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Junior Skill Builders

Junior Skill Builders

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Copyright © 2008 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Junior skill builders : grammar in 15 minutes a day.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-662-8 1. English language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. English language—Grammar—Examinations—Study guides. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1112.J86 2008 425—dc22 2008020779 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First Edition For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

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Introduction Pretest S E C T I O N 1 : PA R T S O F S P E E C H Lesson 1: Nouns • Understanding common, proper, concrete, abstract, collective, and compound • Review exercises of all nouns Lesson 2: Pronouns • Understanding personal, demonstrative, reflexive, intensive, indefinite pronouns • Charts of subject, object, possessive, and indefinite pronouns • Review exercises of all pronouns Lesson 3: Verbs • Understanding action, linking, and helping verbs • Chart of common helping verbs • Review exercises of all verbs Lesson 4: Verb Tenses • Understanding regular and irregular verbs • Understanding present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, present progressive, past progressive, and future progressive tenses • Chart of common irregular verbs • Review exercises of regular and irregular verb forms in tenses

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Lesson 5: Adjectives • Understanding common, proper, possessive, and demonstrative adjectives • Review exercises of all adjective forms Lesson 6: Adverbs • Understanding and identifying adverbs • Distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs • Review exercises of adverbs Lesson 7: Comparative Adverbs and Adjectives • Understanding and identifying positive, comparative, and superlative degrees of adverbs and adjectives • Review exercises of comparative adverbs and adjectives Lesson 8: Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases • Understanding and identifying prepositional phrases and the object of the preposition (OOP) • Chart of common prepositions • Review exercises of prepositions, prepositional phrases, and OOPs Lesson 9: Conjunctions • Understanding and identifying coordinating, correlative, and subordinating conjunctions • Charts of coordinating, correlative, and subordinating conjunctions • Review exercises of all conjunctions S E C T I O N 2 : PA R T S O F A S E N T E N C E Lesson 10: Subjects and Predicates • Understanding and identifying simple subjects and predicates, tricky subjects, and complete subjects and predicates • Review exercises of all subjects and predicates Lesson 11: Direct and Indirect Objects • Understanding and identifying direct and indirect objects • Review exercises of direct and indirect objects

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SECTION 3: BUILDING A SENTENCE Lesson 12: Phrases • Understanding and identifying adjective, adverb, appositive, gerund, and participial phrases • Review exercises of all phrases Lesson 13: Clauses • Understanding and identifying independent, subordinate, and relative clauses • Charts of common subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns • Review exercises for all clauses Lesson 14: Combining Sentences • Understanding and identifying simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences • Chart of simple sentence structures • Review exercises of sentence combining Lesson 15: Fragments and Run-ons • Understanding and identifying sentence fragments and runon sentences • Review exercises of fragments and run-ons SECTION 4: AGREEMENT Lesson 16: Subject–Verb Agreement • Understanding the importance of subject–verb agreement in written sentences and speech with singular, plural, compound, and indefinite subjects • Chart of conjugated verb be according to number, form, and person • Chart of personal and indefinite subject pronouns • Review exercises of subject–verb agreement Lesson 17: Pronoun–Antecedent Agreement • Understanding the importance of pronoun–antecedent agreement in written sentences and speech with singular, plural, and indefinite pronouns • Chart of common English pronouns • Review exercises of pronoun–antecedent agreement

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S E C T I O N 5 : P U N C T UAT I O N Lesson 18: End Punctuation • Understanding periods, exclamation marks, question marks, and their usage • Review exercises of all end marks Lesson 19: Commas Part I • Understanding comma usage in sentences • Review exercises of comma usage and placement in sentences Lesson 20: Commas Part II • Understanding of comma usage in letters and numbers • Review exercises of comma usage and placement in letters and numbers Lesson 21: Colons and Semicolons • Understanding colon and semicolon usage in writing • Conjunctive adverb chart • Review exercises of colon and semicolon placement Lesson 22: Quotation Marks • Understanding quotation mark usage in written dialogue • Review exercises of quotation mark placement in written dialogue Lesson 23: Italicizing and Underlining • Understanding usage of italics and underlining in writing • Review exercises of italicizing and underlining Lesson 24: Parentheses and Brackets • Understanding placement of parentheses and brackets in writing • Review exercises of parentheses and brackets Lesson 25: Hyphens and Dashes • Understanding placement of hyphens and dashes • Review exercises of hyphens and dashes Lesson 26: Apostrophes • Understanding placement of apostrophes for contractions, and singular and plural possessive nouns • Chart of contractions of common pronouns and helping verbs • Review exercises of apostrophes and apostrophe placement

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Lesson 27: Capitalization • Understanding of capitalization of proper nouns, proper adjectives, and titles • Review exercises of capitalization SECTION 6: CONFUSING WORDS Lesson 28: Troublesome Verbs • Understanding the verbs, lay/lie, sit/set, and did/done • Understanding the verbs except/accept, can/may, and hang/hung • Review exercises of troublesome verbs Lesson 29: Tricky Words • Charts of common homonyms and homographs • Review exercises of common homonyms and homographs Lesson 30: Misplaced Modifiers • Explanation and identification of dangling, squinting, and split-infinitive modifiers • Review exercises of misplaced modifiers Posttest Hints for Taking Standardized Tests Glossary

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Junior Skill Builders

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ENGLISH IS A very complex language, but luckily there is a “users’ manual” dedicated to the rules of English, referred to as grammar and usage. This is a huge set of guidelines that helps clarify the multifaceted, dynamic parts of our language (maybe you have studied many of them already at school). Understanding the inner structure of sentences and writing doesn’t have to be mind numbing; it can be fun and challenging if you approach it with the right mindset. You will only benefit from your hard efforts to make heads or tails of English grammar and usage, and will especially reap the rewards in your writing and speaking, now and forever. Think about how often you write—essays for school, notes and e-mails to your friends, even lists (wish lists, grocery lists, to-do lists . . . the list goes on!) These all require writing, just in different ways. Essays are more formal (really requiring the most of your grammar knowledge and astuteness). Other types of writing can be less formal, maybe even downright informal, and are made up of slang, emoticons, and abbreviations that would boggle the mind of any adult, but be perfectly discernible to you and your friends. That’s the beauty and

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versatility of language. And as long as you understand that there is a time and place for everything, laid-back is okay . . . really. . . adaptability is the key. And so is having a basic, but grounded, understanding of the inner workings of English (although, trust me, no one expects you to be a walking grammar book). Making a determined and consistent effort to learn and apply some of the rules in this book will help you create good habits that will stay with you when it counts—like for term papers in high school and college, and letters to prospective employers when you begin job hunting in the future. These circumstances, and others, hinge on someone being able to understand and appreciate what you say and how you say it, whether your words are written or spoken. Now, before you move on through the book, complete the grammar pretest to see what you already know and what you might need to learn, relearn, or just brush up on. Then, tackle the lessons, one by one, or on an as-needed basis. Let’s get started!

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BEFORE YOU BEGIN your grammar study, you may want to get a clearer idea of what you already know and what you want to focus more on once you begin the lessons that follow. The pretest is a simple 30-question assessment that touches on most of the major grammar concepts covered in the book. Write your answers in the book if the book belongs to you. If it doesn’t, write them on a separate piece of paper so you can review and test yourself as many times as you’d like. Check your work by looking at the answers on page 10.

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PRETEST
1. Circle the common nouns, underline the proper nouns, and box the abstract nouns. coffee Florida sorrow peace deceit test kindness sadness toast computer cheerfulness deer kitten Lake Michigan lipstick White House jungle patience

2. Underline the antecedents/pronouns that properly agree in gender. Karla / she Joseph / his students / they bird / they Mrs. West / she kite / him

3. Underline the antecedents/pronouns that agree in number. kids / they fish / they each / he or she everyone / they troop / it teacher / we Fred / it fish / it both / they

4. Underline the action verbs. yawn should staple do sleep would poke peel is cook grow jump

5. Underline the linking verbs. melt grow become take prove look dance appear is sit feel drive

6. Box the regular verbs and underline the irregular verbs. justify play walk mow throw grow buy hear wash sit pet hide

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7. Circle the correct form of lay/lie in each sentence. Janice found her pillow (laying, lying) under the bed. The ladder has (lain, laid) broken in the garage for over a year. Grandpa had (laid, lain) awake before getting up to shower. 8. Circle the correct form of sit/set in each sentence. The dog (set, sat) patiently as Dad read the paper. Donna’s daughter Jamie (sit, set) the table for dinner. (Setting, Sitting) on the porch swing to read is so enjoyable. 9. Identify the tense of the verbs that follow as present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, present progressive, past progressive, or future progressive. will swim ___________________ had swum __________________ swim _______________________ swims ______________________ am giving ______________________ gave __________________________ has given ______________________ will have given _________________

10. Circle the common adjectives in the following sentences. Nathan and his best friend Kevin played a quick game of basketball. The cool mountains are the perfect place to hike and observe wildlife. Jack is excited that his birthday party is tomorrow afternoon. 11. Write the correct indefinite pronoun in front of each noun. ___ home ___ university ___ one-eyed monster ___ underdog ___ ugly bug ___ hour ___ wallet ___ upperclassman ___ elephant ___ yellow jacket ___ honor ___ golf club ___ orange ___ clock ___ actor

12. Change the following proper nouns into proper adjectives by crossing out and writing in what’s needed. America Japan France England Texas Virginia Inca Hawaii Denmark

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13. Determine whether each boldfaced word in the sentences is a possessive pronoun or a possessive adjective by writing in PP or PA above it. His soda sprayed all over his clothes and mine. We played kickball on our new blacktop at school. I showed my little sister how to tie her shoes. 14. Determine whether the boldfaced word in each sentence is a demonstrative pronoun or a demonstrative adjective by writing DP or DA above it. This is really over-the-top! Take this money and buy yourself a treat. Watch these carefully while they boil. 15. Circle the form of comparative or superlative adjective that best completes each sentence. Shirley’s (better, best) cake ever is her triple chocolate cake with walnuts. Lori’s hands were (smaller, more small) than mine. Norman was (best, better) at organizing group activities than Joshua. 16. Circle the correct form of the comparative and superlative adverbs in the following sentences. Kyle was (carefuller, more careful) not to run in the hall after getting detention. Foodworld (more often, most often) has my favorite brand of ice cream. Sagar ran the (fast, faster, fastest) of all the contestants. 17. Underline the adjectives and box the adverbs in the following sentences. The four cooks fiercely competed for the position of head chef. Jake worked diligently on his math homework before. Morgan was sent straight to her room for disobeying her parents.

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18. Underline the prepositional phrases in these sentences. We walked up the street and around the corner to get milk. For the record, Congressman Hughes supports lowering taxes. Up the tree and over the fence, the gray squirrel skittered nervously. 19. Rewrite each sentence so that the misplaced modifiers are properly placed. The woman was washing the sheets with hair curlers. _______________________________________________________________ The sand along the shore burned my feet while walking. _______________________________________________________________ Tina bought a potbellied pig for her cousin they call Petunia. _______________________________________________________________ 20. Underline the simple subjects and box the simple predicates. I quickly ran toward the finish line to win the race. Ray Charles was a excellent pianist. The silver duct tape stuck the wall very well. 21. Identify whether the boldfaced word is a direct or an indirect object in these sentences by writing DO or IO above it. Shane poured the dirt from the wheelbarrow into the hole. Ralph gave Jim a curious look when he laughed. The coach gave his team a thumbs-up when they defended the goal successfully. 22. Circle the verb that correctly agrees with the subject in these sentences. The airline (fly, flies) daily from Chicago to Boston. The friends always (watch, watches) out for one another. Everybody (want, wants) to sit in the first row for the Guns N’ Roses concert.

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23. Circle the verb that will agree with the indefinite pronouns in these sentences. Anything worthwhile (take, takes) patience and time. Some (need, needs) to listen to music to relax. Others (prefers, prefer) to sit in silence and meditate. 24. Determine which pronoun best fits for proper pronoun–antecedent agreement in each sentence. The class took ________ time taking the history test. a. its b. their c. his or her

Nobody handed __________ test in until the teacher asked. a. their b. his or her c. our

Few finished early and read _________ novel until class was over. a. their b. his or her c. our

25. Correctly identify the types of phrases in the sentences below. Wanting to be prepared for her recital, Sara practices daily for an hour. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

Sara, who is preparing for her recital, practices daily for an hour. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

Wanting to be prepared for her recital is why Sara practices daily for an hour. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

26. Determine whether the group of words is an independent or a subordinate clause by writing IC or SC. Just to remind you _____ Try that again _____ I love you _____ Have a nice day _____ After you left _____ While we’re at it _____

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27. Identify the coordinating conjunction in each sentence and underline the word or group of words it is connecting. Bert wants to go swimming today, and Ronnie wants to go with him. We can go to the park on Sunday, or we can go today, but not tomorrow. I decided to go to the gym in the morning so I would have the afternoon free. 28. Identify the simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentence. a. Dinner was delicious. b. When the principal announced the winners, the audience clapped loudly and cheered for their classmates. c. When the weather warms up, we’ll go to the beach and have a barbecue. d. Paula washed the car, and Renee dried it with towels. 29. Add punctuation where necessary in the following items. Timmys favorite superhero Mighty Man wears a red cape and a bright blue suit Didnt Mom ask you to pick up laundry detergent milk bananas sour cream and furniture polish from the grocery store The girls dresses were pink green and yellow taffeta with white grosgrain bows 30. Correctly place quotation marks, commas, and end marks in these sentences. I have never Mom exclaimed angrily seen someone so hardheaded in my life Carrie whispered I think that the actress forgot her lines To your left you will see Queen Elizabeth’s throne said the tour guide

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ANSWERS
1. Common nouns: coffee, test, toast, computer, deer, kitten, lipstick, jungle; proper nouns: Florida, Lake Michigan, White House; abstract nouns: sorrow, peace, deceit, kindness, sadness, cheerfulness, patience. 2. Karla/she; Joseph/his; Mrs. West/she; students/they 3. kids/they; everyone/they; fish/they; troop/it; fish/it; each/he or she; both/they 4. yawn, do, poke, cook, sleep, peel, grow, staple, jump 5. grow, prove, appear, feel, become, look, is 6. Regular verbs: justify, play, walk, wash; irregular verbs: mow, throw, grow, buy, hear, sit, pet, hide. 7. lying, lain, lain 8. sat, set, Sitting 9. will swim = future am giving = present progressive had swum = past perfect gave = past swim = present has given = present perfect swims = present will have given = future perfect 10. best, quick; cool, perfect; excited, birthday 11. a home an hour an honor a university a wallet a golf club a one-eyed monster an upperclassman an orange an underdog an elephant a clock an ugly bug a yellow jacket an actor 12. American, English, Incan, Japanese, Texan, Hawaiian, French, Virginian, Danish 13. PP = possessive pronoun, PA = possessive adjective His = PA, his = PA, mine = PP our = PA my = PA, her = PA 14. DP = demonstrative pronoun, DA = demonstrative adjective This = DP, this = DA, these = DP 15. best, smaller, better 16. more careful, most often, fastest 17. The four cooks fiercely competed for the position of head chef. Jake worked diligently on his math homework before . Morgan was sent straight to her room for disobeying her parents. 18. We walked up the street and around the corner to get milk. For the record, Congressman Hughes supports lowering taxes. Up the tree and over the fence, the gray squirrel skittered nervously.

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19. (Possible answers.) The woman with hair curlers was washing the sheets. The sand along the shore burned my feet while I was walking. Tina bought her cousin a potbellied pig they call Petunia. 20. I quickly ran toward the finish line to win the race. Ray Charles was an excellent pianist. The silver duct tape stuck to the wall very well. 21. DO = direct object, DI = indirect object. dirt = DO, Jim = IO, look = DO, team = IO, thumbs-up = DO 22. flies, watch, wants 23. takes, need, prefer 24. b. their, b. his or her, a. their 25. a. participial phrase, b. appositive phase, c. gerund phrase 26. IC = independent clause, SC = subordinate clause Just to remind you = SC, Have a nice day = IC Try that again = IC, After you left = SC I love you = IC, While we’re at it = SC 27. Bert wants to go swimming today, and Ronnie wants to go with him. We can go to the park on Sunday, or we can go today, but not tomorrow. I decided to go to the gym in the morning so I would have the afternoon free. 28. (a) simple, (b) compound-complex, (c) complex, (d) compound 29. Timmy’s favorite superhero, Mighty Man, wears a red cape and a bright blue suit. Didn’t Mom ask you to pick up laundry detergent, milk, bananas, sour cream, and furniture polish from the grocery store? The girls’ dresses were pink, green, and yellow taffeta with white grosgrain bows. 30. “I have never,” Mom exclaimed angrily, “seen someone so hardheaded in my life!” Carrie whispered, “I think that the actress forgot her lines.” “To your left, you will see Queen Elizabeth’s throne,” said the tour guide.

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parts of speech

WHEN WE SPEAK and write, we put words together in familiar patterns. In these patterns, called sentences, every word plays a specific and necessary role, sometimes several roles. The English language categorizes these roles into eight sections: • Nouns: one of the two fundamental components of the English language, and is divided further into six special parts. • Pronouns: words that take the place of a noun that must agree in three ways—number, gender, and person. • Verbs: called the “movers and shakers” of written and spoken language, they are the second fundamental component of the English language, and are divided into three special parts. Verbs can be written in a number of different tenses. • Adjectives: can add color and imagery, or be mechanical and uncomplicated, just by answering four simple questions. • Adverbs: add vividness to written and spoken words in different ways than adjectives do. • Prepositions: help express a relationship of time or space between certain words in a sentence. • Conjunctions: connect words and phrases in three different ways—coordinating, correlative, and subordinating. • Interjections: words that help a writer or speaker express emotion.

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1 nouns BRITISH POET

The finest language is mostly made up of simple unimposing words.
GEORGE ELIOT (MARY ANNE EVANS), (1819–1880)

Learn what makes up one of the two fundamental parts of the English language— the noun—and how to identify its six special components.

NOUNS ARE NAMING words. They identify people, places, or things in our world, and come in six different forms: common, proper, concrete, abstract, collective, and compound. A single noun can fall into several of these categories. Consider the word notebook, which is a common noun, a concrete noun, and a compound noun all at one time. Let’s see why.

COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS
Markers, skateboard, cell phones, bike trail, shoelaces—these are everyday items that we call common nouns. They are ordinary names for people, places, or things that can be singular or plural. Look around you, what do you see? Four walls, perhaps a window or two, some furniture or books—all of these are common nouns. The nonspecific, ordinary noun notebook belongs as well. Words like Atlantic Ocean, Mardi Gras, Phoenix, SpongeBob, and MercedesBenz are called proper nouns, because they name very specific people, places, or things. They are easy to recognize because of their capital letter, and can be either singular or plural. Be careful though! Don’t fall into the trap of thinking that

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every capitalized word in a sentence is a proper noun. Remember, sentences must begin with a capital letter, too! Philadelphia cheesesteak sandwiches are famous. Philadelphia is a proper noun, and happens to begin the sentence. It would be capitalized anywhere it appeared in the sentence. Cheesesteak sandwiches from Philadelphia are famous. Cheesesteak sandwiches is a common noun, but is capitalized because it begins the sentence. It would be lowercase anywhere else in the sentence. Unless the word notebook is part of a brand name, like the Chic Unique Notebook, it does not belong in this category, because proper nouns are very specific. Notice the differences between these common and proper nouns in the chart below: Common nouns restaurant book actor store country Proper nouns McDonald’s Harry Potter and the Deathly Hollows Johnny Depp Abercrombie & Fitch New Zealand

P R AC T I C E 1 : C O M M O N A N D P R O P E R N O U N S
Find and correct the capitalization errors in these sentences. You can check your answers against the key at the end of this lesson. 1. I was delighted to see katelyn and andrew last saturday Afternoon. 2. the spanish Test on tuesday was hard. 3. martin’s Journey to mount rushmore in keystone, south dakota, was unforgettable. 4. charlie couldn’t sleep because his Puppy, casper, whined all night long.

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5. stephanie bought her jeans at the freehold raceway Mall with the gift card she got for christmas last December. 6. The smithsonian institute, in washington, d.c., has more than 19 museums altogether. 7. Our family plays monopoly and watches movies on new year’s eve.

C O N C R E T E A N D A B S T R AC T N O U N S
Words that refer to something that physically exists are concrete nouns. Concrete nouns can be countable, like soccer ball, controller, pizza, toothpick, and notebook, or uncountable, like air, oxygen, rice, milk, and sand. Concrete nouns that are countable can be made plural; uncountable concrete nouns are always singular. Abstract nouns name feelings, ideas, and characteristics, or qualities. They are concepts that cannot be seen or touched; they have no physical existence. Words like tranquility, stubbornness, health, and curiosity belong in this category. Abstract nouns are usually singular, uncountable nouns, but there are some exceptions—like idea/ideas, noise/noises, freedom/freedoms, and power/powers. Can you think of others?

TIP: Most abstract nouns end with these suffixes: -ism nationalism -tion aggravation -ment argument -age courage -ity personality -ship friendship -ness kindness -ance allowance -th strength -ence silence

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P R AC T I C E 2 : C O N C R E T E A N D A B S T R AC T N O U N S
Determine whether each word is a concrete noun or an abstract noun. 8. determination 9. quality 10. annoyance 11. flower 12. height 13. peacefulness 14. quarter 15. justice 16. celery 17. loyalty 18. paperclip 19. jar 20. government 21. bathtub

COLLECTIVE NOUNS
Have you ever heard of a gaggle of geese? A troop of kangaroos? Perhaps a quiver of cobras, or a kaleidoscope of butterflies? These are just a few of a long list of interesting terms we use to name groups of people or things, called collective nouns. Collective nouns can refer to a single unit, or to the individual members. Term team

Single unit: The team plays its final game. Individual members: The team must wash their new uniforms. Term cast Single unit: The cast is rehearsing. Individual members: The cast carefully practice their lines.

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P R AC T I C E 3 : C O L L E C T I V E N O U N S
Using the word bank below, correctly match the collective noun to its corresponding noun. Check your answers with the key at the end of the chapter. experts snakes sheep kittens 22. committee 23. army 24. herd 25. flock 26. pack 27. caravan 28. brood 29. litter 30. mob buffalo monkeys cards kangaroos ships lions beavers fish 31. flotilla 32. swarm 33. wad 34. lodge 35. deck 36. nest 37. tribe 38. pride 39. school money ants camels wolves bees hens

COMPOUND NOUNS
Toothpaste, fruit juice, jack-in-the-box. These words are what we call compound nouns. When we put two or more words together to create a new word, we have made a compound noun. These three compound nouns show the three ways a compound noun can be written: as one single word, as two or more separate words, or as a hyphenated word. Can you tell what two words make up the compound noun notebook? Yes, note and book.

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Let’s look at how some compound nouns are formed: noun + noun noun + verb verb + noun adjective + noun adverb + noun adverb + verb → → → → → → firefighter, police officer, ice-cream carwash, milkshake, haircut cookbook, cross-road, jump rope hotdog, black eye, blue jeans downtime, overtime, on-looker input, upswing, output

P R AC T I C E 4 : C O M P O U N D N O U N S
In each item below, circle the words that can be combined to form a compound word. Check your answers with the key at the end of the chapter. 40. head 41. some 42. back 43. news 44. tennis 45. flash 46. out 47. paper 48. light 49. fish 50. book a. strong a. one a. bone a. deliverer a. ball a. light a. side a. fall a. house a. tank a. mark b. ache b. body b. door b. paper b. court b. card b. cast b. plate b. feather b. fry b. store c. line c. boy c. drop c. flash c. match c. back c. field c. doll c. weight c. gravel c. report d. road d. thing d. yard d. magazine d. award d. quiz d. house d. ink d. color d. light d. worm

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ANSWERS P ra c t i c e 1 : C o m m o n a n d P ro p e r N o u n s
1. I was delighted to see Katelyn and Andrew last Saturday afternoon. 2. The Spanish test on Tuesday was hard. 3. Martin’s journey to Mount Rushmore in Keystone, South Dakota, was unforgettable. 4. Charlie couldn’t sleep because his puppy, Casper, whined all night long. 5. Stephanie bought her jeans at the Freehold Raceway Mall with the gift card she got for Christmas last December. 6. The Smithsonian Institute, in Washington, D.C., has over 19 museums altogether. 7. Our family plays Monopoly and watches movies on New Year’s Eve.

P ra c t i c e 2 : C o n c re t e a n d A b s t ra c t N o u n s
8. abstract 9. abstract 10. abstract 11. concrete 12. abstract 13. abstract 14. concrete 15. abstract 16. concrete 17. abstract 18. concrete 19. concrete 20. abstract 21. concrete

P ra c t i c e 3 : C o l l e c t i ve N o u n s
22. experts 23. ants 24. buffalo 25. sheep 26. wolves 27. camels 28. hens 29. kittens 30. kangaroos 31. ships 32. bees 33. money 34. beavers 35. cards 36. snakes 37. monkeys 38. lions 39. fish

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P ra c t i c e 4 : C o m p o u n d N o u n s
40. a, b, c 41. a, b, d 42. a, b, c, d 43. b, c, d 44. a, b, c 45. a, b, c 46. a, b, c, d 47. b, c 48. a, c 49. a, b 50. a, b, c, d

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Words are the leaves of the tree of language, of which, if some fall away, a new succession takes their place.
JOHN FRENCH (1852–1925) FRENCH MILITARY FIELD MARSHALL

Learn to identify the different categories of pronouns, words that take the place of a noun, and how we can make then agree in three ways: number, gender, and person.

A PRONOUN TAKES the place of a noun in a sentence. Without them, we would sound absurd when we speak. Incorrect: Mrs. Milling stood at Mrs. Milling’s classroom door and greeted Mrs. Milling’s third-period students as Mrs. Milling’s students walked into the classroom. Correct: Mrs. Milling stood at her classroom door and greeted her third-period students as they walked into the classroom.

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WAYS PRONOUNS HELP US They can refer to specific nouns: Tory did homework at her desk. [The pronoun her refers to the proper noun Tory in the sentence.] Those are the books I ordered. [Here, the demonstrative pronoun those refers to the common noun books.] They can refer to nonspecific nouns: Does anyone understand this problem, or is everyone confused? [Anyone and everyone are indefinite pronouns referring to whomever is being addressed in this sentence.] They can reflect back to a subject: Kevin brought himself a snack, just in case. [Here, himself (the object of the sentence) is referring to the subject, Kevin.] They can emphasize a noun: To save time, Nancy decided to bake the cookies herself. [Herself in this sentence emphasizes the subject Nancy.]

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns are separated into points of view by person: first, second, and third person. You use first-person pronouns when you want to include yourself in the action: I, me, we, and us. Second-person pronouns involve the person listening to or watching the action: you. Third-person pronouns include everybody else but you: he, she, her, him, it, they, and them. When pronouns are used as the subject of a sentence, they are in the subjective case, and called subject pronouns. I like broccoli. We went home. SUBJECT PRONOUNS First Person Singular Plural I we Second Person you you Third Person he, she, it they He is the coach.

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Personal pronouns are called object pronouns when they are used as the object in a sentence (the person or thing on the receiving end of the action), or in the objective case. He likes me. I offered to drive him home. OBJECT PRONOUNS First Person Singular Plural me us Second Person you you Third Person him, her, it them Listen to them!

TIP: Deciding which pronouns to use depends on the nouns being replaced and where they lie in the sentence. For instance: Drew likes Heather. In this sentence, Drew is the subject noun and Heather is the object noun. Let’s replace them with the correct pronouns: He (←male subject pronoun) likes her (←female object pronoun). If we reverse the original sentence but keep the original pronouns, the substitutions become incorrect: Heather likes Drew. → Her likes he. To make the sentence correct, we must substitute the nouns with the correct pronoun case: She (←female subject pronoun) likes him (←male object pronoun). In order to choose the correct pronoun, you have to consider the gender of the noun (male, female, or neuter) and whether it is the doer of the action or the receiver of the action. Christian took Jennifer birdwatching at the park. → He took her birdwatching at the park. If we reverse the subject and object, we must replace them with the correct pronouns: She took him birdwatching at the park.

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Lastly, personal pronouns that show possession—whose something is—are in the possessive case, and are called possessive pronouns. This book is mine. The house on the left is ours. POSSESIVE PRONOUNS First Person Singular Plural mine ours Second Person yours yours Third Person his, hers, its theirs Is that yours?

Possessive pronouns are used in a sentence to show ownership: Amanda’s dog is tan. Mine is black.

TIP: Don’t confuse possessive pronouns with possessive adjectives! They look very similar (my, your, his, her, its, our, and their), and also indicate ownership of something, but a possessive adjective must be followed by a noun in a sentence: Adjective: This is her CD. Your house is big. Our class is over. Pronoun: This CD is mine. His is small. Theirs is over, too.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Indefinite pronouns begin with words like any, every, some, and no. They identify a nonspecific person or thing in a sentence. Some indefinite pronouns can only be singular, some can only be plural, and others can be both. Let’s see. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Singular: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, something, little, much, neither, either, each, one Everyone loves that song! Do you need anything? Little is known about it. Plural: several, few, both, many Several took their turns already. Both were anxious to go. Few were left.

Both: some, any, most, all, none All is well. All were elated at the news.

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D E M O N S T R AT I V E P R O N O U N S
The four demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. They can be either a subject or an object in a sentence. We know which one to use by looking at the number of and distance of the thing(s) we are referring to. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Singular Nearby Far away Examples: What does this say? That is too bad. Those are pretty. These, too. this that Plural these those

REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS
Reflexive and intensive pronouns are pronouns that end in self and selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object are the same: She had to drag herself out of bed after an awful night’s sleep. Intensive pronouns emphasize the subject of the sentence: Hannah herself made the dinner reservations.

TIP: If you remove the intensive pronoun from a sentence, the meaning remains clear. You cannot do the same with a reflexive pronoun, or the meaning becomes distorted.

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P R AC T I C E : P R O N O U N S
In the following sentences, identify the boldface pronoun as personal, possessive, demonstrative, reflexive, intensive, or indefinite. 1. Those used to be dad’s, but they are now mine. He gave them to me. 2. It sold out so quickly, they themselves were lucky to be going to the concert. 3. Jack unhitched the tractor himself and drove it to the field to do some plowing. 4. Something was bothering him, but no one knew what it was. 5. Alison thought that these were prettier earrings than the ones she saw earlier. 6. Both of the kittens were so cute and cuddly, it was hard to choose. 7. Jake walked up to the giant redwood and said, “This is the biggest tree I have ever seen.” 8. It looks like everybody is going on the field trip. 9. Is this pair of jeans yours or mine? 10. Wow! She has a great costume! There is no one in class as creative as Diana.

ANSWERS
1. Those—demonstrative, they—personal, mine—possessive, He—personal, them—personal, me—personal 2. It—personal, they—personal, themselves—intensive 3. himself—reflexive, it—personal 4. Something—indefinite, him—personal, no one—indefinite, it—personal 5. these—demonstrative, she—personal 6. Both—indefinite, it—personal 7. This—demonstrative, I—personal 8. It—personal, everybody—indefinite 9. yours—possessive, mine—possessive 10. She—personal, no one—indefinite

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3 verbs Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language.
LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN (1889–1951) AUSTRIAN PHILOSOPHER

Verbs are the second fundamental component of English. Learn how to discern between action, linking, and helping verbs, and why they are called the movers and shakers of written and spoken language.

AC T I O N V E R B S
Most action verbs are visible—the action can be seen—as in the words skate, text, sleep, pick, grab, swim, and clap. When we have to identify action words in sentences, it is generally pretty easy. Some, though, are more challenging to identify because they are much less obvious to our eyes. It’s hard to see the action of words like think, yearn, wish, believe, consider, need, understand, remember, and assume. We refer to verbs like these as mental verbs, but we must remember that they, too, are doing verbs. Visible action verbs: I jog every afternoon. Betsy fell on the sidewalk. Invisible action verbs: I thought it was delicious. We need to be more aware. Donna wanted to play too. Shawna believes everyone. Justin cooks very well. The audience clapped loudly.

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P R AC T I C E 1 : AC T I O N V E R B S
Identify the action verbs in the following sentences. You may check your answers with the key at the end of the lesson. 1. The clock in the living room chimed every hour. 2. You need a paperclip to secure the papers. 3. Open your book to page 15. 4. Uncle Drew cast his fishing line off the edge of the pier. 5. Lexi considered Morgan to be her best friend. 6. Marcia watched the squirrel hop from limb to limb. 7. Heather understood why.

LINKING VERBS
Linking verbs convey a state of being or condition. In a sentence, they link, or connect, a noun with an adjective, a word that describes the noun:
N V ADJ N V ADJ

The grapefruit tasted sour.

His pockets appeared empty.

or with another noun, used to identify the first noun:
N V N N V N

Fred became the coach.

The clue proved to be the key.

Sometimes you will encounter a word that looks like an action verb, when it is really a linking verb. One trick to knowing the difference between the two is looking for the adjective that is describing the noun. If the adjective is not there, then you have an action verb.

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Action:

Lucas tasted the stew.

Lucas actually tastes the stew; therefore, tasted is an action verb. Linking: The stew tasted salty. The stew is NOT tasting anything. The adjective salty is describing the noun stew, so the verb is a linking verb. Another trick is to replace the verb in the sentence with the verb is. If it makes sense, then the sentence contains a linking verb. For example, Kevin felt the sandpaper. Kevin is the sandpaper.

This is silly—Kevin is NOT sandpaper! Felt is an action verb in this sentence. Kevin felt sick this morning. Kevin is sick this morning.

Yes, this is sensible—felt in this sentence is a linking verb. You should make yourself familiar with this list of verbs that can be both action verbs and linking verbs (remember that their tenses can vary, for example, appear, appears, and appeared). VERBS THAT CAN BE ACTION VERBS AND LINKING WORDS appear feel prove turned act get seem become grow smell come lie sound fall look taste

P R AC T I C E 2 : L I N K I N G V E R B S
Determine whether the italicized verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs. You can check your answers beginning on page 34. 8. Mom’s chicken and dumplings taste too salty for some reason. 9. Charlotte grew green and yellow peppers in her container garden.

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10. We turned at the light and headed home. 11. Pop grew angry when we didn’t listen carefully. 12. She liked to smell the flowers when she walked past the vase. 13. The air smelled stale, so we opened the window. 14. Christian and Louise tasted Aunt Betty’s delicious peach cobbler. 15. Jodi’s white socks turned pink in the wash.

HELPING VERBS
One last type of verb we use is the helping verb. Helping verbs are used to enhance a main verb’s meaning by giving us more information about its tense. Do you recognize these common helping verbs? COMMON HELPING VERBS am have is had are has could was may ought were might be must do shall does will did can

should would

In a sentence, a main verb can have as many as three helping verbs in front of it. For example: Nate served the ball to his opponent. Nate will serve the ball to his opponent. Nate should have served the ball to his opponent. When a main verb has one or more helping verbs, this is called a verb phrase. You should remember that a helping verb does not always have to be right next to the main verb in the sentence. This is because an adverb (not, only, and -ly words) usually separates the helping verbs. For example, Eddie will surely choose the largest slice of pie. Caroline could not have eaten all those cookies.

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P R AC T I C E 3 : H E L P I N G V E R B S
Identify the verb phrases in the following sentences. Then, identify the helping verbs and the main verbs. You may check your answers with the key at the end of the lesson. 16. Steven and Craig must have had permission to leave early. 17. Mitsy should vacuum the carpet before she dusts the furniture. 18. The remote control must have fallen behind the sofa cushion. 19. It was understood that the group would be meeting in the commons after school. 20. Jesse will not be going to soccer practice this afternoon. 21. Meghan might not have practiced enough for her recital. 22. The weatherman thinks it might snow tomorrow afternoon.

ANSWERS P ra c t i c e 1 : Ac t i o n Ve r b s
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. chimed need Open cast considered watched, hop understood

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P ra c t i c e 2 : L i n k i n g Ve r b s
8. linking 9. action 10. action 11. linking 12. action 13. linking 14. action 15. linking

P ra c t i c e 3 : H e l p i n g Ve r b s
16. Verb phrase: must have had; helping verb(s): must have; main verb: had 17. Verb phrase: should vacuum; helping verb(s): should; main verb: vacuum 18. Verb phrase: must have fallen; helping verb(s): must have; main verb: fallen 19. Verb phrase: was understood; helping verb(s): was; main verb: understood Verb phrase: would be meeting; helping verb(s): would be; main verb: meeting 20. Verb phrase: will be going; helping verb(s): will be; main verb: going 21. Verb phrase: might have practiced; helping verb(s): might have; main verb: practiced 22. Verb phrase: might snow; helping verb(s): might; main verb: snow

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verb tenses
Only in grammar can you be more than perfect.
WILLIAM SAFIRE (1929– ) AMERICAN AUTHOR

Verb tenses are used to indicate specific periods of when we are writing or speaking. We can tell when something is happening, has already happened, or has yet to happen. See and learn how it’s done.

