Free Essay

Here R

In: People

Submitted By dcherry5194
Words 667
Pages 3
Correlation as a Measure of Association

Christina Johnson

BSHS/435

3/18/2015
Dr. Michele Howser

Correlation as a Measure of Association

When performing academic research, a researcher must determine not only what it is they are studying but how they are going to describe what they are studying. What a person is studying can be defined as a characteristic or any qualities that possess two or more potential values (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Variables usually come in two forms, independent and dependent where the former is manipulated by the researcher and the latter is influenced by the first (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Using a statistical process, determining if two or more variables are associated to each other defines correlation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Describing the connection between the variables is how association is measured. Knowledge of correlation as a measure of association, the methods used, and its application in research will assist a researcher in understanding when and how to establish correlation.
Correlational Research Studies using correlation are done to observe to what degree different types of variances exists with one variable in relation to another variable (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Basically, it is to determine if one characteristic affects another. “A correlation exists if, when one variable increases, another variable either increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable fashion” (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). When data is collected for this type of research, a researcher might use a chart or diagram to help better determine if there is in fact a correlation between the variables (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). In example, a researcher charting a study using the variables of children’s age and belief in the tooth fairy, may find that as children get older the belief in the mythical creature fades. If this was the case the chart would show that while the independent variable of the children’s ages increase, the dependent variable of believing in the tooth fairy decreases. Even though data can prove to show a strong relationship between two variables, correlation is not meant to assume that one variable causes the other; this type of study merely shows the relationship that may or may not exists (McLeod, 2008).
Measures of Association The strength of the relationships between the variables studied is referred to as the measure of association (Monette et al., 2011). Since seeing a predictable change in both variables constitutes a correlation, seeing how they change is now the key. There are different types of relationships data can show for variables. These relationships are; positive, negative, and curvilinear. Positive relationships shows the value of both variables going in the same direction, negative relationships show variable values going in opposite directions, and curvilinear data do not show consistent changes between variables.
Measures of Association: Correlation When measuring how closely variables are associated, statistics are used to reference the correlation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). “A correlation coefficient is a number between negative one and positive one; most correlation coefficients are decimals (either positive or negative) somewhere between these two extremes” (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). By this definition the connection of the correlation is a very small one, between three numbers. The positive or negative coefficient dictates the direction of the correlation used to show the relationship of variables in a study (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). The measurement of association is only determined after the instrument used to measure the relationship is decided. The instrument is the tool which by proper implementation, the study can be replicated by a researcher using the same measurements and variables (Monette et al., 2011). With the proper measurement tools a researcher can conduct a correlational study and have accurate statistical data to prove the relationship.

References
Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical Research Planning and Design (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Correlation. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/correlation.html
Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2011). Applied Social Research: A Tool for the Human Services (8th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Artist Portfolio Project

...year old. Usher grew up and spent most of his life in Chattanooga. Usher's grandmother discovered Usher's singing talents and she realized that he could sing professionally when he joined a singing group. In order to provide greater opportunities for Usher to showcase his talents, Usher's family moved to Atlanta, Georgia, which was an ideal environment for beginners in singing. Usher joined the Rhythm and Blues (R&B) group called NuBeginnings at age 11, and recorded some ten songs with that group in 1991, but the songs that were part of the album Nubeginning Featuring Usher Raymond IV were available only at the regional level and that too by mail order. Usher competed in Star Search, a reality show to identify talented singer at the age of 13. In that show Usher was spotted by an Artists and Repertoire (A&R) representative from the recording label LaFace Records, which after an audition by Usher with its co-founder Reid, “signed the gospel choir boy to a recording contract” (Lane, 2012). Some of Usher's most popular albums are “My Way”, “Confessions”, “Here I Stand”, “Raymond v. Raymond”,...

