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Herbert Simon Public Lesson

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Leksioni publik i Herbert Simon
“Administrata në botën e sotme të organizatave dhe tregjeve”

Dr, Herbert në këtë video jep një leksion për nder të John M. Gaus. Në dokumetat e tij ende gjenden disa letra të Dr.Gaus drejtuar një kolegu të ri si ai rreth viteve ’50.
Sipas tij puna e Gaus së bashku me Leon O’ Ëolcott sot vazhdon të hedhë dritë të vlefshme mbi faktin se si organizatat krijohen dhe të rriten, shpesh nën ndikimin e teknologjisë.
Në fakt, analiza GAUS dhe Ëolcott e ndërveprimit të ndërveprimit, ndryshimit organizativ dhe teknologjik rezonon fort me interesin e sotëm në proceset dhe normat e rritjes së organizatave publike dhe bizneseve.

Studimi mbi Organizatat Komplekse
Sipas Dr.Herbert ekonomite noeklasike kanë krijuar një kuadër të unifikuar për të shpjeguar pothuaj të gjitha sjelljet e njeriut. Kjo kornize neoklasike mori një ekuilibër statik dhe gjithnjë e më tepër vëmëndja përqëndrohej drejt fenomeneve dinamike dhe pasigurive më të mëdha apo sistemeve sociale komplekse. Sipas tij, sot ekonomia është në një gjëndje mjaft kaotike dhe të corganizuar, në kërkim të mekanizmave ekonomike alternative dhe në kërkim të racionalitetit të njeriut. Ai shtron gjithashtu pyetjen se përse në këtë shoqëri moderne kemi tregje, përse kemi organizata dhe cfarë e determinon kufirin midis këtyre dy mekanizmave? Këto pyetje shkojnë në zemër të roleve qe kanë insitucionet e ndryshme politike dhe administrative, publike dhe private në këtë shoqëri bashkëkohore.

Tregjet si mekanizma koordinues
Tregjet dhe organizatat i lejojnë njerëzit të bëjnë së bashku gjëra qe mund t’i bëjnë në mënyre të pavarur , duke bashkëvepruar përmes shkëmbimit të informacionit dhe koordinimit të veprimtarisë. Koordinim do të thotë organizimi i veprimtarive në mënyrë të tillë që në trajtimin e një cështjeje të caktuar sjellja e njërit pjesmarrës të varet në një farë mënyre nga sjellja e të tjerëvë. Ai shprehet gjithashtu se karakteristika kryesore e tregjeve “dora e padukshme” (A.Smith) është aftësia e tyre për të siguruar koordinim pa planifikim qëndror të qartë.
Tregjet janë me të vërtetë mekanizma të shquar si koordinues, por kopracë ndaj kërkesave të tyre për informacione. Por ato janë shumë më pak dorështrënguar se sa shfaqen në impaktin e parë, sepse ata kërkojnë një shkallë të lartë të stabilitetit ekonomik dhe një nivel të ulët të faktorëve të jashtëm në mënyrë që të veprojnë. Dora e padukshme e Adam Smith shpesh është mjaft e dukshme sin ë rastin kur kushtet kualifikuese për stabilitetin e tregjeve nuk janë plotësuar, si psh: në kohë lufte, ne shohim një lëvizje të shpejtë në drejtim të planifikimit të centralizuar, si mekanizëm koordinues i preferuar për shumë aktivitete.

Nga një ekonomi tregu në një ekonomi organizative
Që nga koha e Adam Smith tregjet kanë rënë ndjeshëm ndërsa organizatat e biznesit dhe ato qeveritare janë rritur vazhdimisht si koordinatorët kryesorë të aktivitetit të ekonomisë. Si pasojë e zhvillimeve të jashtëzakonshme (vecanërisht atyre teknologjike) sot, nuk jetojmë në një ekonomi tregu por në një ekonomi organizative me një mbizotërim të organizatave ndaj aktivitetit tregëtar. Kjo vjen si rrjedhojë e aftësive sit ë organizatave të biznesit dhe të atyre qeveritare për të koordinuar aktivitete komplekse në mënyre efikase dhe në nivele shumë më të larta se sa mund të arrihen nga tregjet.

Identifikimi i organizatave
Hapi i parë në hartimin e një organizatë efektive është për të përcaktuar se çfarë lloj ndërvarësie në veprimtaritë e saj do të përfitohen nga koordinimi, dhe pastaj për të minimizuar sasinë e koordinimit të kërkuar nga ndarja e aktiviteteve. Një komponent i dytë i projektimit organizativ janë kontratat speciale mes organizatës dhe pjesëmarrësve e saj: psh, kontratat e punës me ata që punojnë në të, aksionet dhe pronësia, lidhja e kontratave me ata që kontribuojnë kapital, si dhe kontratat e shitjes me furnizuesit dhe konsumatorët.
Identifikimi organizative është një motivues i fuqishëm, me rrënjë si në vlerat e njerëzve dhe në nevojën e tyre për të ndërtuar një model të thjeshtuar të botës që fokusohet në përgjegjësitë e tyre të veçanta dhe mjedisin e punës. Ajo dallon nga interesi vetjak i cili gjithashtu luan një rol të rëndësishëm në sjelljen organizative.