THREE BASIC VERB tenses help us understand when something is going to happen or has happened: in the present, the past, or the future. We can then subdivide those into three more categories: simple, progressive, and perfect.
Simple Present Past Future drive drove will drive Progressive am/is/are driving was/were driving will be driving Perfect have/has driven had driven will have driven

Let’s look at these tenses more closely. The three basic tenses we are most familiar with are the simple, progressive, and perfect.

SIMPLE
Present tense indicates present action or action that happens on a regular basis. We sing the National Anthem before ball games.

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Past tense indicates that the action has already happened. He broke his leg skiing yesterday. Future tense indicates that the action hasn’t yet happened, but will. They will audition for this year’s school play.

PROGRESSIVE
Present progressive tense indicates action that is in progress. The present progressive is formed by combining am, is, are with the -ing form of the verb: Trudy is writing a letter to her grandmother. Past progressive tense indicates action that happened at some specific time in the past. The past progressive is formed by combining was or were with the -ing form of the verb: George was playing football in the rain. Future progressive tense indicates action that is continuous or will occur in the future. The future progressive is formed by combining will be with the -ing form of the verb: Doreen will be attending her brother’s wedding this summer.

PERFECT
Present perfect tense indicates that the action had started some time in the past and is ongoing into the present time. The present perfect is formed by combining the helping verbs have or has with the past participle form of the verb. The past participle is usually the simple past form of the verb (verb + ed); for example, hike becomes hiked, or stop becomes stopped. Sometimes, though, the verb is irregular; for example, run becomes ran (not runned), or know becomes knew (not knowed). With regular past participle: With irregular past participle: Hannah has cleaned all day. Justin has lost his cell phone.

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Past perfect tense indicates action that occurred some time in the past before another action was begun. The past perfect is formed by combining the helping verb had with the past participle form of the verb. Luckily, Cory’s flight had left the airport before the snowstorm hit. Future perfect tense indicates action that will occur and finish in the future before another action has begun. The future perfect tense is formed by combining the helping verbs will have, would have, or will have been with the past participle form of the verb. David will have attended Ocean Township Intermediate School for four years before going to high school.

IRREGULAR VERBS
Most verbs are regular, which means that you can add -ed to the end of the word with little or no change (an occasional doubling of a final consonant might be required, or only -d is added to words already ending in -e). English also has many irregular verbs, which don’t follow a predictable pattern like adding -ed to form the past tense. The conjugation of these verbs into tenses will require memorization. Let’s look at the principal parts of these verbs. SOME COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS Past be beat become begin bite blow break bring broadcast build buy catch choose Present was/were beat became began bit blew broke brought broadcast built bought caught chose Past Participle been beaten become begun bitten blown broken brought broadcast built bought caught chosen

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SOME COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS (Continued) Past come cost cut do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let Present came cost cut did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learned left lent let Past Participle come cost cut done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learned left lent let

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SOME COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS (Continued) Past lie light lose make mean meet mistake mow pay proofread put quit read ride ring rise run say see seek sell send sew shake shave shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak speed Present lay lit lost made meant met mistook mowed paid proofread put quit read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent sewed shook shaved shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke speeded/sped Past Participle lain lit lost made meant met mistaken mowed/mown paid proofread put quit read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent sewed/sewn shaken shaved/shaven shone shot showed/shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken speeded/sped

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SOME COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS (Continued) Past spend spread spring stand steal stick sting strike strive swear swim take teach tear tell think throw understand upset wake wear weep win wind write Present spent spread sprang stood stole stuck stung struck strove swore swam took taught tore told thought threw understood upset woke wore wept won wound wrote Past Participle spent spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung struck/stricken strived/striven sworn swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood upset woken worn wept won wound written

Note: All verbs have the same parts (present, past, past participle). Unlike irregular verbs, the past participle of regular verbs is always the past form of the verb. For example: Past jog change walk pick Present jogged changed walked picked Past Participle jogged changed walked picked

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P R AC T I C E : BA S I C , P R O G R E S S I V E , A N D P E R F E C T T E N S E S
On a piece of paper, complete the table below according to the prompt, and then check your answers at the end of the chapter on page 42. Basic 1. take 2. ride 3. speak 4. drift 5. write 6. swim 7. stop 8. eat 9. sing 10. fly (present) (future) (past) (present) (past) (future) (past) (present) (past) (future) Progressive (past progressive) (present progressive) (future progressive) (past progressive) (future progressive) (present progressive) (past progressive) (future progressive) (present progressive) (past progressive) Perfect (future perfect) (present perfect) (past perfect) (future perfect) (present perfect) (future perfect) (past perfect) (future perfect) (past perfect) (future perfect)

Make the necessary changes to the boldfaced verbs in each sentence. You can check your answers on the following page. 11. Aunt Penny will began her workshop on watercolor painting at 3 P.M. 12. Mrs. West spend the weekend in New York City with her daughter. 13. While I nap yesterday afternoon, the sun shine brightly through the window. 14. Jason throwed the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. 15. Watched the game from the stands, Mike cheering for the home team.

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ANSWERS
Basic 1. take 2. ride 3. speak 4. drift 5. write 6. swim 7. stop 8. eat 9. sing 10. fly (take, takes) (will ride) (spoke) (drift, drifts) (wrote) (will swim) (stopped) (eat, eats) (sang) (will fly) Progressive (was/were taking) (is/am riding) (will be speaking) (was/were drifting) (will be writing) (is/am swimming) (was/were stopping) (will be eating) (is/am singing) (was/were flying) Perfect (will have taken) (has ridden) (had spoken) (will have drifted) (has written) (will have swum) (had stopped) (will have eaten) (had sung) (will have flown)

A variety of correct answers are provided for item numbers 11–15. 11. Aunt Penny will begin her workshop on watercolor painting at 3 P.M. Aunt Penny began her workshop on watercolor painting at 3 P.M. Aunt Penny will have begun her workshop on watercolor painting at 3 P.M. 12. Mrs. West spent the weekend in New York City with her daughter. Mrs. West will spend the weekend in New York City with her daughter. Mrs. West had spent the weekend in New York City with her daughter. Mrs. West has spent the weekend in New York City with her daughter. 13. While I napped yesterday afternoon, the sun shone brightly through the window. 14. Jason threw the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. Jason throws the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. Jason will throw the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. Jason had thrown the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. Jason has thrown the stick for his dog Gatsby to catch. 15. Watching the game from the stands, Mike cheered for the home team. Watching the game from the stands, Mike was cheering for the home team. Watching the game from the stands, Mike has cheered for the home team. Watching the game from the stands, Mike had cheered for the home team. Watching the game from the stands, Mike will cheer for the home team. Watching the game from the stands, Mike will be cheering for the home team.

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adjectives
. . . often when I write I am trying to make words do the work of line and colour. I have the painter’s sensitivity to light. Much (and perhaps the best) of my writing is verbal painting.
ELIZABETH BOWEN (1899–1973) IRISH NOVELIST

Some adjectives add color and imagery to our writing and speech, while others are very mechanical and uncomplicated. Learn how and when to use all kinds of adjectives.

ADJECTIVES ARE MODIFIERS that describe or provide more specific information about nouns and pronouns. If a teacher asked a group of students to picture an elephant in their minds, one student might have a mental image of a big gray elephant; another might be imagining the cute, fluffy, stuffed one sitting on her shelf at home. This is because the word elephant is too broad and nondescript. If common adjectives, everyday descriptors such as big, gigantic, white, pink polka-dotted, or hairy had been added, the students’ mental images would have been more aligned to that of the teacher. All adjectives answer three specific questions about the nouns or pronouns they are modifying: what kind? (horizontal, strong, critical), which one(s)? (the, this, that, these, those), and how many? (eight, few, countless, several). While adjectives often come before the nouns they’re modifying, they can come afterward, too: Fred, exhausted and frustrated, took a minute to gather his thoughts before forging ahead.

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ARTICLES
The three words a, an, and the are special adjectives that we call articles. The is a definite article, which implies something specific—pick the card; not just any card. A and an are indefinite articles, which are nonspecific—pick a card; any card. Deciding which indefinite article to place in front of a word depends upon the initial sound of the word, not the first letter of the word. The article an should be placed before words that begin with a vowel sound. A is placed before words that begin with consonant sounds. For instance, the word honest begins with the consonant h, but since it begins with a short o vowel sound (the h is silent), it takes the article an. The word house, on the other hand, takes the article a: It also begins with an h, but the consonant sound (h) is pronounced. Don’t let the initial letter of the word fool you! Be careful of words like one, unicorn, and honest.

PROPER ADJECTIVES
We distinguish proper nouns, like Nathan, Mount Everest, and Colorado, from common nouns, like guy, mountain, and state, by capitalizing them. Proper adjectives are proper nouns acting like adjectives because they are modifying a noun or pronoun. Xerox copier, New York skyline, and Japanese food begin with proper adjectives, each answering the question what kind? or which one? about the noun following it. What kind of copier? Which skyline? What kind of food? Xerox New York Japanese

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
Possessive adjectives look very similar to the possessive pronouns you learned about in Lesson 2. Like possessive pronouns, the possessive adjectives—my, your, his, her, its, our, their—express possession. What distinguishes one from the other is that a possessive adjective must be followed by a noun. Possessive adjectives answer which one? about the noun they are modifying. Adjective: Pronoun: My slippers are here. Yours are over there. Our pool is heated. Theirs is not.

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D E M O N S T R AT I V E A D J E C T I V E S
Demonstrative adjectives—this, that, these, those—also answer which one? about the noun they are modifying, and must also come before the noun being modified. that kite this phone these tickets those blankets

Like possessive adjectives, if the words this, that, these, those are not followed by a noun, they are considered pronouns. For example: This is stale. That took forever. These are confusing. Those fell out.

P R AC T I C E : A D J E C T I V E S
Identify the type of adjective (boldfaced) in each of these sentences. 1. Margaret wore these silver sandals with her new dress. 2. That is an interesting question, Alex. 3. Nathan carried his Gibson guitar and Bose amp to the car. 4. My new pocket watch had stopped ticking. 5. Last night, our white Persian cat, Snowball, was scared, and he hid under my bed. Correctly place the indefinite articles a or an in front of each of these words. 6. ___ hourglass 7. ___ octopus 8. ___ university 9. ___ youth group 10. ___ excellent bargain

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11. ___ upstanding citizen 12. ___ honorable man 13. ___ unopened box 14. ___ unique find 15. ___ one-way street Identify whether the boldfaced word is a proper noun or a proper adjective. 16. Most of the Canadian border is made up of the forty-ninth parallel. 17. My mother’s favorite flower is the African violet. 18. Thai is a difficult language to learn. 19. The orange juice is made from Florida oranges. 20. This Thanksgiving we will travel to Massachusetts. Determine whether the boldfaced word is a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun. 21. Its Greek salad is a popular menu selection. 22. His name is Jeffrey. 23. My dad thought the key was his, but was mistaken. 24. Their bungalow was just down the walkway from ours. 25. Your eyes should be checked if this is difficult to read.

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Determine whether the boldfaced word in the sentence is a demonstrative adjective or a demonstrative pronoun. 26. This day was absolutely the worst! 27. Those antique tea cups must be very fragile. 28. These have got to be the best garlic knots I’ve ever tasted. 29. That doesn’t make a good argument, no matter how you put it. 30. Charlotte chose that one on the right.

ANSWERS
1. these: demonstrative; silver: common; her: possessive; new: common 2. an: indefinite article; interesting: common 3. his: possessive; Gibson: proper; Bose: proper; the: definite article 4. My: possessive; new: common; pocket: common 5. our: possessive; white: common; Persian: proper; scared: common; my: possessive 6. an hourglass 7. an octopus 8. a university 9. a youth group 10. an excellent bargain 11. an upstanding citizen 12. an honorable man 13. an unopened box 14. a unique find 15. a one-way street 16. proper adjective 17. proper adjective 18. proper noun 19. proper adjective 20. proper noun 21. Its: possessive adjective 22. His: possessive adjective

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23. My: possessive adjective; his: possessive pronoun 24. Their: possessive adjective; ours: possessive pronoun 25. Your: possessive adjective; this: possessive pronoun 26. This: demonstrative adjective 27. Those: demonstrative adjective 28. These: demonstrative pronoun 29. That: demonstrative pronoun 30. that: demonstrative adjective

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adverbs
Grammar, which rules even kings . . .
MOLIERE (1622–1673) FRENCH PLAYWRIGHT

Adverbs add vividness and imagery to language in a different way than adjectives do. Learn these differences, and how you can apply them to your writing and speech.

LIKE ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS are also modifiers. They modify verbs most often, but they can also modify adjectives and other adverbs. Some adverbs are very easy to spot, like the words so, very, and really, and most -ly words. Adverbs answer four specific questions about the verbs, adjectives, and adverbs they modify: where? (everywhere, outside, under), when? (always, yesterday, later), how? (quickly, voraciously, surprisingly), and to what extent? (so, very, really). Like adjectives, some adverbs can come either before or after the words they’re modifying: Kathi and Fred walked briskly around the track. Kathi and Fred briskly walked around the track.

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TIP: While spotting -ly adverbs can be fairly simple, it’s important to keep in mind that not all -ly words are adverbs. Some can be adjectives: friendly, neighborly, yearly, mannerly, daily, lovely, elderly, and cowardly, to name just a few. Remember to look for the type of word the -ly word is modifying: It’s an adjective if it modifies a noun or a pronoun; it’s an adverb if it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

The following chart provides you with some examples of how adverbs are used. As you look through the chart, see if you can identify what question the adverb is answering about the modified word. WORDS AN ADVERB CAN MODIFY Verbs Julie can hardly wait for school to end. Melissa turned around. They traveled far and wide. Go quickly and tell her to come here. You’re so helpful, thank you. Brrr! It’s quite chilly now. Greg came unusually late. He almost never complains.

Adjectives Scott looked rather surprised. The soup was too hot to eat. Adverbs Sara danced extremely well this year. The car was following too closely.

D I S T I N G U I S H I N G B E T W E E N A DV E R B S A N D A D J E C T I V E S
Sometimes we see a word used one way in a sentence, and the very same word used in a completely different way in another sentence. How can that be? Simple! Just as you might be a son or daughter to your parents, a brother or sister to your siblings, and a grandson or granddaughter to your grandparents, a word can also wear different hats from sentence to sentence. For instance: Stacy commented that the test was harder than she thought. Hal should try harder to be patient with his younger sister. In the first sentence, harder modifies the noun test, making it an adjective. It is answering what kind of test it was. In the second sentence, harder is modifying the verb try, answering how Hal should try. The chart on the opposite page illustrates some other adverbs and adjectives that share the same form.

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SOME ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES THAT SHARE THE SAME FORM Adjective The fast car crossed the finish line. The early class filled up quickly. The wall was too high blocked the view. Adverb He fell fast asleep. We got home early from school. Kyle jumped high to reach the shelf.

Some others are near, late, far, straight, hard, long, low, right, wrong, wide, little, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. On the other end of the spectrum, some adjectives and adverbs that look similar are not interchangeable. You can avoid the trap by learning their differences.

G o o d a n d We l l
The word good is only an adjective, never an adverb. Good implies acceptable or satisfactory. Ian is a good diver. Well can be an adjective or an adverb. As an adjective, well means healthy: Veronica didn’t look well when I saw her. The adverb form signifies how something is done: He played his defensive position well this season.

Bad and Badly
Bad is also only an adjective, never an adverb. It signifies how someone looks, feels, sounds, or just is (in any form of the verb be): Sandy’s broken toe looked bad. Badly is only an adverb, never an adjective. It modifies the action verb in the sentence, telling how something is done: She limped badly for more than two weeks.

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P R AC T I C E : A DV E R B S
Identify common adverbs in the following sentences. You can check your answers on the following page. 1. In his bathrobe, John stepped outside to quickly retrieve the morning paper. 2. It was an uncommonly warm April day; one too nice to stay inside. 3. The sun was shining brightly, and there wasn’t a single cloud in the sky. 4. Immediately, John decided that it was the perfect day for a picnic. 5. He went right up the stairs to wake up his family and get dressed. 6. Unfortunately, his wife, Ann, could not go. She already had plans to meet with her friends for coffee later. 7. Mark, his teenage son, grumbled loudly and hastily buried his head under his pillow, lamenting the thought of having to roll out of bed before noon. 8. John, hardly discouraged, headed over to the park for a jog, still looking forward to enjoying the warm spring weather. Determine whether the boldfaced words in the sentences are adjectives or adverbs. You can check your answers on the opposite page. 9. The past school year has been productive in many ways. 10. I searched far and wide to find the perfect shade of blue for my living room walls. 11. He said the right answer; I misunderstood, and said the wrong one. 12. Turn right at the light and make a left into the wide driveway. 13. Please don’t walk too fast.

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14. I had to open the door wide to get the package inside. 15. The fast car zoomed past the spectators as it headed for the finish line.

ANSWERS
1. outside, quickly 2. uncommonly, too, inside 3. brightly 4. Immediately 5. right, up 6. already, later 7. loudly, hastily 8. hardly, over, still, forward 9. adjective 10. adverb, adverb 11. adjective, adjective 12. adverb, adjective 13. adverb 14. adverb 15. adjective, adverb

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comparative adjectives and adverbs
The English language is nobody’s special property. It is the property of the imagination: it is the property of the language itself.
DEREK WALCOTT (1930– ) PLAYWRIGHT

There is one more way in which adjectives and adverbs are used: to compare one thing to another in relation to varying amounts—more, most, less, and least.

WE CAN USE adjectives and adverbs to show comparison of things and actions in our writing and speaking. We have three levels or degrees of comparison for both: positive, comparative, and superlative. The positive degree represents the base form of the adjective or adverb: ADJ: Her sweater is white. ADV: He walks fast.

In the comparative degree, a comparison between two things or actions is made: ADJ: Her sweater is whiter than mine. ADV: He walks faster than I do.

In the superlative degree, a comparison between more than two things or actions is made: ADJ: Her sweater is the whitest. ADV: He walks the fastest.