Words: 1850 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

J.R.R Tolkien Biography

...Elden Lashley Jill Decker English 101 6­12­13 Lashley1 J.R.R Tolkien J.R.R Tolkien is the writer and creator of The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings books. Which are four of my favorite books of all time, especially the Lord of the Rings. His creativity and ability to immerse you in a world is unlike any other I've seen or experienced. "If you really want to know what Middle­earth is based on, it's my wonder and delight in the earth as it is, particularly the natural earth." – J.R.R. Tolkien. I love his books and now I'm here to tell you a little about his life. J.R.R Tolkien or John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born in Bloemfontein South Africa on January 3rd, 1892. To his father and mother Arthur Tolkien and Mabel Tolkien. After his father died when he was just 4 years old, his mother took him and his little brother Hilary to hamlet of Sarehole, in Birmingham, England. His mother then died in 1904 and he and his brother were sent to live with relatives and then in boarding homes. with a catholic priest gaining guardianship in Birmingham. He would go on to get his first class degree at Exeter College, specializing in Anglo­Saxon and Germanic languages and classic literature. He enlisted as a lieutenant  Lancashire Fusiliers and served in World War I, making sure he kept writing though. He fought in the battle of somme in which there were many deaths,“I will not say, do not weep, for not all tears are an evil.” ―J.R.R. Tolkien. he eventually was released f......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Transmedia Storytelling and Game of Thrones

...Dmitry Lovket, 01.04.2014 Foreword Castles, knights, dragons, battles and even newly-invented language – all these features are typically attributed with storyworlds created in the tradition of J. R. R. Tolkien. George R. R. Martin not only shares the initials with the author of The Lord of the Rings, but with A Song of Ice and Fire, has created a series of books that received enthusiastic reviews from critics and readers all over the world, nominating him the unofficial title of ―American Tolkien‖ [9]. In 2007 Martin agreed to collaborate with cable network HBO‘s writer-producers David Banioff and Daniel B. Weiss on the adaptation of his epic novel series to TV under the name Game of Thrones (GoT) [14]. Its narrative features the medieval fantasy world of Westeros, in which five noble families struggle to seize the all governing Iron Throne, and, with a complete broadcast of three seasons, the result has led TV critics to hail the show as one of the pinnacles of quality television narrative [21]. The show has also obtained an exceptionally broad and international fandom. The series has won numerous awards and nominations. It is the most recent big-budget media franchise to have contributed to the popularity of epic fantasy genre in mainstream TV. This essay will analyze the transmedia storytelling strategies applied to promote the TV series Game of Thrones. Transmedia storytelling is understood as a story told throughout numerous media platforms, with......

Words: 7486 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

American Apparel: Exploitation to the Highest Elevation

...American Apparel: Exploitation to the Highest Elevation Amanda Data Lifestyle and marketing through social media platforms, such as Instagram, has increased company sales exponentially. Well-known, “Made in the USA” brand, American Apparel has continually sought after its minimalistic customers through heavy media presence. Clay Shirky’s “Here Comes Everybody” suggests that social media democratization has secured a “unified freedom of speech” in a society that encourages the publication of anyone that wants to have a voice in these social media outlets (79). American Apparel’s Instagram presence has created a feed of the brand’s current aesthetic, showing no evidence of the risqué and inappropriate advertisements from past seasons – accounts that the company has been chastised for on numerous occasions. In a society where freedom of speech unites social media users, it also has consolidated a profile of companies where others have access to preconceived ideas of them. While American Apparel has attempted to use Instagram in effort to retract their resentful brand image from the past, it appears that they have misused the security of “unified freedom of speech” to the own disadvantage, resulting in wallowing debts and a cooperate image that is misrepresented by their picturesque Instagram. Author of The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell focuses on the idea of spreading thoughts, ideas, and relationships through one single people that enables themselves to provide this......

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Im New

...I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here, I'm new here,......

