairs, ISHS Symposium, 541 Charlotte Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 1M1, Canada E-MAIL: (English) / (French) TEL: (819) 246-1333 (French) / (506) 455-4110 (English) WEB: Program will include scientific presentations on products from African botanicals: Medicinal plants, Essential oil products & Medicinal/functional foods. There will be a workshop on commercialization of botanical products, a panel presentation & discussion on the environment and ecology, community development implications, intellectual property, & research potential in Africa. November 27 – December 1, 2006 IFEAT CONFERENCE 2006: The Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Ocean: Production and the Market in the region Venue: Arabella Sheraton Hotel, Cape Town, South Africa Sponsor: International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT) Contact: IFEAT Secretariat, GAFTA House, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London EC2A 3SH E-MAIL: / TEL: +44 (0) 207 729 5904 / FAX: +44 (0) 207 814 8383 WEB: December 10-12, 2006 MIDDLE EAST NATURAL & ORGANIC PRODUCTS EXPO 2005 Venue: Grand Hyatt International Convention Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Support: The UAE Ministry of Health, UAE Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries, The Zayed Complex for Herbal Research & Traditional Medicine (UAE Ministry of Health), and (France), and Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, among others. Contact: Global Links, PO Box, 86882, Dubai, United Arab Emirates TEL: 971-4-268-6010 / FAX: 971-4-268-6026 / E-MAIL: WEB: Exhibitor profile: Herbs & spices, herbal extracts, herbal teas & coffees, phytopharmaceutical products, traditional medicines (Ayurveda, Homeopathic, Naturopathic), dietary supplements, organic foods, natural juice, aromatherapy products.


HERB OR EXTRACT American ginseng root PE Amla fruit PE Andrographis herb PE Arnica flower SE Artemisia Essential Oil Artichoke leaf PE Ashwaghanda root PE Asian ginseng root PE Bacopa herb PE Bilberry fruit Black cohosh rhizome PE Black currant dry extract Boswellia serrata PE California poppy herb Chaste tree fruit Chaste tree fruit Chaste tree fruit extract Chinese hawthorn fruit PE Cinnamon bark PE Cola nut Coriander fruit Essential Oil Corydalis Yanhusuo Tuber Cranberry fruit dry conc Damask Rose Essential Oil Danggui root PE Devil’s claw root PE Echinacea herb & root PE Echinacea root PE Eleuthero root PE Epimedium herb PE European vervain Fennel fruit Fenugreek seed Fenugreek seed PE Feverfew leaf PE Flax seed Garcinia fruit extract Garlic bulb granules Garli c bulb PE Ginger rhizome PE Ginkgo leaf PE Goldenseal rhizome Gotu kola herb PE Grape fruit PE Greater celandine herb Green tea leaf PE Griffonia seed Guarana seed PE Guggul resin PE Gynostemma herb PE Henna leaf Hibiscus flower Holarrhena bark / root Hop strobile PE REGION North America India India Western Europe India / Nepal Western Europe India Japan India Eastern Europe North America Western Europe India USA Eastern Europe Africa Western Europe China China Africa North America China North America Eastern Europe China Western Europe North America Western Europe China China Africa Africa Africa India Western Europe North America India North America China China Japan North America India Eastern Europe Eastern Europe China Africa Western Europe India China Africa Africa Africa North America MNS EDITION MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 16 – September 2005 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 1 – September 2001 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 6 – March 2003 MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 11 – June 2004 MNS 16 – September 2005 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 17 – December 2005 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 16 – September 2005 MNS 16 – September 2005 MNS 1: Sept 2001 / MNS 16: Sept 2005 MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 7 – June 2003 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 16 – September 2005 MNS 17 – December 2005 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 11 – June 2004 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 2 – March 2002 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 2 – March 2002 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 2 – March 2002 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 9 – December 2003 MNS 1: Sept 2001 / MNS 6: March 2003 MNS 10 – March 2004 MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 17 – December 2005 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 10 – March 2004

Ivy leaf PE Juniper fruit Essential Oil Kohki leaf Lavender flower Essen Oil Lemon balm leaf PE Licorice root PE Licorice root PE Maca hypocotyl PE Maté leaf PE Meadowsweet herb Milk thistle fruit PE Neem leaf PE Nettle root PE Olive leaf PE Opium poppy latex Peony root Pepper fruit PE Peppermint leaf Essent Oil Pomegranate fruit PE Psyllium husk Red clover herb PE Red poppy extract Red poppy petals Reishi mushroom PE Rhatany root FE Rooibos leaf PE Rosemary leaf Essent Oil Rosemary leaf PE Safed musli root Sage leaf Saw palmetto fruit SE Schisandra fruit PE Sea buckthorn fruit PE Senna pod Senna pod & leaf PE Spearmint leaf St. John’s Wort herb PE Stinging nettle root Sweet wormwood herb EO Sweet wormwood leaf PE Tribulus fruit PE Tribulus root PE Uva ursi leaf PE Valerian root Valerian root PE White tea leaf PE Wild cherry bark FE Wild yam root PE Willow bark PE Yarrow herb Essent Oil

Western Europe Eastern Europe Japan Eastern Europe Western Europe China Japan Peru Western Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Europe India Western Europe Western Europe India Japan India North America Western Europe India North America Western Europe Africa China North America Western Europe Africa North America India Eastern Europe North America China China Africa India Africa Western Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Europe China India / China Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Europe China North America North America Western Europe Eastern Europe

MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 10 – March 2004 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 12 – September 2004 MNS 7 – June 2003 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 1 – September 2001 MNS 17 – December 2005 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 1: September 2001 / MNS 7: June 2003 MNS 7 – June 2003 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 11 – June 2004 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 2 – March 2002 MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 11 – June 2004 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 10 – March 2004 MNS 6 – March 2003 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 18 – March 2006 MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 10 – March 2004 MNS 1 - September 2001 MNS 17 – December 2005 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 6 – March 2003 MNS 7 – June 2003 MNS 6 – March 2003 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 11 – June 2004 MNS 10 – March 2004 MNS 15 – June 2005 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 14 – March 2005 MNS 2: March 2002 / MNS 17: December 2005 MNS 6 – March 2003 MNS 2 – March 2002 MNS 3 – June 2002 MNS 4 – September 2002 MNS 8 – September 2003 MNS 13 – December 2004 MNS 7 – June 2003 MNS 5 – December 2002 MNS 11 – June 2004

MNS provides a global directory of herb trade associations, collectives, councils, and export promotion organizations that represent the growers, wild collectors, p roducers, and traders of botanical raw materials, extracts and oils, and other herbal products. To add your association contact details, or to update or correct the below-listed details, please contact ITC Consultant, Josef Brinckmann at : TEL / FAX: +01.707.829.0994 or

Agribusiness in Sustainable Natural African Plant Products (ASNAPP), GHANA - M.B. (18) Kanda, Accra H/NO C 205/29, Mempeasem, East Legon, Accra, Mr. Dan Acquaye, TEL: +233 21 505-617, FAX: +233 21505-617, E-MAIL: or WEB: Association for African Medicinal Plants Standards (AAMPS), SOUTH AFRICA - Prof Kobus Eloff, Phytomedicine Programme, University of Pretoria, E-MAIL: or Denzil Phillips, CDE Associate Expert Herbals and Pharmaceuticals. E-MAIL: WEB: Association Marocaine pour le Développement des Plantes Aromatiques et Médicinales (ADEPAM), MOROCCO - ABOULKACEM Hassan, IAV Hassan II, DIA, BP. 6202, Rabat-Instituts Association Tunisienne des Plantes Médicinales, TUNISIA, Hammam Sousse, FAX: 71.783.928 Association pour le développement des plantes aromatiques et médicinales (ADPAM), MOROCCO - Mrs. ZRIRA Saadia / TEL: 037.77.1745 / E-mail: Association Taounate des Plantes Aromatiques et Médicinales, MOROCCO - Mrs. TAYEBI Saida, TEL: 055.68.8747 / E-MAIL: Assila Medicinal and Aromatic Plant — AL AMAL Association, MOROCCO - Mlle. EL BOUAANANI Malika, CELL: 072 69 84 26 Devil’s Claw Working Group, NAMIBIA - Dave Cole, PO Box 23778, Windhoek, TEL: +061–220117, FAX: +061–232293, E-MAIL: WEB: Egyptian Society for the Producers, Manufacturers and Exporters of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ESMAP), EGYPT - Dr. Farouk Elshobaki, 1 Elhefnawy St., Fatma Roshdi St., Elharam, Elgiza, TEL: +202 38 69 898, FAX: +202 38 41 120, Mobile: 012 / 3101839, E-MAIL / WEB: Egyptian Spices and Herb Export Development Association (ESHEDA), EGYPT Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Association (rural farms and biodiversity) ASSILA, MORROCO - Mlle. ZALLAL Bahia, CELL: 065 35 69 93 Phyto Trade Africa – The Southern African Natural Products Trade Association (SANPTA), ZIMBABWE - PO Box BE 385, Belvedere, Harare, TEL: +263-91-264-107, FAX: +263-4-723-037 E-MAIL: WEB: Regional Medicinal & Herbal Plants Network (MHPN) of the Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA), EGYPT - Dr. M.S.A. Safwat, Tel: 02/5250310, Fax: 02/6329253, Mobile: 012/3236751 E-MAIL:

Union of Producers and Exporters of Horticultural Crops (UPEHC), EGYPT - Ministry of Agriculture Building, Dokky, Giza, TEL: +20 (2) 337-2402 760-0986, FAX: +20 (2) 749-3471 E-MAIL: WEB:

Australian Ginseng Growers Association (AGGA), P.O. Box 250, GEMBROOK, VIC 3783 AUSTRALIA, TEL +61 3 5968 1321, FAX +61 3 5968 1119, E-MAIL: WEB: Australian Tea Tree Industry Association (ATTIA), PO Box 20, Tweed Heads NSW 2485, Australia, TEL : +61 (02) 66742925, FAX: +61 (02) 66742475, E-mail: WEB : The Australian Lavender Growers' Association Inc (TALGA), The Secretary TALGA Inc, PO Box 1296, Richmond North Victoria, 3121 Australia, E-MAIL: WEB:

Business Promotion Council for Herbal Sector of the Bangladesh Export Promotion Bureau, Dhaka, 1215, Bangladesh, TEL: 880-2-9144821-3, FAX: 880-2-9119531 E-MAIL: Federation of Indian Herbal Industry (FIHI), New No 41, Circular Road, United India Colony, Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600 024. Tamil Nadu, INDIA, TEL: 91-44-24803291 / 24818877 / FAX: 9144-24724427 / E-MAIL: / WEB: Herbal Farmers Association, Guntakal, Hanumesh Nagar, 20/1483, Guntakal, Andhra Pradesh, India, 515 801 Herbs & Herbal Export Promotion Association of India (HHEPAI) of the Indo Overseas Chamber of Commerce & Industry (IOCCI), 609, Chetak Centre, 12/2 RNT, Marg, Indore 452 001 INDIA, TEL: +91-731-2435003-4, 2526840-1, FAX: +91-731-2435003, 2524111 E-MAIL: WEB: Herbs & NTFP Coordination Committee of the Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources (ANSAB), Mr. Bhishma P. Subedi, P.O. Box 11035, Kathmandu, Nepal TEL: (977-01)-4497547/4478412, FAX:(977-01)-4476586 E-MAIL: WEB: Indian Society for Spices, WEB: Malabar Herbs & Musli Growers Society (Regd), Abraham Kurian, Treasurer, T.C.4/1082, Kripa Bhavan, R.P.Lane, A-7, Kawadiar.P.O, Trivandrum Dist; Kerala. Pincode: 695003, TEL: +91.471.5538863, +91.471.2437185, MOBILE: +91.989.5187185, FAX: +91.471.2316314 E-MAIL: WEB: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program in Asia (MAPPA), Madhav Karki, Ph.D., IDRC/SARO, 208 Jor Bagh Rd, New Delhi, 110 003, India, TEL. (91-11) 24619411 ext. 104 / FAX. (91-11) 24622707 E-MAIL: WEB:

National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Government of India Department of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathy WEB: Nepal Herbs and Herbal Products Association (NEHHPA), Contact: Bhaweshwor Das, general secretary Samagra Adivasi Medicinal Plants Development Association (SAMPDA) D.N.K. Colony Kondagaon – 494226, Baster (Chhattisgarh), India, TEL: (07786) 242506, FAX: (07786) 242980 E-MAIL: WEB: Spices Board of India (SBI), Government of India Ministry of Commerce WEB:

Associated Ginseng Growers of British Columbia (AGGBC), Box 241, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M2 Canada, TEL: (250) 545-4737, FAX: (250) 545-0479, E-MAIL: WEB: British Columbia Herb Growers Association (BCHGA), C/O 33511 Kinsale Place, Abbotsford, B.C., Canada V2S 8B2, Tel/Fax: 604.504.5990, E-mail: WEB: British Columbia Sea Buckthorn Growers Association, Box 471, Vernon, BC, Canada. V1T 6M4, TEL: (250) 542-1816, E-MAIL: WEB: Canadian Herb, Spice and Natural Health Products Coalition, c/o Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association (SHSA), Box 19 Phippen, Saskatchewan, TEL: 306.694.4622, FAX: 306.694.2182 E-MAIL: Canadian Spice Association (CSA), 885 Don Mills Road, Suite 301, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1V9 Canada, E-MAIL: WEB: Filière des plantes médicinales biologiques du Québec, C.P. 43, Magog (Québec) J1X 3W7 Canada, TEL: 819.847.2676, FAX: 819.847.1862, E-MAIL: WEB: Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Association of Manitoba, PO Box 20024, Selkirk, Manitoba R1A 1S0 Canada, TEL: (204) 766-2669, FAX: (204) 482-8667 National Herb and Spice Coalition (NHSC), c/o SHSA, Box 18 Phippen, Saskatchewan. S0k 3E0 Canada TEL: 306-694-4622, FAX: 306-694-2182, E-MAIL: WEB: Northern Alberta Herb Growers, 8716 - 112 Street, Fort Sask., AB T8L 2S8 Canada TEL: (780) 9974372) / FAX: (780) 998-0078 WEB: Ontario Ginseng Growers Association, 191 Queensway West, Unit 2, Simcoe, Ontario N3Y 2MB Canada, TEL: (519) 426-7046 / FAX: (519) 426-9087 / E-MAIL: WEB: Ontario Herb Growers and Marketers Initiative, E-mail WEB:

Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association (SHSA), Box 19 Phippen, Sask. S0K 3E0 Canada, E-MAIL: WEB: Western Canadian Organic Herb and Spice Association, T0A 2R0 Canada, TEL: (780) 909-1634, FAX: (780) 942-3992 E-mail: PO Box 16, Opal, Alberta

Caribbean Herbal Business Association (CHBA), 3 Herbert Street, St. Clair, Port of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies, TEL: (868) 628-4403 / FAX: (868) 628-4562 WEB:

China Chamber of Commerce of Medicines & Health Products Importers & Exporters (MHPIE) WEB: International Seabuckthorn Association, Mr. Lu Shunguang, E-MAIL: WEB: Modernized Chinese Medicine International Association, Hong Kong G.P.O. Box 5301, TEL: 24922713, FAX: 2906-9330, E-MAIL: WEB:

Albanian Spice and Herbal Trade Association (ASHTA), Contact details not available Asociación Catalana de Productores de Plantas Aromáticas y Medicinales (ACPPAM), Cataluña, España, E-MAIL: Asociación Española de Fabricantes de Preparados Alimenticios Especiales, Dietéticos y Plantas Medicinales (AFEPADI), C/ Aragón, 208-210 Atico 4ª 08011 – Barcelona, Spain, TEL: 93.454.87.25, FAX: 93.451.31.55, E-MAIL: WEB: Association for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries (AMAPSEEC), Tadeuša Košcuška 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, TEL: (+38111) 3031-653, FAX: (+38111) 3031-649, E-MAIL: WEB: Association Medicinal Herbs, Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Department of Branch Associations, Branislava Ðurdeva 10, BIH-7100 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina TEL: +387 33 667 941, FAX: +387 33 214 292 E-MAIL: or British Herb Trade Association (BHTA), 133 Eastgate, Louth, Lincolnshire, LN11 9QG United Kingdom, TEL: 01507 602427 (Tim Mudge), FAX: 01507 600689, E-MAIL: WEB: Bulgarian National Association Essential Oils, Perfumery & Cosmetics (BNAEOPC), 93 Maritza Blvd., Plovdiv 4003 Bulgaria, TEL/FAX: +359 32 96 78 35; +359 32 96 78 34 E-MAIL: WEB:

Erzeugerring für Heil- & Gewürzpflanzen in Bayern e.V., Tal 35, 80331 München, Germany, Contact: Herr Hans Möser, TEL: +49 089-29006316 / FAX: +49 089-29006320 E-MAIL: WEB: European Herb Growers Association (EHGA), Clakenweg 132, 8081 LZ Elburg, The Netherlands, FAX: + 31 (0)525 680 851 / E-MAIL: WEB: European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA), Gotenstr. 21, 20097 Hamburg, Germany, TEL: ++4940-23 60 16 14 / FAX: ++49-40-23 60 16 10 / E-MAIL: WEB: Federazione Italiana dei Produttori di Piante Officinali (FIPPO), c/o Istituto Sperimentale per l'Assestamento Forestale e per l'Alpicoltura (ISAFA), Piazza Nicolini, 6, 38050 Villazzano di Trento, Italy, TEL: 0461.381141 / FAX: 0461.381131 / E-MAIL: WEB: Gesellschaft der Freunde und Förderer des Sanddorns, Sanddorn e.V., Hasenheide 56, D – 10967 Berlin, Germany, TEL : +49-33438-14724, FAX : +49-33438-14720, E-MAIL: WEB : International Council for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ICMAP), E-MAIL: WEB: International Federation of Essential oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT), Gafta House, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London EC2A 3SH, United Kingdom, TEL: +44 20 7729 5904, FAX: +44 20 7814 8383, E-MAIL: WEB: International Hop Growers Convention (IHGC), P.O. Box 51, SI-3310 Zalec, Slovenia, TEL: + 386.3712.1618, FAX: + 386.3712.1620, E-MAIL: WEB: Italian branch organisation of herbal traders (FEI), F.E.I. Federazione Erboristi Italiani 00153 Roma - P.zza G.G. Belli, 2 Italy, TEL: 0655280704 – 065866409, E-mail: WEB: Italian association of farmers, harvesters, transformers, importers, exporters, wholesalers and agents of medicinal and aromatic plants and spices (Assoerbe), Unione del Commercio, del Turismo e dei Servizi della Provincia di Mila, Corso Venezia, 47/49 – 2021 Milano (MM1 – Palestro) Italy, TEL: +39.02.7750575 / FAX: +39.02.76005543 WEB: Latvian Herb Growers Association, Raina Str.6-49 Kraslava LV-5601 Latvia E-MAIL Office National Interprofessionnel de Plantes a Parfum Aromatiques et Medicinales (ONIPPAM) BP 8 - 04130 VOLX, France, TEL: 04 9279 3446 / FAX: 04 9279 3322 / E-MAIL: WEB: Romanian Association of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Growers & Manufacturers (RAMAPGM) 176, Bd. G. Moroianu, Sacele, Brasov, Romania 2212, TEL / FAX: +40 68 273 766 E-MAIL: The Association and Product Board for Herbs (GYSZT), Hungary. WEB: The Association For the International Promotion of Gums (AIPG), Secretariat at WGA Hamburg e.V. (HARZVEREIN), Gotenstraße 21 D-20097 Hamburg City Süd

TEL: +49 (0)40 23 60 16 13/15, FAX: +49 (0) 40 23 60 16 10, E-MAIL: WEB: The Management Association and Product Board for Herbs, Dr. Miklós GYARMATI (President), H1118 Budapest, Ménesi út 44, Hungary, TEL / FAX: (+36-1) 372-6200/6477. WEB: Verein für Arznei- und Gewürzpflanzen, SALUPLANTA e.V., Prof.-Oberdorf-Siedlung D-06406 Bernburg, Germany, FAX: +49 03471 640 332, E-MAIL: WEB: 16

WKF Wirtschaftsvereinigung Kräuterund Früchtetee e.V., Gotenstrasse 21 D-20097 Hamburg City Süd, Germany, TEL: +49-40-23 60 16 19, FAX: +49-40-23 60 16 10/11/40, EMAIL: WEB:

Siberian Association of Natural Products (SANP), Mr. Valery Ovchinnikov, TEL : 011-7-3912-495572 or 011-7-3912-495929, E-MAIL: partner@forestproject.krs.ruregards or WEB :