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R U L E S TO R E M E M B E R
Rule 1: Many adjectives and adverbs use -er and -est endings. Adjectives large, larger, largest cold, colder, coldest Adverbs hard, harder, hardest early, earlier, earliest

However, we can’t say good, gooder, goodest, or much, mucher, muchest. Such adjectives and adverbs are called irregular. Their comparative and superlative forms have to be memorized. Here are some words that fall into this category. (adj) good, better, best (adv) well, better, best (both) much, more, most (both) far, farther, farthest (adj) bad, worse, worst (adv) badly, worse, worst (both) little, less, least (both) far, further, furthest

Rule 2: Many adjectives and all adverbs that contain two or more syllables must use more and most to enhance their degree, and less and least to decrease the degree. (two-syllable) ADJ careful more careful less careful more often less often more serious less serious more precisely less precisely more intelligent less intelligent more successfully less successfully most careful least careful most often least often most serious least serious most precisely least precisely most intelligent least intelligent most successfully least successfully

ADV often (three-syllable) ADJ serious

ADV precisely (four-syllable) ADJ intelligent

ADV successfull

Some adjectives that don’t fit this rule are narrow, picky, silly, clever, friendly, simple, quiet, and gentle.

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Rule 3: Some adjectives are called absolute adjectives or incomparable adjectives because they are words that absolutely cannot be compared, no matter how hard you try. Take the adjective round for instance. What could be rounder than round? Or what could be more perfect than perfect? Get it? Other absolute adjectives are favorite, true, false, unique, square, free, and complete. Absolute adverbs are in the same boat. Words like all, every, completely, and entirely already mean everything possible, don’t they? So how could they be intensified any more than they already are? Likewise, never and always, words that express the two most extreme points of time, could hardly be stretched beyond their boundaries.

P R AC T I C E : C O M PA R AT I V E A D J E C T I V E S A N D A DV E R B S
Determine which form of comparative or superlative adjective or adverb best completes each sentence. You may check your answers at the end of the lesson. 1. Mike worked (harder, more hard) at his studies this marking period; his (most low, lowest) spelling score was only a 94. 2. Monday’s weather is supposed to be (hot, hotter) than yesterday’s. 3. Shelby is (more good, better) at crossword puzzles than I am. 4. Raj arrived at the movie theater (earlier, earliest) than Derek, so he bought the tickets. 5. Hannah’s backyard is (larger, more large) than mine. 6. JoAnn swam the (fastest, most fast) in the race. 7. Tham is the (precisest, most precise) with his calculations. 8. The (best, more better) price offered in the catalog was $9.99. 9. This glass of iced tea is (sweeter, sweetest) than the other one. 10. The youngster walked (more carefully, more careful) down the steps.

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ANSWERS
1. harder, lowest 2. hotter 3. better 4. earlier 5. larger 6. fastest 7. most precise 8. best 9. sweeter 10. more carefully

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prepositions and prepositional phrases
From now on, ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put.
WINSTON CHURCHILL (1874–1965) BRITISH STATESMAN

You’d be surprised by the number of OOPs we find in sentences. First, you will learn what OOPs actually are and then you’ll learn how and where to find them.

COMMON PREPOSITIONS about among below by for next outside to under above around beneath concerning from of over toward up across as beside despite in off past under upon after at between down into on since underneath with against before beyond during like onto through unlike within along behind but except near out throughout until without

A preposition is a word that expresses a relationship between some words in a sentence, usually in regard to time (when) or space (where), much like an adverb. In order for a word to be considered a preposition, it must be part of a

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prepositional phrase—a group of words, that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun. The noun or pronoun at the end of the phrase is called the object of the preposition, or OOP. Here are a few prepositional phrases: across the street over the top beyond her comprehension around the corner Since adverbs also tell where and when about words, telling the difference between a preposition and an adverb can be tricky. Just remember that a preposition must always be part of a prepositional phrase, and in fact must always be the first word in the phrase. If it does not begin a phrase, it is an adverb. For example, the words underneath and around in the following sentences are adverbs, because they do not begin a prepositional phrase: I lifted the log carefully, looked underneath, and saw a centipede. When Julie heard a strange noise, she turned around. Notice how the words underneath and around stand by themselves in the sentences. Adverbs can do that. In the next two sentences, underneath and around are prepositions. Each is followed by an OOP, making a prepositional phrase: Sally found her mother’s slippers underneath the bed. Ken looked around the corner before proceeding.

P R AC T I C E : P R E P O S I T I O N A L P H R A S E S
Indicate the prepositional phrases in these sentences. You can check your answers on page 62. 1. After school, the boys played a game of baseball at the park. 2. We hid our canoe in the bushes and set up camp by the river. 3. Candy signed her name on the line and passed the paper across the table.

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4. Without any warning, the dog dashed to the door and barked loudly. 5. The storm caused the tree in our front yard to fall against the house. Try to determine whether the boldfaced word is a preposition or an adverb. You can check your answers on the following page. 6. Pull up a chair and sit down by Steven. 7. Throughout the day, Carla hummed a favorite song to herself. 8. Please bring the newspaper inside. 9. After brushing her teeth, Margaret likes to read in bed before going to sleep. 10. Run to the store across the street and pick up a gallon of milk, please. 11. Haley rode her bike across the bridge into Red Bank and hung out with her friends. 12. Linda stood up and clapped loudly. 13. Lisa borrowed a sweatshirt from her friend. 14. Be careful walking across the wet floor. 15. I saw an interesting show about Mt. Everest on television yesterday.

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ANSWERS
1. After school, the boys played a game of baseball at the park. 2. We hid our canoe in the bushes and set up camp by the river. 3. Candy signed her name on the line and passed the paper across the table. 4. Without any warning, the dog dashed to the door and barked loudly. 5. The storm caused the tree in our front yard to fall against the house. 6. up: adverb; down: adverb; by: preposition 7. Throughout: preposition; to: preposition 8. inside: adverb 9. After: preposition; in: preposition; before: preposition 10. to: preposition; across: preposition; up: adverb; of: preposition 11. across: preposition; into: preposition; with: preposition 12. up: adverb 13. from: preposition 14. across: preposition 15. about: preposition; on: preposition; yesterday: adverb

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conjunctions
When I hear the hypercritical quarreling about grammar and style, the position of the particles, etc., etc., stretching or contracting every speaker to certain rules of theirs. I see that they forget that the first requisite and rule is that expression shall be vital and natural, as much as the voice of a brute or an interjection: first of all, mother tongue; and last of all, artificial or father tongue. Essentially your truest poetic sentence is as free and lawless as a lamb’s bleat.
HENRY DAVID THOREAU (1817–1862) AMERICAN PHILOSOPHER AND POET

Coordinating, correlative, and subordinating conjunctions are tools that help us connect items in a sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn why these connectors are such essential language components.

CONJUNCTIONS CONNECT WORDS, phrases, and sentences in our writing and speech. Two common forms of conjunctions are coordinating and correlative conjunctions. While both of these connect elements that are similar in form (nouns with nouns, phrases with phrases, and sentences with sentences), the correlative conjunctions also show relationship between sentence elements and ideas. Another type of conjunction, and probably the most widely used, is the subordinating conjunction, which connects independent clauses (simple sentences) with subordinate clauses (a group of words that has a subject and verb like a sentence, but cannot stand by itself) that are similar in their relationship rather than in their form. Let’s look at these more closely.

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C O O R D I N AT I N G C O N J U N C T I O N S
The acronym FANBOYS will help you remember the seven coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. The following chart explains what each conjunction means, and gives an example of how it can be used in a sentence. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS for is almost like because or since; it introduces, in a formal tone, a reason Keith did poorly on his math test for he forgot to study last night. [sentence + sentence] joins elements that are sequential and equal in importance The barn was up the road and by the river. [prepositional phrase + prepositional phrase] presents an alternate negative idea or thought Brian did not like singing, nor did he like dancing. implies difference, contrast, and exceptions Our car is old but reliable. [adjective + adjective] implies that an alternative or option will follow I can’t decide if I want an apple or a banana with my yogurt. [noun + noun] implies that a contrary but logical idea will follow Jackie is a quiet yet very outgoing girl. [adjective + adjective] suggests that a consequence will follow Linda turned the light on so she could see where she was walking. [sentence + sentence]

and

nor but

or

yet

so

C O R R E L AT I V E C O N J U N C T I O N S
Like coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions connect elements that are similar in form. The following chart shows the five common pairs of correlative conjunctions, with examples of how they can be used in a sentence.

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CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS both . . . and Both popcorn and peanuts are popular snacks at sporting events. [noun + noun] Either I will have to tell Lionel or you will. [sentence + sentence] Zack could neither talk on the phone nor watch television the entire week. [sentence + sentence] Maria not only skis but also snowboards. [noun + noun] Do you know whether Luke or Robin are coming to dinner? [noun + noun]

either . . . or neither . . . nor

not only . . . but also whether . . . or

S U B O R D I N AT I N G C O N J U N C T I O N S
Subordinating conjunctions join an independent clause (a simple sentence) with a subordinate clause (a group of words that has a subject and verb like a sentence, but cannot stand by itself). For example: I.C. → I went to see a doctor. S.C. → because my throat hurt.

We can understand the first clause, I went to see a doctor without any further explanation, because it is a simple sentence. But the phrase because my throat hurt is a subordinate clause (it begins with the subordinating conjunction because) and is an incomplete thought, so it must be joined with an independent clause in order to make sense. The subordinating conjunctions found at the beginning of subordinating clauses imply these four categories: time, cause and effect, condition, and contrast.

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COMMON SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Time after before when since until as soon as Cause/Effect because so now that in order that as if whether Condition as long as unless provided that so long as if while Contrast although even though though whereas even if whenever

Choosing the appropriate subordinating conjunction depends on what you want to imply in your sentence. For example: if when as long as now that before If my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. When my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. As long as my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. Now that my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. Before my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor.

When using the following conjunctions, you should add not to the subordinate clause to imply contrast: although even though Although my throat hurts, I will not go to the doctor. Even though my throat hurts, I will not go to the doctor.

or leave them as is . . . although even though Although it is fall, the day is still warm. Even though it is fall, the day is still warm.

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P R AC T I C E : C O N J U N C T I O N S
Supply the appropriate coordinating or correlative conjunctions from the chart below for the following sentences. Coordinating and, or, for, nor, but, yet, so Correlative both . . . and either . . . or whether . . . or neither . . . nor not only . . . but also 1. Kim _____ Sara played tennis. 2. _____ Jack _____ Jill went up the hill. 3. Should I order soup _____ salad with dinner? 4. Vincent moved slowly _____ steadily through the crowded room. 5. _____ did Haley arrive early, _____ she was _____ the first one there. 6. Greg wants to be either a cowboy _____ a ghost for Halloween. 7. It rained heavily, _____ the tennis match was canceled. 8. _____ you choose yellow _____ he chose blue is not the issue. 9. _____ your mother _____ your grandmother has heard you play the piano yet. 10. Write down the phone number _____ you may forget it later.

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Create new sentences with the following independent clauses (simple sentences) and a sensible subordinating conjunction. Use the chart of subordinating conjunctions below to help you. (Don’t forget to add punctuation so your new sentence is not a run-on.) COMMON SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Time after before when since until as soon as Cause/Effect because so now that in order that as if whether Condition as long as unless provided that so long as if while Contrast although even though though whereas even if whenever

11. It is raining today. You should bring an umbrella along. 12. The grass needs mowing again. It was mowed on Tuesday. 13. We should arrive at the airport on time. We left a little late. 14. You may play outside. Your homework is finished. 15. We can stay at the mall. It closes.

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ANSWERS
1. and 2. Both, and 3. or 4. yet 5. Not only, but, also 6. or 7. so 8. Whether, or 9. Neither, nor 10. for 11. It is raining today, so you should bring an umbrella along. Since it is raining today, you should bring an umbrella along. Because it is raining today, you should bring an umbrella along. You should bring an umbrella along since it is raining today. You should bring an umbrella along because it is raining today. 12. The grass needs mowing even though it was mowed on Tuesday. The grass needs mowing since it was mowed on Tuesday. The grass needs mowing again, since it was mowed on Tuesday. Even though it was mowed on Tuesday, the grass needs mowing. Since it was mowed on Tuesday, the grass doesn’t need mowing. 13. We should arrive at the airport on time even though we left a little late. We should arrive at the airport on time although we left a little late. Although we left a little late, we should arrive at the airport on time. Even though we left a little late, we should arrive at the airport on time. 14. You may play outside provided that your homework is finished. You may play outside, as long as your homework is finished. You may play outside, so long as your homework is finished. You may play outside now that your homework is finished. You may play outside when your homework is finished. You may play outside after your homework is finished. You may play outside since your homework is finished. You may play outside if your homework is finished. You may play outside whenever your homework is finished. Provided that your homework is finished, you may play outside. As long as your homework is finished, you may play outside. So long as your homework is finished, you may play outside. Now that your homework is finished, you may play outside.

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When your homework is finished, you may play outside. After your homework is finished, you may play outside. Since your homework is finished, you may play outside. If your homework is finished, you may play outside. Whenever your homework is finished, you may play outside. 15. Until it closes, we can stay at the mall. We can stay at the mall until it closes.

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parts of a sentence

The eight parts of speech can be found within a sentence, but the parts of a sentence (subject, predicate, direct object, and indirect object) do not necessarily directly correspond with the parts of speech. For instance, the subject in a sentence can be a noun, a pronoun, a phrase, or a clause. Construction of a good sentence is essential for basic communication. In this section, you will learn how these components come together to do just that. • Subject: one of the two fundamental components of the basic sentence, subjects tell the listener and the reader whom or what the sentence is about. • Predicate: as the second fundamental component of a sentence, the predicate tells the reader or listener about the condition of the subject, or the action the subject is performing. • Direct object: as one of two “complements,” the direct object receives the action from the action verb of the sentence, and answers whom or what about that action verb. • Indirect object: these depend on the direct object for existence, and tell the reader or listener to or for whom or to or for what the direct object is given or performed.

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subjects and predicates
Grasp the subject, the words will follow.
CATO THE ELDER (234 B.C.–149 B.C.) ROMAN ORATOR AND POLITICIAN

In this lesson, you will learn to identify the most basic parts of a sentence, looking at simple and complete subjects and predicates.

SENTENCES ARE THE most necessary element of speaking and writing; they allow us to communicate with others. A basic sentence can be divided up into two major components: the complete subject, which includes whom or what the sentence is about, and all words related to the subject; and the complete predicate, which includes what the subject is doing or what condition the subject is in, and all the words related to the predicate. Within the complete subject and predicate are the simple subject—one or more nouns or pronouns, and the simple predicate—one or more verbs.

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SIMPLE SUBJECTS
Finding the simple subject of a sentence is, well, simple. You just need to ask who? or what? about the verb. For example: s v Gina likes lasagna. Who likes [lasagna]? Gina; thus, she is the subject. A subject can also be a common noun: s v Our town has a Memorial Day parade each year. What has [a Memorial Day parade]? The town; thus, it is the subject. A subject can also be a pronoun: s v We listened to the radio at the beach. Who listened [to the radio]? We did; thus, it is the subject. There can also be more than one subject in a sentence: s s v Sausage and mushrooms are Leo’s favorite pizza toppings. What are [Leo’s favorite pizza toppings]? Sausage and mushrooms are the subjects. When two subjects share the same verb, this is called a compound subject.

TIP: Usually the subject of a sentence is found at the beginning of the sentence, but it can also be found in the middle or at the end of a sentence:
S V

In the middle: Early yesterday afternoon, Janet completed the scarf she was knitting. At the end: v s Hiding in the bushes was Drew’s lost cat, Bootsy.

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TRICKY SUBJECTS
Sometimes you might see a sentence that doesn’t seem to have a subject. Usually, these are imperative sentences, sentences that make a request or command. Imperative sentences always have an implied subject, and that subject is you: Please make your bed before leaving for school. If you ask who? or what? is to make [your bed before leaving], there isn’t a noun or pronoun that will answer that. That is because in imperative sentences, the subject is implied; the answer to the question is always you. What if the sentence is a question? In order to find the subject of a question, simply turn the question into a statement, which will place the subject at the beginning of the sentence: Why didn’t he make his bed before leaving for school? Restated, it becomes:
S V V

He did not make his bed before leaving for school. Who did not make [his bed]? He is the subject.

S I M P L E P R E D I C AT E S
A simple predicate (or verb) describes the action or condition of the subject or subjects in a sentence. In order to identify the predicate(s) in a sentence, ask what word shows what the subject(s) is doing? Or what word shows the condition of the subject(s)?
S S V

Nathan and Sara helped their mom and dad with the yard work. Nathan and Sara did what? Helped is the predicate. Just as with subjects, there can be more than one predicate in a sentence. When two predicates share the same subject, this is called a compound predicate.
S V V

Danielle sketched and painted a lovely picture.

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Danielle did what? Sketched and painted are the predicates.
S S V V

Eleanor and Leslie are best friends and always support each other. Eleanor and Leslie what? They are (best friends) and they support. Are and support are the predicates.

C O M P L E T E S U B J E C T S A N D C O M P L E T E P R E D I C AT E S
Identifying any sentence’s complete subject and complete predicate is easy as well. Once you find the simple subject and the simple predicate, you should be able to notice a natural division between the telling part of the sentence and the doing or condition part. For example:
S V

Brielle, an artist, | sold some of her art at the auction.
S V

The birds | always sing early in the morning. In the first sentence, the subject, Brielle, and the appositive phrase that gives more information about Brielle—an artist—form the complete subject of the sentence. Likewise, the complete predicate is made up of the verb that tells what Brielle did, sold, and other words that give more information about what she sold and where she sold it—some of her art at the auction. Similarly, in the second sentence, notice that the adverb always is part of the complete predicate. Even if you didn’t know that adverbs modify verbs, you could see that always gives more information about the verb sing, not the noun bird, so it belongs with the complete predicate.

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P R AC T I C E : S U B J E C T S A N D P R E D I C AT E S
Identify the simple subjects and simple predicates of the following sentences, and then divide the sentence into its complete subject and complete predicate. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson. 1. Have a happy birthday. 2. The mountains are a popular vacation spot. 3. Tad took his dog to the vet yesterday. 4. Holly and Mac cleaned the basement. 5. Do birds sing to warn other birds about their territory? 6. Park your car in the garage when the weather calls for snow. 7. At six o’clock each day, please feed and walk the dog. 8. Salad is a healthy addition to lunch and dinner. 9. Skunks are very accurate when they spray a rival. 10. Justin washed and waxed Dad’s car. 11. The garbage truck arrives very early in the morning. 12. Would they prefer chili or sauerkraut with their hotdogs? 13. Sixteen inches of snow fell in the Adirondacks last night. 14. I am afraid of heights. 15. Reading often improves your vocabulary. 16. Cell phones are convenient at home or at the office.

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17. Grab my hand and hang on tight! 18. The drenching rainfall yesterday flooded many roads. 19. May I borrow your stapler? 20. Place a coaster underneath your glass, please.