Words: 10869 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Sample Paper

...It was our fourth game of Risk at the Taylors’ beach house during a summer a few years ago, and a torrential storm showed no sign of letting up. Rain battered windows that had seen better times while a slight draft spread through the house. A gloomy feeling hung in the air and settled upon everyone in the cottage. “I’m so bored! This game is getting really old!” my god sister, Su Rei, cried with frustration as I eliminated the last of her armies from the game board on the kitchen table for the third time. “I’ve got to do something else or I’ll explode!” Six sets of eyes turned to look at her. “Can we finish the game first? I’m winning... again,” Rei’s blonde cousin, Robin, said smugly. “You are not,” Robin’s brother bickered from his end of the table. Simon had just turned fifteen and did everything he could to irk is sister who was three years his senior. “Besides, you may have won the last game, but only because I was going so easy on you.” “Simon, Robin!” my godparents warned for the umpteenth time that afternoon. Lindsay and Riley had always enjoyed the siblings’ company; however, this was the first time in numerous years that they had had custody of the entire group, or the Munchkin Bunch as Lindsay teasingly called us: Simon, Robin, Su Rei, my brother, and me. At that point, my thus far taciturn sibling Eric spoke up. “It’s raining, it’s cold, and most of us are bored. What do you say to a trip to the movie theater?” Normally, Eric never suggested things like this......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tolkien's Legacy

...Have you ever been so lost in a book that the world on its pages seemed real? J.R .R. Tolkien was an author who inspired not only his readers but future generations of writers. His work included poetry, essays, and articles, as well as his well known, iconic novels (“Biography” 6). He created a fantasy realm called Middle Earth. His timeless works have inspired such cinematic masterpieces as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings Trilogy. Tolkien had a difficult childhood. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on January 3 in the year 1892 of Mabel Suffield and Arthur Tolkien in Bleomfontein, South Africa (“Timeline” 1). He grew up with few memories of his birthplace, though the ones he did have were thought to influence his later writings...

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

J.R.R. Tolkien

...J.R.R. Tolkien My selection for this project was J.R.R. Tolkien. The reason I chose this individual was because of his books such as “The Hobbit” (J.R.R. Tolkien- 1936) this book has such realistic characteristics along with mythological characteristics. The other books I liked were “Lord of the Rings” which was broken into sequels. There orders were “The Fellowship of the Ring” and “The Two Tower” they were published in Great Britain in 1954. The third one was published in 1955 it was called “The Return of the King.” These great books kept me on my toes; I did not want to put them down. It is hard to actually find a good book to read that will keep your attention throughout and also make you feel like you are in the big picture yourself. J.R.R. Tolkien overcame many obstacles to achieve his successes a writer and also a teacher. In 1896 his father (Alfred Tolkien) died of Rheumatic fever. His mother (Mabel Tolkien) died from diabetes in November of 1904. J.R.R. Tolkien and his brothers were orphaned until they were taken in by a priest (Francis Xavier Morgan). In 1916 J.R.R. Tolkien went off to WW1 in 1916, and contracted “trench fever” in 1917. J.R.R. Tolkien was discharged from the military in 1917. After dealing with all of this he yet managed to be married, return to college, attain degrees and also pursue his writing and teaching. These were a lot of obstacles to overcome but J.R.R. Tolkien did. He has a strong will, and such a passion and desire......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Hobbit

...THE HOBBIT WEBSITE SCAVENGER HUNT: WHO WILL BE THE WINNER? Go to: http://www.tolkien-online.com/index.html Home Page: What have scholars debated about, regarding his novels? Scholars have debated true greatness of these popular novels. “Tolkien creates out of the void a complete and fully-realized world. He weaves his spell around us, suspends all disbelief, and gives us our own modern day adventure and discovery quest.” The Hobbit: Date of first publication? It was published in 1937, and it remains Tolkiens' first published book and the one of the best books of the 20th century. What sentence has become one of the most recognizable in English literature? “In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit.” What knowledge did Tolkien draw from to write The Hobbit’s characters and plot? ancient mythology, primarily northern (Norse) mythology. Middle-Earth: Why did Tolkien first begin writing his imagined world? ________________________________________________________________________ “Tolkien’s Middle-earth is a fully-formed world with its own _______________, ______________, ________________, ‘_____________’, a _______________ story, a Fall, grief, joy, and all of those many things that our own world has.” Middle-Earth: Tolkien and Language Which languages did Tolkien have an affinity for? ______________________________ Tolkien created _______ languages for Middle-earth’s various races, and in many respects these......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Value of Literature