Inovacioni organizativ dhe përshtatja ndaj ndryshimeve
Edhe pse tregjet janë sisteme të koordinuara dobët, duke lejuar një shkallë të konsiderueshme të ndryshimit të pavarur në çdo komponent, ndryshimi nuk duhet të jetë aq i shpejtë sa për të destabilizuar pritjet e pjesëmarrësve që, në tregjet e qëndrueshme i bëjnë flukset e mëdha dhe afatshkurtra të informacionit të panevojshme. Kur tregjet duhet të konkurrojnë me organizatat si mjet për të siguruar përfitimet e ndryshimeve progresive nga ana e përshtatjes së shpejtë, tregjet kanë të ngjarë të kenë sukses në këtë ballafaqim vetëm në mjedise shumë të qëndrueshme.
Implikimet sociale
Për sa i përket implikimeve sociale Dr.Herbert u fokusua vetëm në dy ceshtje të cilat ishin: shpërndarja e pushtetit në shoqërinë moderne, dhe shpërndarja e produktit shoqëror.
Lord Acton e ka thënë mësë miri sipas tij “pushteti tenton te korruptojë, dhe absolutisht pushteti absolut korrupton”
Një shumëllojshmëri e organizatave ( fitim ose jo-fitimprurëse) që konkurrojnë fuqishëm në tregje është një mbrojtje e fortë kundër devijimit të burimeve nga objektivat politike. Në të njëjtën mënyrë, shpërndarje e pushtetit bën thirrje për organizatat qeveritare që të mbajë një balancë të arsyeshme midis efektivitetit të organizatave e mëdha të biznesit dhe shmangies së përqendrimit të pushtetit në pak vende.
Për sa i përket shpërndarjes së produktit shoqëror ai thotë me besim se ruajtja e ekuilibrin ekonomik nuk mund të lihet në dorën e padukshme të tregut por kjo kërkon vëmendjen e qeverisë. Sipas ligjit te tregut, ekonomia mund të jetë në ekuilibër në çdo nivel të aktivitetit nga punësimi 100% i punëtorëve dhe kapital 0%. Në të dyja këto nivele, dhe të gjithë në mes, të ardhurat nga shitja e mallrave vetëm do të balancojnë kostot e prodhimit të tyre plus fitimet e pronarëve. Pra prodhimi siguron të ardhura që janë të mjaftueshme vetëm për të blerë produktin që tregtohet. Kur tregjet nuk janë në ekuilibër të plotë të punësimit, pasi ata shpesh nuk janë, teoria neoklasike nuk shpjegon se pse, e as çfarë të bëhet në lidhje me të.
Konkluzione:
Sistemet hirearkike dhe gati të shpërbëshme luajnë një rol qendror. Pothuajse që në fillim ndarja e punës në detyra përbërëse dhe përmbledhja e komponentëve në hierarki u zbulua të jetë mjet i fuqishëm për arritjen e koordinimit efikas të përpjekjeve. Mw vonw tregjet hynë si një mjet për të koordinuar veprime të caktuara që kërkonin komunikim shumë të kufizuar. Pastaj, shumë kohë para epokës së krishterë, shtetet-kombe dhe perandoritë doli se nuk shfaqën pothuajse asnjë limit madhësie për të cilën organizatat mund të aspironin.
Sistemi, pas më tepër se një shekull e gjysmë, hyri në një fazë të re kur tregu social i dijes dhe inovacionit në teknologji filloi të përshpejtohej. Gradualisht, rritjet në kërkesa kërkuan më shumë koordinim në aktivitetin ekonomik dhe së bashku me akumulimin e aftësive ose organizimit, krijuan korporatat gjithnjë e më të mëdha që filluan të imitojnë në madhësi organizatat administrative të shteteve kombe.Ky ishte fillimi për në botën tonë moderne.
Si organizatat private dhe publike kanë luajtur role thelbësore në këto zhvillime moderne, duke plotësuar funksionet e njëri-tjetrit, duke mësuar nga njëri-tjetri, dhe, në të njëjtën kohë, duke konkuruar për pushtet dhe për të menaxhuar sistemet që kanë dalë. Ky proces nuk ka arritur fundin e tij, dhe shkenca politike dhe ajo ekonomike duhet të vazhdojnë edukimin e tyre të përbashkët.

Edukimi duhet të jetë simetrik. Qëllimi i tij nuk është për të kthyer shkencën politike në një teori të "zgjedhjes publike" të një "personi ekonomik" . Qëllimi i tij është që të kuptojë se si njeriu formon sjelljen dhe është formuar nga strukturat komplekse që punëson në mënyrë që të sigurojë koordinimin e nevojshëm për të përmbushur shumicën e qëllimeve, dhe se si kjo mund të realizohet duke ruajtur shpërndarjen e gjerë të pushtetit që është në përputhje me institucionet demokratike.

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