ANSWERS
1. S: (You); P: have (You) | have a happy birthday. 2. S: mountains; P: are The mountains | are a popular vacation spot. 3. S: Tad; P: took Tad | took his dog to the vet yesterday. 4. S: Holly and Mac; P: cleaned Holly and Mac | cleaned the basement. 5. S: birds; P: do sing Do birds sing to warn other birds about their territory? becomes the statement: Birds | do sing to warn other birds about their territory. 6. S: (You); P: park (You) | park your car in the garage when the weather calls for snow. 7. S: (you); P: feed, walk At six o’clock each day, (you) | please feed and walk the dog. 8. S: salad; P: is Salad | is a healthy addition to lunch and dinner. 9. S: skunks; P: are Skunks | are very accurate when they spray a rival. 10. S: Justin; P: washed, waxed Justin | washed and waxed Dad’s car. 11. S: garbage truck; P: arrives The garbage truck | arrives very early in the morning. 12. S: they; P: would prefer Would they prefer chili or sauerkraut with their hotdogs? becomes the statement: They | would prefer chili or sauerkraut with their hotdogs. 13. S: snow; P: fell Sixteen inches of snow | fell in the Adirondacks last night.

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14. S: I; P: am I | am afraid of heights. 15. S: reading; P: improves Reading | often improves your vocabulary. 16. S: phones; P: are Cell phones | are convenient at home or at the office. 17. S: (You); P: grab, hang on (You) | grab my hand and hang on tight! 18. S: rainfall; P: flooded The drenching rainfall | yesterday flooded many roads. 19. S: I; P: may borrow May I borrow your stapler? becomes the statement: I | may borrow your stapler. 20. S: (You); P: place (You) | place a coaster underneath your glass, please.

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direct and indirect objects
A sentence is made up of words, a statement is made in words.... Statements are made, words or sentences are used.
JOHN LANGSHAW AUSTIN (1911–1960) BRITISH PHILOSOPHER

In this lesson, you will learn how an object is often necessary to complete a basic sentence containing an action verb. Objects also make sentences more meaningful to readers and listeners.

A DIRECT OBJECT is the noun or pronoun that is receiving the action from the action verb in the sentence. Finding direct objects in a sentence is simple: They answer whom? or what? about the action verb.
S V DO

Scott kicked the ball into the net.
S V DO

Kicked what? [the] ball.

Wanda took Sara to the theater.

Took whom? Sara.

There can also be more than one direct object in a sentence. As with compound subjects and compound predicates, when the direct objects share one or more of the same verbs in the sentence, they are called compound direct objects.
S V DO DO

David planted an apple tree and a lemon tree this weekend.

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Who planted? David is the subject. Planted what? An apple tree and a lemon tree are the direct objects.
S V DO DO

Nathan plays tennis and soccer. Who plays? Nathan is the subject. Plays what? Tennis and soccer are the direct objects. As well, sentences that have a direct object may also contain an indirect object. An indirect object is directly related to the direct object; it tells who or what is the recipient of the direct object. You cannot have an indirect object in a sentence without having a direct object first. To identify an indirect object in the sentence ask to or for whom? or to or for what? after the action verb. For example:
S V IO DO

Steven showed Cory his iguana. Who showed? Steven did; thus, he is the subject. Showed what? An iguana; thus, it is the direct object. Showed (an iguana) to whom? Cory; thus, he is the indirect object.
S V IO DO

Kayla baked Schneider a cake for his birthday. Who baked? Kayla did; thus, she is the subject. Baked what? A cake; thus, it is the direct object. Baked (a cake) for whom? Schneider; thus, he is the indirect object.

TIP: Indirect objects are always found between the verb and the direct object. Be careful not to mistakenly identify an object of a preposition (OOP) as a direct object:
S V DO OOP

Margaret sent a postcard to Donna. Even though Donna answers to whom Margaret sent the postcard, in this sentence, Donna is an OOP, not an indirect object.
S V IO DO

Margaret sent Donna a postcard. Here, there is no prepositional phrase, and Donna is the indirect object receiving the direct object, the postcard.

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P R AC T I C E : D I R E C T A N D I N D I R E C T O B J E C T S
Identify the direct and any indirect objects in the following sentences. You may check your answers on page 84. 1. Denny brought Tony some apples, bananas, and strawberries from the store. 2. Place the puppy into his pen and come to dinner. 3. Jennifer sent an e-mail to her friend in Missouri. 4. The kids played street hockey all afternoon. 5. Thomas got an invitation to visit UCLA during Spring Break. 6. Gary brought a paper to read while he waited for Ann to finish. 7. Justin Timberlake sang his fans’ favorite hits. 8. The king gave his most loyal subjects a generous portion of land. 9. The instructor offered her students a lollipop after class. 10. He tied the nets to the goal posts and lined the fields for this season’s games. 11. The plumber sent Mom a bill for fixing the sink. 12. Paul bought us tickets for Sunday’s game. 13. Grandma read Michael and Mark a story before bed. 14. Orlando wrote a poem and submitted it to the contest. 15. I need more time to finish my project.

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parts of a sentence

ANSWERS
1. IO = Tony; DO = apples, bananas, strawberries 2. DO = puppy 3. DO = e-mail 4. DO = street hockey 5. DO = invitation 6. DO = paper 7. DO = hits 8. IO = subjects; DO = portion 9. IO = students; DO = lollipop 10. DO = nets, fields 11. IO = Mom; DO = bill 12. IO = us; DO= tickets 13. IO = Michael, Mark; DO = story 14. DO = poem, it 15. DO = time

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building a sentence

THE BASIC COMPONENTS of a sentence are essential, but they can be boring if they’re the only elements that have been given to the reader or listener. Variety and embellishment are important, too, if one is to become a good writer or effective speaker. • Phrases: strings of two or more “subject and predicate free” words that add information, detail, and bring cohesiveness to ideas within a sentence. • Clauses: like phrases, they also add details to the sentence, except they need the help of a subject and predicate. Sometimes clauses can be called sentences, themselves! • Sentence combining: want to make your sentences more complex and advanced? Learn how to combine like sentences, add phrases and clauses, and you’re on your way. • Fragments and run-ons: they stick out like a sore thumb and can compromise your communication goals. Avoid them and know how to spot them for correction.

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phrases
Only in grammar can you be more than perfect.
WILLIAM SAFIRE (1929– ) AMERICAN JOURNALIST

These indispensable and adaptable groups of words add information and detail, and bring cohesiveness to ideas within a sentence. In this lesson, you will learn how phrases help bring structure to your writing.

A PHRASE IS a string of two or more words that can express a thought or function as a single part of speech, like an adjective or an adverb, in a sentence. They do not contain both a subject and a predicate, so they cannot function as a sentence. For example: Phrases without a Predicate: that car Shannon’s umbrella their pool

Phrases without a Subject: almost hit a tree broke into pieces is heated year round

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A D J E C T I V E A N D A DV E R B P H R A S E S
As you may remember from Lesson 8, a prepositional phrase is a phrase that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun (also called an OOP). Within a sentence, prepositional phrases always act as if they were adjectives or adverbs—we call them adjective phrases and adverb phrases. When functioning like an adjective, the phrase answers what kind? or which one? about the noun or pronoun it is modifying. Dad’s polka-dotted tie looked silly. Here, polka-dotted is an adjective telling what kind of tie Dad had. Dad’s tie with polka-dots looked silly. Here, with polka-dots is a prepositional phrase (adjective phrase) acting like an adjective modifying the noun tie. Likewise, when functioning like an adverb, the phrase answers where? when? how? or to what extent? about the verb, adjective, or adverb it is modifying. We will begin class tomorrow. We will begin class on Monday. Tomorrow is an adverb telling when about the verb begin in the sentence. On Monday is a prepositional phrase (adverb phrase) acting like an adverb modifying the verb begin. Let’s look at another example. The ballerina danced gracefully across the stage. The ballerina danced with grace across the stage. The adverb gracefully tells how the ballerina danced. The adverb phrase with grace also tells how she danced.

APPOSITIVE PHRASES
An appositive is a word that renames, identifies, or gives more detail about a noun or pronoun that it follows in the sentence. Their son Raul is going to Princeton in the fall.

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The noun son is being renamed and further identified by the appositive Raul in the sentence. We can also add other modifiers to the appositive Raul and make an appositive phrase: Their son Raul, the oldest of four, is going to Princeton in the fall. Appositives can also be compound: Their son Raul, the oldest of four and an outstanding student, is going to Princeton in the fall.

G E R U N D A N D PA R T I C I P I A L P H R A S E S
A gerund phrase begins with an -ing word, or a gerund. Unlike prepositional phrases, gerund phrases act like a noun in a sentence, so you find them acting like subjects or objects. Walking across the rickety wooden bridge was scary. Walking across the rickety wooden bridge answers what was scary? Thus, it functions as a noun in the sentence. Don’t confuse a gerund phrase with a participial phrase. Like a gerund, a participle ends with -ing, but that is the extent of their likeness. A participial phrase functions like an adjective in a sentence, describing a noun or a pronoun; a gerund phrase always acts like a noun. Walking across the rickety wooden bridge, I stepped on each board with caution. Walking across the rickety wooden bridge is describing the subject I in the sentence. Thus, it functions as an adjective.

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P R AC T I C E : P H R A S E S
Identify the adjective and adverb phrases in the sentences that follow. You may check your answers at the end of the lesson. 1. Students with ambition are usually successful. 2. The painter climbed up the ladder. 3. Her ring with the emeralds and rubies came from her grandmother. 4. I saw the squirrels scampering along the fence rail in the backyard. 5. They anchored their fishing boat about a mile off shore. Identify the appositive phrases in the following sentences and the noun or pronoun they are modifying. 6. Her adventure story appeared in Cricket, the popular children’s magazine. 7. Which Shakespearian tragedy do you like most, King Lear or Hamlet? 8. Would you please give this note to your teacher, Mr. Christopher? 9. My cousin, a sophomore at the Academy of Allied Health and Science, wants to be a physical therapist. 10. Marcie told a story about the Tasmanian Devil, an urban legend. Determine whether the boldfaced phrase is a gerund phrase or a participial phrase. 11. Trying to be protective, Charlotte put her parakeet back into its cage. 12. Misplacing my belt with the silver buckle disappointed Dad. 13. Snoring with contentment, Hallie’s cat slept on the bed by her feet.

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14. Having to wait at the bus stop for over an hour every day was becoming tiring. 15. Heading this year for the Super Bowl is our favorite team, the New York Giants.

ANSWERS
1. adjective phrase: with ambition 2. adverb phrase: up the ladder 3. adjective phrase: with the emeralds and rubies adverb phrase: from her grandmother 4. adverb phrase: along the fence rail, in the backyard 5. adverb phrase: about a mile off shore 6. the popular children’s magazine; modifies: Cricket 7. King Lear or Hamlet; modifies: tragedy 8. Mr. Christopher; modifies: teacher 9. a sophomore at the Academy of Allied Health and Science; modifies: cousin 10. an urban legend; modifies: Tasmanian Devil 11. participial phrase 12. gerund phrase 13. participial phrase 14. gerund phrase 15. participial phrase

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13 clauses At painful times, when composition is impossible and reading is not enough, grammars and dictionaries are excellent for distraction.
ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING (1806–1861) ENGLISH POET

Sometimes they’re a sentence, and sometimes they’re not. Clauses, like phrases, add detail and information to your sentences. In this lesson, you will see how and why clauses are necessary elements within a piece of work.

UNLIKE A PHRASE, a clause is a group of words that has its own subject and verb. This allows some clauses to be considered sentences. Others, despite the fact that they have their own subject and verb, are not sentences because they don’t express a complete thought. There are three kinds of clauses: independent, subordinate, and relative. Let’s look at them more closely.

I N D E P E N D E N T C L AU S E S
The independent clause, or main clause, can stand alone as a simple sentence, because it not only has the two main components of a sentence, a simple subject and a simple predicate, but it also expresses a complete thought.
S V S V

Henry walked home from school.

It began to rain.

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Two or more clauses can be put together, with the help of semicolons or coordinating conjunctions (and, or, for, nor, but, yet, and so), to form a longer sentence. Henry walked home from school; it began to rain. Henry walked home from school and it began to rain. Henry walked home from school and it began to rain, but luckily he had an umbrella stashed in his book bag; he is always prepared. We will learn more about combining clauses to make longer sentences in Lesson 14.

S U B O R D I N AT E C L AU S E S
A subordinate clause, also referred to as a dependent clause, cannot stand alone as a simple sentence, even though it contains a subject and a verb. Such clauses must be connected with an independent clause to help them do their job.
S V V S V

Although Cara was absent from school for three days, she did well on her quiz. [subordinate] + [independent]
S V S V

Dean’s mom cooked dinner while he worked on his science project. [independent] + [subordinate] Even though they may look similar to independent clauses, subordinate clauses are different because they must begin with either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. The following charts give some examples. COMMON SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS after as soon as if so when where Examples: after she left so long as I am the leader whether you like it or not although because in order that so long as whenever as if before now that though whereas as long as even if provided that unless whether as much as even though since until while

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS that who whosever which whoever whom whichever whose whomever

Examples: whose mom is so nice which made him grouchy whichever comes first

T I P : When you begin a sentence with a subordinate clause, you have to put a comma after it. Whether I like it or not, Mom says I must wear my helmet when I skateboard. However, when you end a sentence with one, you don’t. Mom says I must wear my helmet when I skateboard whether I like it or not.

R E L AT I V E C L AU S E S
A relative clause is one that begins with a relative pronoun (see the preceding chart). In a sentence, a relative clause acts like an adjective by giving more information about the subject of the sentence. Even though relative clauses have their own subject and verb, though, they cannot stand alone as a sentence because they don’t express a complete thought. For example: s s v v v Mom’s apple pie recipe that won in last week’s county fair was published in the local newspaper. that won in last week’s county fair answers which one? about the noun recipe.
S S V V V

Austin, who skis well, will compete for a state title this year. who skis well answers which one? about the proper noun Austin.

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P R AC T I C E : I N D E P E N D E N T A N D S U B O R D I N AT E C L AU S E S
Determine whether the boldfaced group of words is an independent, a subordinate, or a relative clause. You may check your answers with the key at the end of the lesson. 1. Jason took a nap before he left for his friend’s house. 2. You can keep your privileges as long as we continue to see progress. 3. Hannah wasn’t feeling well, which Dad noticed immediately. 4. Although you may disagree, I still say Sheila is the best person for the job. 5. There would be less tension between them if they could just see eye to eye. 6. I’m bringing my homework along even though we don’t plan to stay long. 7. Golam, whom I’ve never met before, seemed like a pretty nice guy. 8. In order that we may be respectful of the presenters, please turn off your cell phones. 9. I knew this was going to be an exciting game when Andrew took his first swing. 10. Margaret, whose earrings I borrowed last week, told her dad that she was tired and wanted to go home. 11. Before you go, would you please be sure to clean up the mess you make? 12. It seemed like only yesterday that I was here playing tag with my friends Julie and Laurie. 13. Whichever cookie you decide on, I assure you it will be absolutely delicious.

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14. Since she was only just around the corner, Paula decided to walk to the store instead of driving. 15. Whoever she is, she sure seems to know what she’s doing.

ANSWERS
1. independent 2. subordinate 3. relative 4. subordinate 5. subordinate 6. independent 7. relative 8. subordinate 9. subordinate 10. relative 11. subordinate 12. independent 13. relative 14. independent 15. relative

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combining sentences
Grammar is the logic of speech, even as logic is the grammar of reason.
RICHARD C. TRENCH (1807–1886) ENGLISH ARCHBISHOP AND POET

If you want your sentences to be more complex and advanced, you must know how to combine sentences. Learn how to do just that in this lesson.

DO YOU REMEMBER when you were first learning to read? Most of the sentences you practiced with were simple and short, which was very helpful. Now that you’re an advanced reader, you would find those same sentences monotonous and uninteresting. Good readers like sentences that vary in length and complexity; writers achieve this through sentence combining.

SIMPLE SENTENCES
We know that simple sentences (independent clauses) contain a simple subject and a simple predicate. Look at the following combinations you could use to make a basic simple sentence (these examples don’t include any words, phrases, or clauses that could be added for detail).

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SIMPLE SENTENCE STRUCTURES (Implied subject you) + (V)erb = simple sentence Listen! (S)ubject + V = simple sentence Sara plays. S + V + (O)bject = simple sentence Sara plays piano. (C)ompound S + V + O = simple sentence Sara and Katelyn play piano. S + CV + O = simple sentence Sara dances and plays piano. S + V + CO = simple sentence Sara plays piano and tennis. CS + CV + O = simple sentence Sara and Katelyn dance and play tennis. CS + V + CO = simple sentence Sara and Katelyn play piano and tennis. S + CV + CO = simple sentence Sara dances and plays piano and tennis. CS + CV + CO = simple sentence Sara and Katelyn dance and play piano and tennis. NOTE: While only two names or items are given in the compound examples, three or more could be included. Also note that all the subjects and objects share the same verbs. Now, let’s look at two other basic sentence types in writing: the compound sentence and the complex sentence.

COMPOUND SENTENCES
When we combine two independent clauses (or simple sentences) into one sentence, we create a compound sentence. Creating compound sentences helps make our writing less choppy. To do this, we take two or more topic-related sentences and join them together with one of the coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so) or join them with a semicolon. The sun was shining. The weather was warm. I went to the beach.

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Some possible combinations would be: The sun was shining and the weather was warm, so I went to the beach. The weather was warm and the sun was shining, so I went to the beach. I went to the beach for the sun was shining and the weather was warm. The sun was shining and the weather was warm; I went to the beach. The weather was warm and the sun was shining; I went to the beach. I went to the beach: The sun was shining and the weather was warm. The coordinating conjunction or works well in sentences where choice is involved, and nor works well when the expressions are negative. Using but and yet works well in sentences where there is dissimilarity between the expressions.

P R AC T I C E 1 : C O M P O U N D S E N T E N C E S
Combine the following simple sentences to create a compound sentence. You can check your answers beginning on page 103. 1. It rained for three days. The streets in my neighborhood flooded. 2. I got to ball practice late. I forgot to set my alarm. 3. Kyle completed his homework. He put it in his binder. 4. Luke mowed the lawn. He earned ten dollars. 5. I stayed up late last night. I am tired today. 6. Neil doesn’t like seafood. He doesn’t like cabbage. 7. My pencil was broken. I borrowed one from Jake. 8. I like apples. I like pears more. 9. Eight people got into the elevator. It was crowded. Three people got off. 10. Georgia gathered the pictures. She could arrange them in a special album for her family.