...The Value of Literature Literature can be used to place value on a wide span of topics. From books that may break our hearts to one’s that make us laugh uncontrollably. Even though literature is only written in words, it is our imagination that makes those words come to reality, by the way we see the words in our imaginations. Whatever literature that is read, it is in the perspective of the author and you are reading through the lens of the writer. Philip Marchand said “Not to understand the disposition of things is the fate of children or slaves. Imaginative literature is the race's best tool for acquiring such understanding. This is the childishness and slavishness in the soul of someone who cannot respond to great literature.” Marchand talks about how our imagination is one of the most important tools that an individual can have. Ultimately, with the way literature uses up the creativity side of the brain, it truly helps expand our imagination. From a very young age, many of us were introduced to books with big pictures and little words. These simple little books were meant to teach us the names of colours, the alphabet and what noise animals made. While continuing to grow older, individuals starts to explore more genres of literature to find what they enjoy. For example, in the last couple years of high school, I have really gotten into the horror/mystery genres of book which is the reason I chose The Shining as my ISU novel. The fact that I had read The Shining before...

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Characteristics Of Bilbo

...Is Bilbo a leader whenever Gandalf is away? The dwarves would never have made it to the Lonely Mountain without Bilbo. Bilbo is the one who killed the spiders and freed the dwarves from their webs. He is the one who led their escape from the Elven palace. The hobbit shows creativity and confidence throughout the journey. Both of those are characteristics of a leader. Bilbo is definitely a leader when Gandalf is away. Bilbo killed the spiders and freed the dwarves from their webs. The dwarves would never have made it to the Lonely Mountain if Bilbo had lacked the courage to fight the spiders. The group would have been eaten by the spiders. Bilbo demonstrates confidence while fighting and killing the spiders. Bilbo also exhibits creativity....

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

5 Legal Theories

...it) Lil Kim-Ladies Night Puff Daddy-Cant No Body Hold Me Down Michael Jackson Anthony Hamilton-The Point of It All Usher-Here I Stand/There goes my Baby Notorious B.I.G.- One More Chance DeBarge- A Dream Johnnie Gill-My My My T.I. Top Back-Remix Yo Gotti-5 Star Chick-Clean Version Neo- Champaign Life Neo- Miss Independent Usher-You Make me Wanna Isley Brothers • Footsteps in the Dark • Summer Breeze Busta Rymes-Pass The Courvoisier Big Tymers-Numba One Stunna Lupe Fiasco DayDreamin Chingy & Tyrese- Pullin Me Back Ginuwine-Pony Gap Band-Yearning For Your Love Earth Wind & Fire-After The Love Has Gone Song for the Garder-I’m a Dog-Gucci Mane • Wanna Be Startin Somthin • P.Y.T. • The Lady In My Life • Rock With You • Butterflies • We Major Method Man Feat. Mary J. Blige-Your All I need Marvin Gaye-Lets Get It On Sade-Smooth Operator Anita Baker-Sweet Love Luther Vandross-Take You Out Tonight (Excuse Me Miss) Lauren Hill-Nothing Even Matters The Roots Feat. Eryka Badu- You Got Me Kelly Roland-Motivation Jill Scott-Long Walk Kindred The Family Soul• Far Away • Stars MaxwellMusiq Soul Child Tony, Tone, Toni-Lay Your Head on My Pillow/It Never Rains/Ask of You Shi- IF I Ever Fall In Love Jackson 5-Never Can Say Goodbye (Closing Song) R. Kelly- You Remind of My Jeep R.Kelly & Keith Murray Montell Jordan- This Is How We Do It Kem-Cant Stop Loving YOu R. Kelly-You Bring Me Joy The Whispers-Lost & Turned Out Ludacris-One More Drink...