Asociación Agroartesanal de Productores de plantas secas medicinales del Ecuador (AAPPSME), Contact: Ing. Orlando Cadme or Srta. Oliva Chuncho, Ramon Pinto entre Diez de Agosto y Jose Antonio Eguiguren / TEL/FAX: ++593 7 2 583 173 E-MAIL: Asociación de Productores de Maca Ecológica, Luis Oswaldo Castillo Huerta, Presidente, Jr. San Martin Nº 588, Junín, Perú, TEL: +51-64-34-4060 E-MAIL: Carabotija Association of Producers of Medicinal Plants, Contact: Ms. María Resfa Guatemal, No. 1 Barrio Carabotija, Olmedo, Cayambe-Ecuador, TEL: ++593.2.2115064 / 2362240 E-MAIL: JAMBI KIWA Association of Chimborazo Producers of Medicinal Plants, Contact: Ms. Rosa Guzmán or Mr. Wiliber Ibarra, Km 1.5 Santa Cruz, Yaruqui parish, Riobamba-Ecuador, FAX: ++ 593 3 2960678 / 2951026 / E-MAIL: WEB: Peruvian Institute of Natural Products (Instituto Peruano de Productos Naturales), Ms. Alejandra Velazco / Ms. Jocelyn Ostolaza TEL: (511) 435-9377 EXT: 281, E-Mail: WEB:

American Botanical Council (ABC), PO Box 144345, Austin, Texas 78714-4345 USA, TEL: (512) 9264900 | FAX: (512) 926-2345 | E-MAIL: WEB: American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), 8484 Georgia Ave., Suite 370, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 USA, TEL: (301) 588-1171, FAX: (301) 588-1174, E-MAIL: WEB:

American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), 2025 M Street, NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036 USA, TEL: 202-367-1127, FAX: 202-367-2127, E-MAIL: WEB: ‘Awa (Kava) Development Council WEB: Great Plains Herb Growers Association (GPHGA), 908 W. 20th Terrace, PO Box 4422, Lawrence, Kansas 66046 USA, TEL: 785-841-9241, FAX: 785-841-4975, E-MAIL: WEB: Hop Growers of America (HGA), P.O. Box 9218 Yakima, Washington 98909 USA WEB: Hop Growers of Washington (HGW), P.O. Box 1207, Moxee, WA 98936 USA, TEL: 609.453-4749 / FAX: 509.457.8581 E-MAIL: International Aloe Science Council (IASC), 415 East Airport Freeway Suite 365, Irving, Texas 75062 USA, TEL: (972) 258-8772, FAX: (972) 258-8777, E-Mail: WEB: New Mexico Herb Growers Association (NMHGA), Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, Contact: Charles Martin, 505.852.4241, E-MAIL North Carolina Herb Association (NCHA), 455 Research Drive, Fletcher, North Carolina 28732 USA. TEL: 828-684-3562, E-MAIL: WEB: Northwest Ginseng Growers Association (NGGA), 4820 NE 306th Circle, La Center, Washington 98629 USA WEB: Roots of Appalachia Growers Association (RAGA), 33560 Beech Grove Road, Rutland , Ohio 45775 USA, TEL: 740-742-4401, E-MAIL: WEB: Sequim Lavender Growers Association (SLGA), 55 Parrish Road, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA, WEB: West Virginia Herb Association (WVHA), 1289 Smoke Camp Road, Weston, West Virginia 26452 USA, TEL: 304.269.6416 WEB:

Monthly Cut flowers and Ornamental Young Plants Market trends in Europe, events, price review, regular features 65 varieties in 4 Asian markets (Cut Flowers) 94 varieties in 11 European markets (Cut Flowers) 45 varieties in 5 European markets (Young Plants) Fresh Tropical and Off-Season Fruit and Vegetables Some 85 tropical and off-season products in: 11 European markets Pharmaceutical Starting Materials/Essential Drugs 300 most used substances in the production of essential drugs (generics) traded in major markets Fruit Juices Products alternating between selected European Markets and the United States market Medicinal Plants & Extracts A report covering various products in North America, Europe, India, China and Africa Spices Quoting 30 products in selected markets in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the United States






MARKET STUDIES 2005 - 2006
For information: Avocados Market Profile Chocolate Market Brief Cloves Market Brief Essential Jasmine Oil Market Brief Honey Market Brief Mangoes Market Profile Melons (excluding watermelons) Product Snapshot Methanol Market Brief Palm Hearts Market Brief Papayas Market Profile Radiators for Motor Vehicles Market Brief Rear-view Mirrors for Vehicles Market Brief Shea Butter Market Brief Tomatoes Market Brief Watermelons Market Brief Ylang-Ylang Market Brief

ITC: Your partner in trade development
Market News Service (MNS) Street address: ITC, 54-56 rue de Montbrillant, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland Telephone: +41-22-730-0234 Fax: +41-22 730-0577 E-mail: Internet: Postal address: ITC, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Herbal Tea

...economic condition and majority of the Filipino families have a small income so they cannot afford expensive or branded medicine. The researcher believed in the saying “Prevention is better than cure”, that is why she took the initiative of studying the acceptability of Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano leaves into herbal tea. Herbs are everywhere. They are available in a variety of forms; including fresh, dried, in tablets or capsules or in liquid form such as juice or tea. The leaves of Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano are abundantly found in the Philippines. The use of medicinal plants or herbs has been gaining popularity these past few years in the Philippines and worldwide as more clinical proof emerges that validates many of the age-old alternative medicines used by Filipino folks that have been passed on. The curative effects of the herbs were tested by traditional healers on their patient. The knowledge and skills on the curative application of any given herbal medicine has been handed down from generation to generation. In this study the researcher aims to produce Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano leaves into herbal tea. Background of the study Tea is known as the nature’s “wonder drug”. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world, exceeded only by the universal solvent – water. Tea is an integral part of everyday societal life in many of the world’s most populous countries. Ever wonder why the...