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COMPLEX AND COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES
Complex sentences follow the same idea as compound sentences, except that they are made up of one independent clause and one or more subordinate (dependent) clauses. For example: Because the weather was warm, I went to the beach. I went to the beach because the weather was warm. Let’s add another subordinate clause: I went to the beach because the weather was warm, even though it was a weekday. Because the weather was warm, I went to the beach, even though it was a weekday. Even though it was a weekday, because the weather was warm, I went to the beach. I went to the beach even though it was a weekday, because the weather was warm. Finally, there are compound-complex sentences, which have at least two independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses: Even though it was a weekday and I should have been in school, I went to the beach. I went to the beach even though it was a weekday and I should have been in school. Let’s add another subordinate clause: Because the weather was warm, I went to the beach, even though it was a weekday and I should have been in school.

P R AC T I C E 2 : C O M P L E X A N D C O M P O U N D - C O M P L E X S E N T E N C E S
Identify the independent and subordinate clauses in the following sentences and determine whether they are complex or compound-complex. You can check your answers on page 104.

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11. Jason decided to stay up late because he had a lot of homework to do. 12. If you hurry, we might get to school on time. 13. Although Monica had a cold, she went to school because she had a test. 14. While washing the car, Todd slipped on the soap and he fell. 15. Dad takes the train to work even though he has a car. 16. After Mom arrived, she put the disk in the DVD player and we watched a great movie. 17. Even though his heart pounded with dread, Ben bolted up the stairs, and he checked out the strange noise. 18. Molly baked brownies since she had nothing else to do. 19. Karen made a list of what was needed, and she double-checked it so she wouldn’t forget anything. 20. Frank had a good sense of humor, so he laughed a lot.

ANSWERS P ra c t i c e 1 : C o m p o u n d S e n t e n c e s
(In each case, only one possible answer is shown.) 1. It rained for three days, so the streets in my neighborhood flooded. 2. I got to ball practice late for I forgot to set my alarm. 3. Kyle completed his homework and he put it in his binder. 4. Luke mowed the lawn and he earned ten dollars. 5. I stayed up late last night so I am tired today. 6. Neil doesn’t like seafood, nor does he like cabbage. 7. My pencil was broken so I borrowed one from Jake. 8. I like apples, but I like pears more.

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9. Eight people got into the elevator, but it was crowded, so three people got off. 10. Georgia gathered the pictures so she could arrange them in a special album for her family.

P ra c t i c e 2 : C o m p l ex a n d C o m p o u n d - C o m p l ex S e n t e n c e s
(The independent clauses are boldfaced, the subordinate clauses are italic, and conjunctions are Roman.) 11. Jason decided to stay up late because he had a lot of homework to do. (complex) 12. If you hurry, we might get to school on time. (complex) 13. Although Monica had a cold, she went to school because she had a test. (complex) 14. While washing the car, Todd slipped on the soap and he fell. (compoundcomplex) 15. Dad takes the train to work even though he has a car. (complex) 16. After Mom arrived, she put the disk in the DVD player and we watched a great movie. (compound-complex) 17. Even though his heart pounded with dread, Ben bolted up the stairs, and he checked out the strange noise. (compound-complex) 18. Molly baked brownies since she had nothing else to do. (complex) 19. Karen made a list of what was needed, and she double-checked it so she wouldn’t forget anything. (compound-complex) 20. Frank had a good sense of humor, so he laughed a lot. (complex)

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fragments and run-ons
If you make yourself understood, you’re always speaking well.
MOLIERE (1622–1673) FRENCH PLAYWRIGHT

Knowing whether or not you have a sentence fragment or run-on in your writing is essential. Learn how to avoid making these mistakes and how to identify them if you make them.

F R AG M E N T S
A fragment is an incomplete sentence. Sometimes it lacks a subject or a verb. No verb: No subject: Without a care in the world. Took the dog to the vet for a check up.

Other times it is just a dependent clause (a clause that has a subject and a verb, but begins with a subordinating conjunction). Incomplete sentences like these can often be fixed just by eliminating the end punctuation and combining them with the adjoining sentence, adding any necessary proper punctuation. Incorrect: Our high school has many sports teams. Such as soccer, tennis, lacrosse, baseball, and football. Correct: Our high school has many sports teams, such as soccer, tennis, lacrosse, baseball, and football.

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TIP: A newspaper is one place where fragments run rampant. This is because of the costly space restrictions and the abundance of advertising. If you look, you’ll find sentence fragments in headlines, captions, titles, and ads. They tend to be short and snappy—easy to remember. Note: Writing in fragments, like in a newspaper, does not reflect formal writing etiquette and should not be used in writing for business or school. Save this journalistic style for news reporting only.

RUN-ONS
Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. This sentence is one kind of run-on, called a fused sentence. You get a fused sentence when you combine two or more complete sentences without any punctuation mark. There are actually two separate sentences in the example above. Do you see them? We can solve our fused sentence issue in one of three different ways. Let’s see how. One way is to insert a period after each complete sentence (and, of course, capitalizing the first word of your new sentences). Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it. This usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. If the sentences in your run-on are topic related, then you can also insert a semicolon between them. Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it; this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. Lastly, you can place a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so) into the sentence.

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Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it, for this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. Another common type of run-on sentence, called a comma splice, occurs when you use a comma instead of the appropriate end punctuation. Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it, this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. To solve this mistake, you need to add an appropriate coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so). Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it, for this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. The wayward comma can also be replaced with another punctuation mark, such as a semicolon or a period. Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it; this usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. Run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it. This usually occurs when you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed. One last way to fix these mistakes is to reword the sentences into a complex sentence (one independent clause with one subordinate clause). When you are writing quickly and not putting punctuation where it’s needed, run-on sentences can sneak up on you when you least expect it.

P R AC T I C E : F R AG M E N T S A N D R U N - O N S
Determine whether the following word groups are complete sentences (C), fragments (F), or run-ons (R). Revise any run-on. You can check your answers at the end of the chapter.

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1. Thought that the Shakespeare play was confusing. 2. Mix the ground beef with the chopped onion and pepper then add the bread crumbs and egg. 3. While they raked the leaves. 4. No one could make heads or tails of the very unusual sculpture. 5. We made plans to get together at Charlotte’s house later on during the week we had a lot of catching up to do. 6. Because it’s supposed to rain. 7. If Lillian gets here late, she’ll be eliminated from the competition. 8. Our town recycles cans, bottles, and newspapers. 9. I don’t know. 10. When Julie went to Paris she visited the Louvre Museum, the Eiffel Tower she also visited the Champs-Elysées.

ANSWERS
1. F 2. R—Mix the ground beef with the chopped onion and pepper. Then add the bread crumbs and egg. 3. F 4. C 5. R—We made plans to get together at Charlotte’s house later on during the week. We had a lot of catching up to do. 6. F 7. C 8. C 9. C 10. R—When Julie went to Paris, she visited the Louvre Museum and the Eiffel Tower. She also visited the Champs-Elysées.

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agreement

Like the run-on sentence or sentence fragment, poor subject–verb agreement and antecedent–pronoun agreement can tarnish the messages you’re communicating to listeners and readers. Recognizing these mistakes is the first step to correcting them, and ultimately steering clear of them altogether. • Subject–verb agreement: singular subjects belong with single verbs, and plural subjects belong with plural verbs—verbs and subjects must be compatible in number and person. • Pronoun–antecedent agreement: pronouns help us avoid having to repeat the same noun over and over again; however, knowing what or whom the noun is referring to in the first place is also essential. Balance is the key. Agreement in gender, number, and person is vital for clarity.

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subject–verb agreement
Language is fossil poetry.
RALPH WALDO EMERSON (1803–1882) AMERICAN POET

Along with fragments and run-ons, poor subject–verb agreement will detract from your writing and distort your meaning. In this lesson, learn how to steer clear of this writing faux pas.

IT IS ESSENTIAL that all of the subjects and verbs in your writing (and speaking) are compatible in both number and person. If your sentence has a singular subject (referring to only one person, place, or thing), then it must be coupled with a singular verb. Likewise, if your sentence has a plural subject (referring to more than one person, place, or thing), then it must be coupled with a plural verb. Singular: Tommy plans to run in the cross-country race. The dog likes to sleep on the porch under the rocking chair. Plural: Kevin and Nathan usually shoot hoops on Saturdays. The bees fly from flower to flower gathering pollen.

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TIP: Did you notice the -s endings of the singular verbs in these sentences? Unlike nouns, which usually have an -s on the end of a plural, singular verbs end in -s, while the plural verbs do not.

Most verbs are easily recognizable in our writing and speaking—they tend to move the sentence along—so when any subject–verb agreement is incorrect, it is so easily recognizable. This is especially true of the verb be, the most widely used verb form in the English language. The table below shows it is conjugated according to number, form, and person. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB BE Person First/Singular First/Plural Second/Singular Second/Plural Third/Singular Third/Plural Subject I we you you he, she, it they Present Tense am are are are is are Past Tense was were were were was were

TIP: Did you notice that the verb be doesn’t contain the word be at all? It is made up of the verbs am, is, are, was, and were, and these are be-ing verbs, wouldn’t you agree? I am we are you are he/she/it is they are

Even though we may hear the verb be used casually (and quite widely in some instances) in spoken language, this usage is incorrect in standard English. Be only follows a subject in a sentence when it’s coupled with a helping verb (for example, can be, should be, will be, could be). Incorrect: Correct: She be going to school late this morning. We be going late, too. She is going to school late this morning. We are going late, too.

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COMPOUND SUBJECTS AND VERBS
Sometimes you may have two or more subjects sharing the same verb; this is referred to as a compound subject. When you have a compound subject, you must use the conjunctions and, or, or neither . . . nor to connect them together. Mom or Dad was supposed to pick us up at the movies. Neither Mom nor Dad was supposed to pick us up at the movies. Mom and Dad are supposed to pick us up at the movies.

TIP: When you use the conjunctions or or nor, the subjects are thought of as separate units, and therefore take a singular verb. The same is true for plural subjects joined by or or nor, except that the verb used will be plural. Note that when the conjunction and is used, the verb is plural. That is because with and, the subjects are looked at as equals, and become compound. So, the verb must be plural. NOTE: There are some exceptions to this. Some compound subjects are looked upon as a single unit. For example: spaghetti and meatballs, macaroni and cheese, and peanut butter and jelly.

What do you do if you have a sentence that contains a singular and a plural subject? Deciding whether to use a singular or plural verb may seem tricky, but the solution is quite simple. Whichever subject is mentioned last in the sentence, whether singular or plural, determines the correct verb to use: Is it the cats or the dog that is making such a commotion? Is it the dog or the cats that are making such a commotion?

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Words such as anybody, someone, most, and none are very general when referring to people, places, or things. They are called indefinite pronouns. With only a handful of exceptions, it is pretty simple to tell whether most indefinite pronouns are singular or plural.

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INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Singular anybody anyone anything each either everybody everyone everything little much neither nobody no one nothing one other somebody someone something Plural both few many others several Both all any more most none some

Like any other pronoun, a singular indefinite pronoun takes a singular verb, and a plural one takes a plural verb. Some indefinite pronouns can be both, so the noun that the indefinite pronoun refers to determines the appropriate verb. Most of the glasses are broken. Most of the glass is broken.

P R AC T I C E : S U B J E C T – V E R B AG R E E M E N T
Identify the verb that correctly agrees with the subject in each sentence. You may check your answers with the key at end of the lesson. 1. Most of this soccer equipment (belong, belongs) to the township. 2. The delivery of milk (arrive, arrives) each morning at six o’clock. 3. Peanut butter and jelly (is, are) my favorite lunch. 4. The students (walk, walks) quickly to get to class on time. 5. Several pieces of lawn furniture (need, needs) to be replaced. 6. Drama Club (meet, meets) on Tuesdays and Thursdays at three o’clock. 7. Mr. and Mrs. Jones (commute, commutes) to the city by train.

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8. The big oak tree in the front yard (shade, shades) our front porch most of the day. 9. Sue or Jill (is, are) likely to be voted this year’s prom queen. 10. Nothing ever (seem, seems) to bother him.

ANSWERS
1. Most of this soccer equipment belongs to the township. 2. The delivery of milk arrives each morning at six o’clock. 3. Peanut butter and jelly is my favorite lunch. 4. The students walk quickly to get to class on time. 5. Several pieces of lawn furniture need to be replaced. 6. Drama Club meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays at three o’clock. 7. Mr. and Mrs. Jones commute to the city by train. 8. The big oak tree in the front yard shades our front porch most of the day. 9. Sue or Jill is likely to be voted for this year’s prom queen. 10. Nothing ever seems to bother him.

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pronoun–antecedent agreement
I never made a mistake in grammar but one in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it.
CARL SANDBURG (1878–1967) AMERICAN POET

Ante-what? And how do I make sure it’s compatible with my pronoun? In this lesson, you will learn how to make your pronouns and antecedents exist in harmony with one another.

PRONOUNS ALLOW US to refer repeatedly to a specific noun without saying the word over and over again. Without: Lucas thought Lucas saw a ghost, but Lucas wasn’t sure. With: Lucas thought he saw a ghost, but he wasn’t sure.

As you learned in Lesson 2, a pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun (see the following chart of common pronouns for review). The antecedent is the word that the pronoun has replaced in the sentence. Mom made Jack take a nap. He was grumpy. The pronoun in this sentence refers to the antecedent, Jack. Since Jack is one boy, the third-person singular pronoun he was used instead of she or they. That is so there is agreement in gender, number, and person between the antecedent and

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its pronoun. This kind of agreement is very important. Imagine if it didn’t matter. We could have sentences that sound like gibberish. Gina folded towels. He was helping Mom with the laundry. We planned to do homework afterward because I had a test tomorrow in chemistry. It is obvious that Gina is a female, so the only appropriate pronoun would be she, not he, we, or I. It is important that the pronoun–antecedent agreement be clear to avoid confusion. Holly and Betsy went to the park to play Frisbee and have a picnic with their friends Greg and Josh. They were having a great time until she accidentally tripped over his foot and they bumped heads, giving her a headache. Whose foot? Did Holly trip over Greg’s foot or Josh’s? Or was it Betsy who tripped? Who bumped heads? Holly and Betsy? Holly and Greg? Holly and Josh? Betsy and Greg? Betsy and Josh? Lastly, who got the headache? Holly or Betsy? Get the point?

TIP: Sometimes pronouns can make a sentence so confusing that it might be best not to use any pronouns at all. Confusing: Lori, Sue, and Renee are finally going to the mall to go dress shopping for the prom. She had made plans to go last week, but they called and canceled at the last minute. Better: Lori, Sue, and Renee are finally going to the mall to go dress shopping for the prom. Sue had made plans to go last week, but Lori and Renee called and canceled at the last minute.

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COMMON PRONOUNS all anything everyone himself many no one others somebody them us whom yourselves Some of the pronouns in the preceding chart are obviously singular or plural. Others, though, might not be as apparent, such as the indefinite pronouns anyone, anybody, either, neither, everybody, everyone, everything, no one, nobody, somebody, someone, each, none, and one. All of these pronouns are considered singular in number and are compatible only with singular pronouns. Incorrect: Correct: Incorrect: Correct: Everyone placed their books on the table. Everyone placed his or her books on the table. Each student did their homework. Each student did his or her homework. another both everything his me nobody ours someone themselves we whose any each few I mine none ourselves something these what you anybody either hers its myself nothing she that they which yours anyone everybody herself itself neither one some theirs this who yourself

The indefinite pronouns all, more, none, most, any, and some, when used before a prepositional phrase, can be seen as either singular or plural, depending upon the OOP (object of the preposition) at the end of the phrase. Use that noun to help you decide which pronoun would be compatible. Plural: Singular: Most of the peaches were ripe. They smelled delicious. Most of the floor was mopped. It looked sparkling clean.

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P R AC T I C E : P R O N O U N – A N T E C E D E N T AG R E E M E N T
Determine which pronoun best fits for pronoun–antecedent agreement in each sentence. Check your answers on the following page. 1. Somebody dropped (their/his or her) wallet. 2. Most of the class pushed in (their/its) chairs. 3. Some of the girls sang (their/her) favorite song. 4. Katelyn and Radikha called (their/her) parents on Saturday. 5. Daniel or Dave left (their/his) sunglasses on the table in the hallway. 6. Neither Mary nor Paul studied (their/his or her) spelling words. 7. All of the players liked (their/his or her) coach. 8. Everybody must wash (their/his or her) hands before dinner. 9. Many good athletes spend (their/his or her) time training after school. 10. One of the buildings lost (their/its) electricity yesterday afternoon. 11. These puppies still belong with (their/his or her) mother. 12. Nobody broke (their/his or her) promise. 13. Nora placed (their/her) watch on the shelf by her bed. 14. Rick or Davaughn brought (their/his) guitar. 15. Most dogs are loyal to (their/his or her) owner.

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ANSWERS
1. his or her 2. their 3. their 4. their 5. his 6. his or her 7. their 8. his or her 9. their 10. its 11. their 12. his or her 13. her 14. his 15. their

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punctuation

PUNCTUATION MARKS LEAD the reader through sentences much like road signs lead a driver along the road. Proper placement of the numerous punctuation marks used in the English language is necessary, and not doing so can drastically alter the meaning of your sentence. • Endmarks: periods, question marks, and exclamation points indicate to the reader that the sentence is complete and that he or she should briefly pause before moving on to the next sentence. • Commas: commas perform many functions. They indicate pause by the reader and set items apart from one another for different reasons within sentences, letters, and numbers. • Colons and semicolons: these are two of the trickiest punctuation marks. They can introduce and emphasize items, or connect and separate items. • Quotation marks: these are found mainly in dialogue; they also distinguish someone’s exact words for the reader. • Underlining and italicizing: they are typically interchangeable in use—for emphasis and separation. • Brackets and parentheses: these allow writers to provide extra information to clarify the contents of their sentences. • Hyphens and dashes: these are helpful in dividing, joining, interrupting, and emphasizing writers’ words and phrases.

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• Apostrophes: apostrophes help make a writer’s words show possession and contract. • Capitalization: we capitalize more than just the first word of a sentence—titles, words in dialogue, proper nouns, and proper adjectives should also be capitalized.

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endmarks
No iron can pierce the heart with such force as a period put just at the right place.
ISAAC BABEL (1894–1940) RUSSIAN JOURNALIST

Knowing how and where to end your sentences is the key to helping your reader understand your writing. In this lesson, you will learn the proper placement and meanings of these basic punctuation marks.

PUNCTUATION IS ESSENTIAL in writing. The various internal and external punctuation marks we use are like road signs for readers. Our endmarks— periods, question marks, and exclamation points—indicate that the thought or sentence is complete and that the reader should pause, much in the way a stop sign signals a driver.

PERIODS
The period is the most common form of end punctuation. It indicates the end of a declarative sentence—a statement, a request, or a command. I am cold. Please close the window.