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

I Belive in Reading

...When I started writing this paper I was going to just talk about books and reading Then I got sidetracked so this paper is more about books vs. the computer and books and the computer combined as learning tools. Reading is very important to enrich a person's life. If you can read you can learn anything. You can go anywhere, be anyone, do anything. Books can open a world to the past, the present and the future. They can also take you to fantasy lands that never existed in the real world. Through books you can experience what it is like to be an explorer, you can go to the moon and outer space, you can live with cavemen, you can experience what it was like to be a pirate in the 1600s. You can give yourself an entire college education with the books that can be found in any public library. For an example John Aristotle Phillips was born in 1955 in Connecticut. In 1976, while attending Princeton University as a junior undergraduate, he designed a nuclear weapon using publicly available books and papers. Books are very cheap entertainment. Used books can be purchased for a dollar or less. Many famous people learned things from books rather than in a structured educational environment. Today you can use the internet to enhance your reading experience. I have read several books that led me to the internet because I wanted to know more about some of the things or people mentioned in the books. Other times I have written down words I didn't know the meaning of and looked them up...

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Bilbo's Archetypes In The Hobbit

...The Hobbit is a wonderful book to read. J.R.R Tolkien who is the author of the Hobbit used various archetypes throughout the novel. Some archetypes that J.R.R Tolkien used in the Hobbit are communion, the hero, and the journey. The main character in the Hobbit is Bilbo Baggins and you wouldn’t think that a person with the personality of Bilbo would be the hero. Bilbo Baggins didn’t have any ambition in his life, he had hobbies but they were boring hobbies. In the beginning of the Hobbit J.R.R. Tolkien uses the archetype of communion. Most people think of holy ceremony that takes place in church were everybody gets a small cup of grape juice and a tiny piece of bread. Communion is the act of intimate fellowship and rapport. Communion doesn’t have to happen in a church in fact you don’t just have to eat bread and drink grape juice. That is shown in the Hobbit because when Bilbo, Gandalf and the twelve dwarfs were eating dinner together that is also known as communion. When Bilbo leaves his Hobbit hole that is when the journey starts. The task for Bilbo Baggins is to help the dwarfs reclaim their treasure from Samug. During the beginning of their journey they encounter three hungry trolls who capture them all expect Gandalf. Gandalf saves them by tricking the trolls to stay outside into the sun comes up because they will have turned into stone. After the group has been saved they found weapons in the trolls’ camp and Gandalf and Thorin turned the swords into magic swords, Bilbo......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Hobbit’s Choice: a Restaurant

...The Hobbit’s Choice: A Restaurant Jeff Dean is a restaurant supply sales representative. He works in a large metropolitan area and calls on many of the restaurant owners in the city. His dream is to one day own his own restaurant. He had saved a substantial amount of his earnings during his 15 years in the restaurant‐supply business and had recently gone over some financial figures with his banker. He and the banker both agreed that he had enough capital to get serious about investing in his dream. His banker, Walker Stripling, was very optimistic about Dean’s potential for success, even though he had seen many failed attempts in the restaurant business. Stripling had confidence in Dean because he thought that because of his restaurant‐supply experience, few people knew the restaurant business as well as Dean did. Dean’s idea was not try to compete with everyone else. There were too many restaurants that, except for their décor and a few menu items, offered little new to the market. He had seen many of the “metoo” restaurants falter after a short time of operation. His plan was to offer something not currently available in the market, even though the city was fairly large. Dean had traveled extensively during his career. His primary purpose in traveling had been to attend trade shows in the restaurant‐supply business. There were usually several of these a year, and Dean had been diligent about attending these shows as he learned about new products and services......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3