Words: 1035 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Current Market Situation of Herbal Tea in China

...Current Market Situation of Herbal Tea in China New product help to reduces internal heat (燥熱). For example, one product mention it use the nature herbals and lemon to solve this health problem. This product holds many events to promote their product in Southern China and Shanghai. Also, there are more and more herbal tea brand had been established in the market. SWOT Analysis Firstly, for the strengths, in the market of herbal tea, JDB has always been the market leader and its market share reached a high percentage of over 70%, its can be explained by the high recognition of the red can from the public good reputation of the quality and taste. Also, JDB gain a well brand image after success of PR campaign in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and contribution for earthquake. Moreover, it is the world Heritage Convention Organic Recipe of Herbal Teas. Lastly, they had did well brand building after they had changed the name to JDB, because of 99% of people in China had heard about JDB and about 70% of people in Chins had brand recognition about JDB. Secondly, for the weakness, it is lack of promotion of standing out the differences between JDB itself and the competitors also JDB do not have their unique benefit. Therefore, with a premium price, it cannot provide a strong reason that why the consumer need to choose JDB. On the other hand, it has a narrow range of products which are JDB herbal tea and Kunlun Mountains water. Thirdly, for the opportunities, there are......

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Aboca, Case Study

...A. COMPANY INTRODUCTION 1. History and development Deriving name form a beautiful Tuscan village in the Valtiberina, Aboca S.s. was founded by Valentino Mercati in 1978 and has grown to become the leading herbal company in Italy since then. Aboca S.s manufactures herbs from its organic farms and using both in-house technologies and those developed in collaboration with numerous Italian and foreign universities in order to develop a vertically integrated agro pharmaceutical product line. Today Aboca capacity can cultivates more than 1700 acres. The farming processes are guaranteed to be organic, seed selection, planting, fertilization, and pest control, harvesting and cleaning. Aboca is the only brand that can achieve the optimum level of active principles (an herbal component that induces the therapeutic effect) in its products whereas over 20 chemists arein charged in its manufacturing and quality control laboratories. By having its own marketing design department and direct sales force, there attractive product packaging, in-store displays and advertising props make Aboca a favored supplier to pharmacies and herbal shops. Now Aboca is the supplier for over 7000 retailers in Italy. Moreover, Aboca maintains its quality leadership with an investment of 10% of its revenue into research and development. Such investment has led tomany inventions in new product lines and manufacturing processes of the brand. Today, like 30 years ago, the focus of Aboca is still on......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Business Management

...Succession Plan * Shahnaz Husain is one of the most successful entrepreneurs in India. Her company, Shahnaz Husain Herbals is one of the largest manufacturers of herbal products in the world which has employed about 4200 people in 650 salons, spread across 104 countries. * She developed an interest in beauty treatments and decided to study cosmetology. She trained extensively in cosmetic therapy for 10 years in some of the leading institutes of London, Paris, New York and Copenhagen which provided a boost to her company. * She returned to India in the year 1977 and offered Ayurvedic method of treatment especially. The products were environment friendly which attracted a lot of Indians. * She achieved growth due to the quality of her products and the result-oriented treatment she offered. She commented, “I have relied only on clientele feedback, based on clinical treatments and this is what has made the ranges truly unique and result oriented.” * In 1977, when she returned to India, she set up a parlor at her home in New Delhi. She had then put up a banner with her qualification on it which helped in advertising her brand. * Within days she was booked for the next 6 months. She then removed the banner and since then she never advertised. She let her products speak for themselves. Best Practice Management * Shahnaz Husain’s aim was to get India on the world beauty map as she felt terrible about the fact that India was never represented at any world......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Laau Lapaau