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We also find periods in common abbreviations, like those for months, days, and measurements. inches = in. square feet = sq. ft. Monday = Mon. September = Sept.

We also find periods in a person’s initials Franklin D. Roosevelt and in name titles. Mister = Mr. Doctor = Dr. President = Pres. E. B. White J. F. Kennedy

TIP: If an abbreviation ending in a period is the last word in a sentence, the abbreviation’s period will also act as the endmark (in other words, the sentence will not end with two periods). Incorrect: Correct: The next bus leaves at 8:30 A.M.. The next bus leaves at 8:30 A.M.

The exception to this is if the sentence ends with an exclamation point or a question mark: Does the next bus leave at 8:30 A.M.? The next bus leaves at 8:30 A.M.!

QUESTION MARKS
We find question marks at the end of interrogative sentences, also known as questions. Can Trish play tennis? Are you hungry? What time is it, please?

Be careful not to confuse an indirect question with a direct question. Since indirect questions are really just statements (declarative sentences), they take a period, not a question mark.

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Direct:

Why did Lionel wear a green sock on one foot and a purple one on the other?

Indirect: Dale wondered why Lionel wore a green sock on one foot and a purple one on the other.

E XC L A M AT I O N P O I N T S
When you want to imply strong feeling or emotion in a written sentence, you should place an exclamation point at the end. This would also include authoritative commands and interjections. Hey! Watch what you’re doing! Thanks! I love it!

TIP: Many people use two or more exclamation points at the end of words or sentences they want to stress. Oh my gosh!!!! I don’t know what I was thinking!!! I’m SO sorry!!!!!! If one shows emphasis, two or three must really show emphasis, right? In a note to a friend, that’s okay. But in formal writing, it’s best to use just one.

P R AC T I C E : E N D M A R K S
Determine whether each of these sentences is properly punctuated. Then check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 1. It’s 2 A.M.! You should be asleep! 2. How nice that Joseph offered to help clean up afterward? 3. What is the capital of Missouri? 4. I asked Carl to meet me at 3 P.M. to study.

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5. Put your glasses away in a safe place. 6. Sh!!!! Be careful not to wake the baby? 7. We are supposed to head home at around 9:00 P.M.. 8. Nonsense! I would never say that? 9. In yesterday’s track meet, did Luke’s high jump measure over 6 ft.? 10. How sad June must feel? Add the correct punctuation in each sentence. Then check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 11. Mrs Tomaino lives across the street 12. Excellent job, Kayla I knew you could do it if you put your mind to it 13. Rev Bill Turner spoke at a youth conference in St Louis this past weekend 14. The itinerary shows that the tour starts at 8 AM and goes to 4:30 PM 15. Colfax Jct is the third stop before reaching Highland Borough 16. Gee why did Mark leave late He promised to be here by 10 AM 17. Peter was 4 ft 7 in tall in Jan It’s Nov now, and he’s almost 5 ft 1 in 18. Dr Lorimer said Paul should exercise for one hr on Mon, Wed, and Fri 19. Ouch That hurt my toe 20. I was wondering if Ashley saw Haley yesterday in school

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ANSWERS
1. correct 2. incorrect Answer: How nice that Joseph offered to help clean up afterward. 3. correct 4. correct 5. correct 6. incorrect Answer: Sh! Be careful not to wake the baby. Sh! Be careful not to wake the baby! 7. incorrect Answer: We are supposed to head home at around 9:00 P.M. 8. incorrect Answer: Nonsense! I would never say that. Nonsense! I would never say that! 9. correct 10. incorrect Answer: How sad June must feel. 11. Mrs. Tomaino lives across the street. 12. Excellent job, Kayla! I knew you could do it if you put your mind to it. 13. Rev. Bill Turner spoke at a youth conference in St. Louis this past weekend. 14. The itinerary shows that the tour starts at 8 A.M. and goes to 4:30 P.M. 15. Colfax Jct. is the third stop before reaching Highland Borough. 16. Gee! Why did Mark leave late? He promised to be here by 10 A.M. 17. Peter was 4 ft. 7 in. tall in Jan. It’s Nov. now, and he’s almost 5 ft. 1 in. 18. Dr. Lorimer said Paul should exercise for one hr. on Mon., Wed., and Fri. 19. Ouch! That hurt my toe! 20. I was wondering if Ashley saw Haley yesterday in school.

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commas, part 1
The writer who neglects punctuation, or mispunctuates, is liable to be misunderstood for the want of merely a comma, it often occurs that an axiom appears a paradox, or that a sarcasm is converted into a sermonoid.
EDGAR ALLAN POE (1809–1849) AMERICAN POET

In this lesson, we will look at how commas are used in sentences. Knowing where and when commas are appropriate is essential.

COMMAS WITHIN A SENTENCE
A comma is an internal punctuation mark (endmarks are external) that tell the reader when to pause. By setting apart some words, phrases, and clauses, commas add clarity to the sentence. There are several basic rules for comma placement. If you follow them, you will not risk having too many or too few commas, either of which could leave your readers confused. RULE 1: Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Red, green, and blue are the only colors left to choose from. Jamie untied the bow, opened the box, and peeked inside. If your series uses the words and or or to connect them, then commas are not necessary.

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Red or green or blue are the only colors left to choose from. Jamie untied the bow and opened the box and peeked inside. RULE 2: Use commas to separate two or more adjectives that are describing a noun or pronoun in the same way. If you can put and between them, or reverse them, and the sentence remains logical, a comma belongs between the words. Incorrect: The little, old lady sat with her cat on the porch. Test 1: Test 2: Correct: Test 1: Test 2: The little and old lady sat with her cat on the porch. The old, little lady sat with her cat on the porch. Put the short, stubby bushes on the side of the tall ones. Put the short and stubby bushes on the side of the tall ones. Put the stubby, short bushes on the side of the tall ones.

RULE 3: Use a comma to set off an introductory word or phrase from the rest of the sentence. Without a comma, your reader could mistakenly carry the meaning of the introduction into the main part of the sentence. Confusing: Less Confusing: While they ate the students talked about their plans for the weekend. While they ate, the students talked about their plans for the weekend.

RULE 4: Use commas to set off an appositive, a word or phrase that renames or identifies the noun or pronoun preceding it. Our neighbors, the Dixons, traveled to Yellowstone National Park for vacation this summer. RULE 5: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so) that is followed by an independent clause. Fried chicken is delicious, but it is also fattening.

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RULE 6: Use commas when writing dialogue. For a direct quotation that identifies the speaker first, place the comma outside the opening quotation marks, after the opening phrase. Vera replied, “It is nice to meet you, too.” For a direct quotation with an interrupter, place one comma after the first portion of the quoted sentence and another comma after the interrupter words. “I think,“ Vera continued, “that we have met before.” Note that commas are not used when an indirect quotation states what someone said, but not exactly in the same words (see Lesson 22). Vera said that she thought they had met before.

P R AC T I C E : C O M M A S W I T H I N A S E N T E N C E
Add commas where necessary in the following items. You can check your answers on the following page. 1. Marie’s fat Siamese cat lounged in the front window. 2. The large scary bug crawled quickly across the bedroom floor. 3. We ate chips salsa pretzels pizza and popcorn during the movie. 4. “How many days” Juan continued “do we have off of school?” 5. The elephant in the center ring had leathery skin a long trunk and big floppy ears. 6. “I really hope David makes it to practice” said Frankie. 7. Mark Twain an American writer was famous worldwide. 8. Well what is your opinion about this? 9. Besides skateboarding and surfing John also plays baseball and soccer.

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ANSWERS
1. Marie’s fat Siamese cat lounged in the front window. (No comma is needed: neither “Marie’s Siamese fat cat . . .” nor “Marie’s Siamese and fat cat . . .” makes sense.) 2. The large, scary bug crawled quickly across the bedroom floor. 3. We ate chips, salsa, pretzels, pizza, and popcorn during the movie. 4. “How many days,“ Juan continued, “do we have off of school?” 5. The elephant in the center ring had leathery skin, a long trunk, and big floppy ears. 6. “I really hope David makes it to practice,“ said Frankie. 7. Mark Twain, an American writer, was famous worldwide. 8. Well, what is your opinion about this? 9. Besides skateboarding and surfing, John also plays baseball and soccer.

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commas, part 2
My attitude toward punctuation is that it ought to be as conventional as possible. The game of golf would lose a good deal if croquet mallets and billiard cues were allowed on the putting green . . .
ERNEST HEMINGWAY (1899–1961) AMERICAN NOVELIST

Commas are also used when writing the date, addressing a formal letter, and in separating components of a large number. In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use commas in these various formats.

COMMAS WITH LETTERS AND NUMBERS
The list of comma rules continues to show you how commas are used in correspondence, with dates, with professional titles, and within large numbers. RULE 7: Use commas between the day of the month and the year when you are writing the date. When dates are written, commas are placed after the day September 22, 1964 January 1, 2008 May 4, 1945

and after the day of the week if it is noted. Saturday, February 2, 1985 Tuesday, June 18, 2002

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Note: Dates that are written numerically do not contain commas, and instead use slashes. 3/17/93 5/21/91 12/26/57

TIP: No comma is necessary if only the month and the day, or the month and the year, are written. Neil and Nelly arrive on August 12. Neil and Nelly arrive in August 2008.

RULE 8: Use commas when properly addressing an envelope and heading a letter. Letter/Envelope Format: Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Milling 59 Pecan Drive Selma, AL 36701 When addressing an envelope or letter, place a comma only between the city and state of the address. Notice that there is no comma between the state and the zip code. Sentence Format: Please send the following order of yellow roses to Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Milling, 59 Pecan Drive, Selma, AL 36701.

When writing an address within a sentence, commas are placed between the person’s name and street address, between the street address and the city, and between the city and state.

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TIP: When writing the name of a city and state within a sentence, you must place a comma after the name of the state before continuing the sentence: We often travel to Orlando, Florida, in the fall because the weather is cooler. The same rule applies when you mention a city and country name: Chiang Mai, Thailand, is a beautiful place to visit as well.

When you write a friendly letter, use a comma after the person’s name in the greeting. (In business letters, use a colon instead.) All letters require a comma after the closing. 1257 Perkins Avenue Succasunna, NJ 07876 July 31, 2008 Dear Rose, Thank you so much for inviting Neil and Nelly to spend a week with you in the Pocono’s. They should be arriving on Tuesday, August 12, around noon. We will arrive on Wednesday the 20th to pick them up. They are looking forward to the trip! Sincerely, Susan and Bob Note: Friendly letters are the only letter where you place a comma after the salutation. In a business letter, a colon (:) is used instead. Both letters require a comma after the closing, however. Friendly Letters Opening Closing Dear Mema, Dear Betsy, Love, Yours truly, Fondly, Business Letters To Whom It May Concern: Dear Sir: Sincerely, Sincerest regards, Best regards,

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RULE 9: Use commas to set off titles and degrees after a person’s name. Dolores Burwell, M.D. Mark Di Sanctis, Ph.D.

However, if you are addressing the person as doctor, omit the comma: Dr. Storlazi Dr. Kevin Rich

RULE 10: Use commas when writing numbers longer than three digits. Long numbers can be difficult to read without commas. The rule for placing commas in long numbers is simple: Put a comma after every group of three numbers, counted from right to left. This helps identify the groups by their value place (hundreds, thousands, millions, and so on). 5319874621348 = 5, 319, 874, 621, 348 = 5,319,874,621,348 (5-trillion, 319-billion, 874-million, 621-thousand, 3-hundred and 48)

TIP: There are several exceptions to this comma rule: Phone numbers Zip codes Years Serial numbers House numbers 201-282-4337 35701 1985 7H927C378945 18904 Wexler Street

However, when numbers are written in a series, commas should be placed between the items: Mary’s children were born in 1989, 1991, 1995, and 1999.

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P R AC T I C E : C O M M A S W I T H L E T T E R S A N D N U M B E R S
Insert commas where necessary in these sentences, phrases, and numbers. Check your answers on the following page. 1. Jill bought the house at 5824 Mt. Holly Oak Drive Jonestown MD. 2. Sara’s fifteenth birthday is March 17 2009. 3. Dear Martha 4. 42398762015200 5. Anita Marcus DMD is one of the dentists speaking at our meeting today. 6. Truly yours 7. 4673869297543269864325982 8. The Space Shuttle had successful missions in 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 and 2008. 9. Dear Mr. Hughes Mr. Foley Mr. Drake and Mr. Lynch: 10. Mike’s new address is 128 Girard Avenue Roxbury WV 87654.

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ANSWERS
1. Jill bought the house at 5824 Mt. Holly Oak Drive, Jonestown, MD. 2. Sara’s fifteenth birthday is March 17, 2009. 3. Dear Martha, 4. 42,398,762,015,200 5. Anita Marcus, DMD, is one of the dentists speaking at our meeting today. 6. Truly yours, 7. 4,673,869,297,543,269,864,325,982 8. The Space Shuttle had successful missions in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008. 9. Dear Mr. Hughes, Mr. Foley, Mr. Drake, and Mr. Lynch: 10. Mike’s new address is 128 Girard Avenue, Roxbury, WV 87654.

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colons and semicolons
Sometimes you get a glimpse of a semicolon coming, a few lines farther on, and it is like climbing a steep path through woods and seeing a wooden bench just at a bend in the road ahead, a place where you can expect to sit for a moment, catching your breath.
LEWIS THOMAS (1913–1993) ENGLISH SCIENTIST

Next to commas, colons and semicolons are two of the trickiest punctuation marks. In this lesson, you will find out where these types of punctuation belong and why.

COLONS
The colon is used to introduce a list, statement, or phrase within a sentence; it gives emphasis to the items that follow it. List: To make a basic salad, include the following items: lettuce, carrots, tomato, cucumber, and onion.

Statement: The rule was clear: Absolutely no food or drinks are allowed. Phrase: There was one thing I forgot to write down on my test: my name!

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TIP: Not all lists require a colon. Do not use a colon after a preposition or a verb: Incorrect: Please bring two pencils, graphing paper, and a calculator to: room 201, room 202, or room 203. The brownies are: delicious, chocolaty, and rich. Correct: Please bring two pencils, graphing paper, and a calculator to room 201, room 202, or room 203. The brownies are delicious, chocolaty, and rich.

Colons are also used to introduce a lengthy quotation According to President Abraham Lincoln: “You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time.” and to introduce the subtitle of a movie or book. Book: Movie: Wolf Rider: A Tale of Terror is an exciting mystery adventure novel written by Avi. Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey is almost completely silent.

Colons separate the minutes from the hour in written time The train headed for Cincinnati departs from the station at 6:47 A.M. and separate the volume and issue number, and the volume and page numbers, of books and magazines. Scientific American 9:20 [volume 9, issue 20] National Geographic 48:14–19 [volume 48, pages 14–19] Use a colon to end the salutation of a business letter. Dear Mr. Dunlap: To Whom It May Concern: Dear Sir/Madam:

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SEMICOLONS
The semicolon is used to connect two independent clauses whose topics are related. Our house is a dingy gray color; it needs painting badly. My uncle owns a car wash; we get free car washes during the summer. The house’s dingy gray color and the fact that it needs painting are closely related. The semicolon helps emphasize this. Semicolons are also used to connect two independent clauses that are separated by a conjunctive adverb (see the following chart). Our house was a dingy gray color; hence, it got painted. My uncle owns a car wash; consequently, we get free car washes during the summer. COMMON CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS afterward certainly hence instead likewise nevertheless similarly then accordingly consequently however in fact moreover nonetheless so therefore besides furthermore indeed in addition naturally otherwise still thus

Additionally, semicolons separate items in a series that already contain commas themselves. The planning committee for the prom included Cheryl, the class president; Carol, the vice president; Julie, the treasurer; Mark, the committee chairman; Kevin, a co-chairman; and Mr. Michaels, the senior class advisor.

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P R AC T I C E : C O L O N S A N D S E M I C O L O N S
Add colons and semicolons where necessary in these sentences. You may check your answers on the following page. 1. Scott used his sister’s cell phone to call Kris he lost his yesterday. 2. Liz will meet Kim and Erin at [six o’clock] they have a yoga class at [fifteen minutes after six o’clock]. 3. We watched Garfield A Tail of Two Kittens after school on Monday. 4. [TIME volume number 4, pages 56–75.] 5. Add these to your list when you go to the grocery store bread, milk, lunch meat, and cheese. 6. Shari owns four dogs three of them are poodles. 7. Helen Keller once said “The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt within the heart.” 8. Dear Dr. Klinger 9. Lexi likes knitting scarves and hats Gina likes watercolor painting and Mona likes making pottery. 10. Our plane leaves at [four o’clock] in the morning therefore, we will leave at [one o’clock] to be sure we arrive on time. 11. Harry Spy Aficionado of Fourth Street tops Orland’s list of favorite books. 12. Kayla’s school supply list included a calculator, ruler, and protractor for math a composition book, pocket dictionary, and pens for English and a binder. 13. [Newsweek, volume number 5, issue number 26, pages 22–29.]

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14. Ursula will go on stage at [five minutes after six o’clock] Mallory will follow shortly after at [eight minutes after six o’clock] and we’ll wrap it up with Sue at [twenty minutes after six o’clock]. 15. Dear Congressman Henderson

ANSWERS
1. Scott used his sister’s cell phone to call Kris; he lost his yesterday. 2. Liz will meet Kim and Erin at 6:00; they have a yoga class at 6:15. 3. We watched Garfield: A Tail of Two Kittens after school on Monday. 4. TIME 4:56–75 5. Add these to your list when you go to the grocery store: bread, milk, lunch meat, and cheese. 6. Shari owns four dogs; three of them are poodles. 7. Helen Keller once said: “The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt within the heart.” 8. Dear Dr. Klinger: 9. Lexi likes knitting scarves and hats, Gina likes watercolor painting, and Mona likes making pottery. 10. Our plane leaves at 4:00 in the morning; therefore, we will leave at 1:00 to be sure we arrive on time. 11. Harry: Spy Aficionado of Fourth Street tops Orland’s list of favorite books. 12. Kayla’s school supply list included a calculator, ruler, and protractor for math; a composition book, pocket dictionary, and pens for English; and a binder. 13. Newsweek 5: 26: 22-29 14. Ursula will go on stage at 6:05; Mallory will follow shortly after at 6:08; and we’ll wrap it up with Sue at 6:20. 15. Dear Congressman Henderson:

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quotation marks
I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW (1856–1950) IRISH PLAYWRIGHT

Dialogue can move stories along and bring a character to life more than plain words can. Knowing how to punctuate different forms of dialogue correctly is useful for all writers, and this lesson will show you how to do just that.