...La’au Lapa’au In this current day and age, technological advancements like antibiotics and medical instruments have taken precedence over things like home remedies and herbal healing leaving them practically obsolete. Through technology, many argue that we’ve been able to “improve” our overall health and extend our longevity. But through technology, many have lost sight tradition, the ways of our ancestors, the “organic” way of living. Taking a look back at our history, it’s clear to see that Hawaiians survived thrived even, off the land. It provided much more than just food, water, and shelter, it provided other things like medicine and healing. With the Hawaiian Islands being the northernmost Polynesian settlement and the most isolated, a unique and diversified plant life was able to develop. According to Gutamanis, before the initial contact in 1778, the Hawaiian culture was oriented around these ideals of harmony and interconnectedness. Hawaiians placed high value on the Hawaiian plants and were even called “gardeners” instead of farmers by Dr. E. S. Craighill Handy, one of the first people to study La’au Lapa’au in depth. Nowadays, many would agree that Hawaiian medicine was skillfully developed as they recognized the importance of both mental and physical health. In the same way, Abbott speaks on how Hawaiians placed diseases into 2 categories, causes from forces outside the body and causes from forces within the body. She continues on by saying that the first......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Synopsis, on Medicinal Plant of India’s vascular flora and constitutes the biggest spectrum of biodiversity used by people for a specific purpose (Hamilton et al., 2006). In fact, of the total pharmaceutical drug supply available worldwide, only 15% is consumed in developing countries (Lydecker et al., 1992), supporting the much-quoted WHO’s estimate that 80% of people worldwide rely on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare. The majority of these people are in developing countries, where rapid population growth is expected to increase pressures on medicinal plant resources. In the recent past the role of medicinal plants to cure various ailments has been reinvented. Increasing interest by multinational pharmaceutical companies and domestic manufacturers of herbal-based medicines is contributing significant economic growth of the global medicinal plants sector. However, unsustainable exploitation of medicinal plants has led to the extinction of many plants and many plants are on the verge of extinction. Internationally, the trade in medicinal plants is estimated to be worth $60 billion per year (World Bank, 2004) increasing at a rate of 7% a year (Koul and Wahab, 2004). However, very little of the raw material to supply this demand is from cultivated sources. Of the 3000 or so species known to be in international trade (Schippmann et al, 2006) there are approximately 900 for which commercial cultivation is underway or in development (Mulliken and Inskipp, 2006). Putting it another way,......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Complementary and Alternative medicine is not considered part of conventional medicine. They aren’t considered to be the normal way to treat a patient that is in need of medical help. Alternative medicine is using a different type of medication outside of the standard ones that health care professionals would normally use. Complementary medicine is a way of using not only standard methods but by using the standard methods side by side to help with the treating a patient. The herb I picked that was found on both websites was Ginkgo. Ginkgo could be possibly effective for: Alzheimer’s Disease as well as other types of dementia, PMS, poor blood flow maybe causing leg pain, Glaucoma, Raynauds Syndrome, and improving thinking in old and young age people. There is not enough information to have effectiveness of Ginkgo. Two side effects and warnings from the webpage is some warnings are that this herb should not be taking with the combination of certain medications. The major one is medications that are involved with blood clotting especially. The medications that should be watched are Coumadin, Ibuprofen and anticoagulants. Other warnings and precautions that are associated with ginkgo is pregnancy and breastfeeding, why it’s considered to be a precaution is because gingko is involved with blood circulation so it can cause more bleeding during delivery and can cause someone to go into labor earlier than expected. Surgery is also a warning for ginkgo because it can......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...------------------------------------------------- The Himalaya Drug Company From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The-Himalaya-Drug-Company-Logo The Himalaya Drug Company | Introduced | 1930 | Markets | Global | Website | | The Himalaya Drug Company was founded in 1930 by Mr. M. Manal with a vision to bring Ayurveda to society in a contemporary form and to unravel the mystery behind the 5,000 year old system of medicine. Himalaya’s product range includes: pharmaceutical, personal care, baby care,animal health and nutrition. Himalaya Global Holdings Ltd. (HGH), located at the Dubai International Financial Centre, is the parent of The Himalaya Drug Company worldwide. It is also the global headquarters of all Himalaya subsidiaries.[1] Company Profile: Eighty three years ago, on a visit to Burma (Myanmar), Mr. Manal saw restless elephants being fed with a root to pacify them. The plant from which this root was taken was Rauwolfia serpentina. Fascinated by the plant's effect on elephants, he had it scientifically evaluated. After extensive research, Serpina, the world's first anti-hypertensive drug, was launched in 1934 ans is sold till today. The premise of researching nature forms the foundation of Himalaya’s operations. Himalaya pioneered used modern science to rediscover and validate Ayurvedic principles. Since its inception, the company has focused on developing safe and natural remedies to address a variety of ailments.......

Words: 3448 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Herbal Textile

...NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY MUMBAI TEXTILE DESIGN DEPARTMENT DODUMENTATION ON - HERBAL TEXTILES SUBMITTED BY- BHARAT GUPTA M/TD/12/02 SEMESTER- VI CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the following student, Bharat Gupta has carried out the survey and study on “Herbal Textiles” and submitted this document in partial fulfillment of Undergraduate Program in Textile Design in the year 2014. Dr. Reena Aggarwal Dr. Bhawana Chanana (Course Coordinator) (Mentor) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to give my greatest gratitude to the director of NIFT, Mrs. Nilima Rani for giving me this opportunity to learn various courses that would help me pursue my career as a textile designer. I would also like to thank the course coordinator of Textile Design, Dr. Reena Aggarwal, my mentor Ms. Bhawana Chanana and subject teacher, Ms. Bhawana Chanana for helping me and guiding me throughout the study for this document and helping me improve the quality of my research. ABSTRACT The expansion of textile production and consumption has led to an increased pollution, water shortages, fossil fuel and raw material depletion and climate change. Production of polyester fiber, the most widely used manmade fiber,......

Words: 8277 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Herbal Therapy

...As it turns out, I have been using CAM solutions for some time now. I searched and found that CAM means, cell adhesion molecule; abbreviation for complementary and alternative medicine. I did not know there was a particular category for what I did. I thought it was just natural cleansing with meditation. I do still however, use western medications along with my natural supplements. The forms and types of service/ providers I have used and still use are Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation, Deep Breathing, Guided Imagery, Progressive Relaxation, and herbal supplements. Herbal being lavender and eucalyptus for relaxation. The philosophies that ring true for me would be simply music and stretching. I find these to be helpful when I am stressed. I studied dance for many years and music was a huge part of my daily life. I...

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Herbal Medicine

...Chinese History(herbal) The first traditionally recognized herbalist is Shénnóng (, lit. "Divine Farmer"), a mythical god-like figure, who is said to have lived around 2800 BC.[2] He allegedly tasted hundreds of herbs and imparted his knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants to farmers. His Shénnóng Běn Cǎo Jīng, Shennong's Materia Medica) is considered as the oldest book on Chinese herbal medicine. It classifies 365 species of roots, grass, woods, furs, animals and stones into three categories of herbal medicine: 1. The "superior" category, which includes herbs effective for multiple diseases and are mostly responsible for maintaining and restoring the body balance. They have almost no unfavorable side-effects. 2. A category comprising tonics and boosters, whose consumption must not be prolonged. 3. A category of substances which must usually be taken in small doses, and for the treatment of specific diseases only. Egyptian History(herbal) The original text of Shennong's Materia Medica has been lost; however, there are extant translations.[3] The true date of origin is believed to fall into the late Western Han dynasty[2] (i.e., the first century BC). The ancient Greeks didn't invent the art of medicine; rather, they had a large body of preexisting medical lore and knowledge to draw on.  Their distinctive genius lay in their ability to distill and refine all this medical knowledge into a new systematization and synthesis.      Most medical historians now...

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Herbal Essences

...English 1010 09/29/2014 Draft Herbal Essences Herbal Essences is one of the most well-known shampoo between both commercial and magazine ads. For a couple of years now Herbal Essences ads have been known for their gorgeous women with luxuriously soft hair. The advertisement as a whole strongly contains sexual imagery, female stereotypes, and the product itself. As big corporations remember the 90’s so do Herbal Essence. Ok magazine is one of the famous magazines that features over 500 unforgettable photos of celebrities of the nineties. This special edition of Ok magazine is mostly known and read by women, especially millennial women and younger generations. Herbal Essences used pathos, ethos and logos to effectively appeal to its targeted audience who frequently read the special edition of the Ok magazine by posting their ad at the back page of it. The first appeal you will see when you look at the ad is the pathos appeals. The ad shows a beautiful, confident, sexy woman with a gorgeous and luxuriously soft hair, flowing from up then around her head and then down. The way her hair flows moves from the label, Herbal Essences, down to the text and then to the end product, makes the audience move with it and get to the bottles of shampoo. The image it creates appeals to audience to feel beautiful,......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Herbal Toothpaste

...–strongly disagree, 2 means –disagree, 3 means –neural, 4 means –agree and 5 means –strongly agree. Srl. | Statement | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 1. | Toothpaste is valuable for me | | | | | | 2. | Toothpaste is relevant to me | | | | | | 3. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste tastes good. | | | | | | 4. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste gives me confidence to get close to people | | | | | | 5. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste gives me healthy teeth | | | | | | 6. | It is important to me that my toothpaste makes my teeth whiter | | | | | | 7. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste makes gives me dazzling smile | | | | | | 8. | It’s important to me that my tooth paste has herbal ingredient | | | | | | 9. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste protect me from all oral health problems | | | | | | 10. | It’s important to me that my toothpaste is recommended by dentist | | | | | | * These questions talks about your attitude towards your brand. It is on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 means –strongly disagree, 2 means –disagree, 3 means –neural, 4 means –agree and 5 means –strongly agree. Srl. | Statement | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 1. | My toothpaste protect my tooth from decay | | | | | | 2. | My toothpaste makes my breath fresh | | | | | | 3. | It gives me relief from toothache | | | | | | 4. | My toothpaste prevents germs from affecting my teeth | | | | |......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Herbal Plants

...HERBAL MEDICINE FOR ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE A Research Paper Presented to The Faculty of the Languages and Literature Department College of Liberal Arts De La Salle University-Dasmariñas Dasmariñas, Cavite in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course ENGL 102-Communication Arts and Skills II Hannah Khamille Bayalan Marie Pia Iscel Villa Dianne Lherry Landicho March 2008 Chapter I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. For example, ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal plant uses. Indigenous cultures such as African and Native American used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems in which herbal therapies were used systematically. Scientists found that people in different parts of the globe tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes. In the early 19th century, when methods of chemical analysis first became available, scientists began extracting and modifying the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds, beginning the transition from raw herbs to synthetic pharmaceuticals. Over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of pharmaceuticals. Long before the introduction of modern medicines and Western curative methods, herbal medicines had been widely used in the Philippines. The use of medicinal plants or herbs has...

Words: 5006 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Herbal Administration

...In a nutshell, the administration of herbal medicines and drugs is not as extensive as that of other categories of drugs in which there are a myriad of ways to take and/or abuse the drug. If one were to consider the fact that some of the most powerful substances of abuse are extracted from plants, such as cocaine (Erythroxylum coca), marijuana (Cannabis sativa), peyote (Lophophora williamsii), and tobacco (Nicotina tabacum), then one’s view of the previous statement may be somewhat altered (Hanson, 2012). However, as the book mentions, these substances are mentioned elsewhere in the book in the contexts of other drug categories, and need not be mentioned in broad detail in this context. Excluding the various means of administrations of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and other drugs that can be extracted from plants (such as snorting, smoking, injecting, etc.), the majority of the drugs that will be discussed here are administered orally, applied to the skin, and in some cases, inhaled. To provide a few examples; herbs such as acai, cinnamon, cranberry, garlic, ginger, ginseng, licorice root, and soy are all substances that fall under this category and are commonly used to make teas, juices, extracts, and, in some cases, in preparation for external use. Examples of external use in herbal drugs stem from the use of aloe vera as topical ointment, the Echinacea plant (which can treat upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold), peppermint oil which can be......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2