QUOTATION MARKS ARE used in writing to signify the exact words that someone has said, which we call a direct quotation. Direct quotations require the use of opening and ending quotation marks. “If your homework is finished, you may go to the movies with Charles,“ Mom told Peter.

TIP: When someone merely refers to what someone else said rather than repeating it exactly, that is called an indirect quotation. Do not use quotation marks with indirect quotations Mom told Peter that he could go to the movies with Charles if his homework was finished. or for someone’s thoughts: Incorrect: Correct: “Mom is being reasonable,” thought Peter. Mom is being reasonable, thought Peter.

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When writing a quotation, you must capitalize the first word. Fred whined, “Gee, I’m hungry.” The only exception is when the quotation has an interrupter. Unless the continuation begins with a proper noun, a proper adjective, or the pronoun I, the first word of the continuation begins with a lowercase letter. “I thought,” continued Fred, “we were going to eat lunch an hour ago.“ Notice that each part of the quotation is enclosed in quotation marks. Also note that the first part of the quote ends with a comma (indicating that more will follow) and the interrupting words are followed by a comma before the quotation continues. Only periods, question marks, and exclamation points are placed inside the end quotes of a quotation. Colons and semicolons should be placed on the outside. Notice that a comma is placed before the opening quotes when they are preceded by introductory words (such as said, stated, or interjected). Hannah said, “This concert is great!”; her friends agreed.

TIP: Sometimes, question marks and exclamation points belong outside the quotation marks. This occurs when the entire sentence calls for that punctuation mark. For example: Why did Lindsay say “Michael will not go”? You annoy me when you say “I can’t”!

When a quote is a statement that ends with a period, but concluding words follow the quotation, you must change the period to a comma. “I don’t like spinach or asparagus,“ Raul said. Quotation marks can be used—but only sparingly—to indicate sarcasm or irony. Anxious to meet her friends, Shelby quickly “cleaned” her room so she could leave.

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This sentence implies that Shelby did not clean her room in the manner expected. She cleaned her room quickly and with little effort.

P R AC T I C E : Q U OTAT I O N M A R K S
Properly insert quotation marks, commas, and endmarks into these sentences. You may check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 1. Wow Those are terrific pictures exclaimed James 2. My sister would like to go to the movies with us said Gina May she 3. This summer promises continued Roger to be a very memorable one for sure 4. Would you care for another slice of pizza asked Mom 5. Why did you say I’m better than she is 6. Mrs. Miller said she wanted the tree projects on her desk first period tomorrow 7. Mrs. Gardner added We should find out tomorrow 8. The car sighed Dad needs to be taken to the mechanic 9. Nick said that he wasn’t feeling well yesterday 10. We have to finish this quickly or we’ll get in trouble cried Katie 11. Which one of you said I can’t swim 12. Why does Karla say I think I know but I’m not sure 13. Here is the hammer you asked for said Richard 14. Perhaps you wouldn’t be so tired suggested Dad if you went to bed earlier 15. Excellent work Paul praised Mom

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ANSWERS
1. “Wow! Those are terrific pictures!” exclaimed James. 2. “My sister would like to go to the movies with us,” said Gina. “May she?” 3. “This summer promises,” continued Roger, “to be a very memorable one for sure.” 4. “Would you care for another slice of pizza?” asked Mom. 5. Why did you say, “I’m better than she is“? 6. Mrs. Miller said she wanted the tree projects on her desk first period tomorrow. 7. Mrs. Gardner added, “We should find out tomorrow.” 8. “The car,” sighed Dad, “needs to be taken to the mechanic.” 9. Nick said that he wasn’t feeling well yesterday. 10. “We have to finish this quickly or we’ll get in trouble!” cried Katie. 11. Which one of you said, “I can’t swim“? 12. Why does Karla say, “I think I know but I’m not sure“? 13. “Here is the hammer you asked for,” said Richard. 14. “Perhaps you wouldn’t be so tired,” suggested Dad, “if you went to bed earlier.” 15. “Excellent work, Paul!” praised Mom.

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italicizing and underlining
Grammar is a piano I play by ear. All I know about grammar is its power.
JOAN DIDION (1934– ) AMERICAN AUTHOR

Italics and underlines are useful forms of punctuation for emphasis and setting certain groups of words apart from others. In this lesson, you will learn why and how these features help your writing.

ITALICIZING AND UNDERLINING are interchangeable in use. Before typewriters and computers, writing was done by hand, so italicizing words was difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, underlining was used to emphasize words. Technology now allows us to use one or the other as we please. Grammar and usage dictates when we should use italics and underlining and when we shouldn’t. Here are key areas you will find them in writing. RULE 1: Italicize or underline the titles of long written works, such as books, magazines, movies, TV shows, newspapers, plays, musicals, and albums or CDs. Gary Paulsen’s novel Hatchet The New York Times the Broadway hit A Chorus Line Gary Paulsen’s novel Hatchet The New York Times the Broadway hit A Chorus Line

Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet

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TIP: Be consistent! Don’t italicize one title and underline the next one. Pick one style and then stick to it.

Exception: Do not underline or italicize the titles of holy books, such as the Bible, the Tanakh, or the Koran. The names of chapters or books within these works are also not underlined or italicized: I Corinthians, Genesis, Yusuf.

TIP: Use quotation marks around the titles of stories, songs, short poems, articles, and other smaller-sized works. Aesop’s fable “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” (short story) Francis Scott Key’s “The Star Spangled Banner” (song) Shel Silverstein’s “Sick” (short poem) “Making Recycling Really Pay” (article)

RULE 2: Italicize or underline foreign words. Madame Kondoleon greeted the class by saying bonjour! Madame Kondoleon greeted the class by saying bonjour! Senora Reyes shared the platano with her class. Senora Reyes shared the platano with her class. Note, however, that many foreign words have become part of the English language, and need not be italicized; for example, hacienda, kibitz, and taco. (When in doubt, check your dictionary.) RULE 3: Italicize or underline words you want to emphasize. When we speak, our tone of voice can emphasize words and imply meaning. When we write, we can use italics or underlines to do the same thing. Can you tell the difference in the meanings of these four sentences? Jane was overjoyed. Jane was overjoyed. [Okay, Jane was overjoyed.] [It wasn’t anyone; it was Jane who was overjoyed.]

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Jane was overjoyed. Jane was overjoyed.

[Jane’s no longer overjoyed.] [Jane wasn’t just happy, she was overjoyed.]

RULE 4: Italicize onomatopoeia (sound words). Brrrr! It’s freezing out here. Let’s get inside where it’s warm. Clink! Clank! Carefully trying to make it from the dining room to the kitchen with the stack of dishes, Olivia tripped on the bump in the rug and the mountain of dirty dishes fell—crash!—to the floor.

P R AC T I C E : I TA L I C I Z I N G A N D U N D E R L I N I N G
Identify words or phrases that need underlining or italicizing in the following sentences. You may check your answers with the key at the end of the lesson. 1. “Au revoir mes étudiants,” my French professor said to his students. 2. The bee went bzzz as it flew past my ear. 3. The shelf to your left has the Chicago Times, the New York Times, USA Today, and the L.A. Times; the one on the right has the news magazines TIME, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report. 4. Number the Stars, written by Lowis Lowry, is an engaging novel set in Denmark. 5. How do you know it’s what she wants? 6. The flyer says that in Act I of the play Wicked the chorus sings “No One Mourns the Wicked.” 7. The Book of Revelations is in both the Holy Bible and the Jewish Tanakh. 8. The box kite took to the wind and ZOOM flew over the trees and disappeared into the sky.

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9. I heard the sizzle of the steak on the grill as Dad barbequed. Mmmm, I couldn’t wait until dinner. Buon appetito! 10. Use the clues in brackets to italicize/underline the appropriate word in each sentence. I was shocked by the look she gave me. [Her look was more than I bargained for] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [I’m no longer shocked] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [No one else was shocked but me] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [How dare she give that look to me] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [It wasn’t what she said that shocked me]

ANSWERS
1. “Au revoir mes étudiants,” my French professor said to his students. 2. The bee went bzzz as it flew past my ear. 3. The shelf to your left has The Chicago Times, The New York Times, USA Today, and the L.A. Times; the one on the right has the news magazines TIME, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report. or The shelf to your left has the Chicago Times, The New York Times, USA Today, and the L.A. Times; the one on the right has the news magazines TIME, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report. 4. Number the Stars, written by Lowis Lowry, is an engaging novel set in Denmark. or Number the Stars, written by Lowis Lowry, is an engaging novel set in Denmark. 5. How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? 6. The flyer says that in Act I of the play Wicked the chorus sings “No One Mourns the Wicked.” or The flyer says that in Act I of the play Wicked the chorus sings “No One Mourns the Wicked.” 7. The Book of Revelations is in both the Holy Bible and the Jewish Tanakh.

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8. The box kite took to the wind and ZOOM flew over the trees and disappeared into the sky. 9. I heard the sizzle of the steak on the grill as Dad barbequed. Mmmm, I couldn’t wait until dinner. Buon appetito! 10. I was shocked by the look she gave me. [Her look was more than I bargained for] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [I’m no longer shocked] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [No one else was shocked but me] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [How dare she give that look to me] I was shocked by the look she gave me. [It wasn’t what she said that shocked me]

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parentheses and brackets
Grammar is the logic of speech, even as logic is the grammar of reason.
RICHARD C. TRENCH (1807–1886) ENGLISH ARCHBISHOP AND POET

Sometimes adding comments or afterthoughts to your own writing or to someone else’s (called editorializing) is necessary to enhance meaning. In this lesson, you will learn how to do this correctly.

PARENTHESES ALLOW WRITERS to provide extra information (in the middle or at the end) to clarify the contents of their sentences. When information is placed inside parentheses, it is called a parenthetical comment. Of the two punctuation marks you’ll learn about in this lesson (brackets and parentheses), parentheses are more prevalent—not only because they have more uses in ordinary writing, but also because they are more functional in areas besides writing (have a look at your math book, for example). RULE 1: Place information inside parentheses when you want to provide your reader with extra information (in the middle, or even at the end, of your sentence). We ice skated (or should I say fell-skated) most of the morning at the pond behind the old barn.

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TIP: Parenthetical comments are disposable; the sentence would still make sense without them.

RULE 2: Numbers (such as dates, page numbers, itemizing numbers, and the like) are frequently placed inside parentheses. George Washington (1732–1799) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. More information regarding the childhood of President Washington can be found in Chapter 2 (pp. 14–23). Make sure you do the following before you hand in your essay: (1) revise for sentence flow, (2) edit for grammar and spelling mistakes, and (3) place the proper heading on the title page. or Make sure you do the following before you hand in your essay: (a) revise for sentence flow, (b) edit for grammar and spelling mistakes, and (c) place the proper heading on the title page. RULE 3: Use parentheses for numerals that repeat and confirm a written number. This is sometimes done for clarity, and it is an optional rule to parenthetical usage. Enclosed, please find thirty (30) sharpened pencils and fifteen (15) calculators for testing this week. RULE 4: Use parentheses to enclose abbreviations or acronyms for spelled-out titles and names (or vise versa). The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) helps protect the rights of all citizens. The UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) home office is located on the UN Plaza, in New York City.

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RULE 5: Enclose an alternative form of a written term in parentheses. Read the page(s) attached and respond ASAP. [Interpretation: Read the page (or pages if there is more than one) attached.] Please include the name(s) of family member(s) accompanying you. [Interpretation: Please include the name (or names) of family member (or family members, if there is more than one).]

B R AC K E T S
Brackets help writers clarify information by allowing them to insert an explanation or directions for the reader. RULE 6: When you want to editorialize or insert your own comments within quoted material, use brackets rather than parentheses. “[The legendary rock n’ roller] Elvis Presley is loved by nearly everyone worldwide,” stated Elvis’s Fan Club President K. P. Jenkins. [In this example, the words in the brackets “The legendary rock n’ roller” were added to the original quotation “Elvis Presley is loved by nearly . . .” by the author of the written sentence.] RULE 7: When altering the capitalization of a word within a quote to make it fit into your sentence or paragraph scheme, use brackets. Follow your teachers to the auditorium in a quiet and orderly fashion. Altered: Mrs. Vasta’s directions to the students were clear: “[f]ollow your teachers to the auditorium in a quiet and orderly fashion.”

“The captain mans the ship’s helm each morning while his crew has breakfast.” Altered: The crew member reported, “The captain [manned] the ship’s helm each morning while his crew [had] breakfast.”

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P R AC T I C E : PA R E N T H E S E S A N D B R AC K E T S
Insert parentheses and brackets as appropriate in these sentences. You may check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 1. The tour guide noted that we may a have lunch at a local restaurant, b at the restaurant on the ship, or c at the cafe by the pool. 2. We built we tried at least a small oval wall out of fieldstones for the flower garden. 3. The National Education Association NEA boasts nearly three million members. 4. Paramecia use their cilia to gather microorganisms like bacteria and algae see pg. 147. 5. It was an exciting weekend what a reunion! 6. The AAA American Automobile Association, serving America since 1921, has millions of loyal members. 7. Pocahontas c.1595–1617 was the daughter of a Powhatan chief. 8. “It the Trojan horse was one of the most cleverly plotted red herrings decoys created by the Greeks,” stated Mr. Clark, our world history teacher. 9. Be sure to perform the experiment steps in the following order: 1 carefully take one section of a peeled onion in your hand, 2 with a pair of tweezers gently secure and peel a piece of membrane, 3 place the membrane on a microscope slide, 4 place one drop of iodine on the membrane, and 5 place the slide under the microscope to observe the cell walls of the membrane. 10. “Molly Aunt May’s first cousin Jody’s second daughter traveled all the way from Seattle to attend the wedding,” explained Lila.

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ANSWERS
1. The tour guide noted that we may (a) have lunch at a local restaurant, (b) at the restaurant on the ship, or (c) at the cafe by the pool. 2. We built (we tried at least) a small oval wall out of fieldstones for the flower garden. 3. The National Education Association (NEA) boasts nearly three million members. 4. Paramecia use their cilia to gather microorganisms like bacteria and algae (see pg. 147). 5. It was an exciting weekend (what a reunion)! 6. The AAA (American Automobile Association), serving America since 1921, has millions of loyal members. 7. Pocahontas (c.1595–1617) was the daughter of a Powhatan chief. 8. “It [the Trojan horse] was one of the most cleverly plotted red herrings [decoys] created by the Greeks,” stated Mr. Clark, our world history teacher. 9. Be sure to perform the experiment steps in the following order: (1) carefully take one section of a peeled onion in your hand, (2) with a pair of tweezers gently secure and peel a piece of membrane, (3) place the membrane on a microscope slide, (4) place one drop of iodine on the membrane, and (5) place the slide under the microscope to observe the cell walls of the membrane. 10. “Molly [Aunt May’s first cousin Jody’s second daughter] traveled all the way from Seattle to attend the wedding,” explained Lila.

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hyphens and dashes
Language exerts hidden power, like the moon on the tides.
RITA MAE BROWN (1944– ) AMERICAN WRITER

In this lesson, you will learn how hyphens and dashes help you divide, join, interrupt, and emphasize your words and phrases. These small but powerful punctuation marks can make a bold impact on the messages you are conveying to your audience.

THOUGH THEY MAY look very similar, hyphens and dashes do two completely different things in writing. Depending on their usage in a sentence, hyphens can either divide or join, and dashes can either interrupt or emphasize. Learning the difference is easy, as is using them correctly in your writing. Let’s see how.

HYPHENS
You can use hyphens in many ways: to divide a word at the end of a line, to join numbers and some compound words, and to attach prefixes to others words. When used to divide a word at the end of a line of writing, the hyphen is placed in a very specific spot—at any of the syllable breaks in the word or between any double consonants of a word. (Note that one-syllable words, like brick, swim, or knife, cannot be divided or hyphenated.) sim-pli-fy re-spon-si-bil-i-ty ap-pear-ance

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All words have one or more syllables—individual spoken units. To find the number of syllable breaks in a word, you can tap your finger on the table or your lap, or clap your hand, for each spoken unit of the word. For example, take the word bird. When you say bird, you can tap or clap for only one syllable. Now let’s try the word refrigerator. Tap as you say each syllable: re (tap) frig (tap) er (tap) a (tap) tor (tap). This word has five syllables: re-frig-er-a-tor. You can hyphenate the word at any of the four syllable breaks. re-frigerator refrig-erator refriger-ator refrigera-tor

Hyphens are also used to link prefixes such as great-, ex-, and self-, and the suffix -elect, to base words, to create new words such as great-grandfather, ex-boyfriend, self-directed, and president-elect. Hyphens are also used in compound words like jack-in-the-box and fatherin-law; spelled-out numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine, in fractions (one-fourth, one-ten-thousandth), in scores, (the Yankees won 7-3), and in dates (12-31-2008). Lastly, hyphens are especially helpful in combining words whose spelling would make the new word appear awkward. For instance, if you wanted to say that something, say buttons, looked like shells, you might say that they were shell-like. Without the hyphen, the word would have three ls in a row: shelllike, which would be very awkward.

DA S H E S
Dashes can emphasize a word or a phrase, or they can identify the word or phrase as an afterthought. George’s painting is—I don’t know—weird. A dash can also be used like a colon, to set off a short series of words or phrases within a sentence. Look at what’s left—some chips, a half-eaten roll, and a soggy pickle.

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P R AC T I C E : H Y P H E N S A N D DA S H E S
Hyphenate these words in the appropriate places, if necessary. You may check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 1. baggage 2. track 3. happy 4. mother in law 5. friendly 6. please 7. giggle 8. rusty 9. balloon 10. alphabet Write out the numbers listed below, using hyphens when necessary. 11. 435
9 12. 12

13. 2,944 14. 11 15.
1 2

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Add hyphens and dashes where needed in these sentences. 16. My greatgrandfather Dad’s granddad lived to be ninety eight years old. 17. “I will have to ask my sisters in law what their plans are for Christmas,” said Joan. 18. Laura decided to major in prelaw when she was a sophomore at Yale. 19. This warmup jacket is actually too warm. 20. This hightech alarm clock a present from my mom is too complicated to use.

ANSWERS
1. bag-gage 2. track (none needed) 3. hap-py 4. mother-in-law 5. friend-ly 6. please (none needed) 7. gig-gle 8. rus-ty 9. bal-loon 10. alpha-bet 11. four hundred thirty-five 12. nine-twelfths 13. two thousand nine hundred forty-four 14. eleven 15. one-half 16. My great-grandfather—Dad’s granddad—lived to be ninety-eight years old. 17. “I will have to ask my sisters-in-law what their plans are for Christmas,” said Joan. 18. Laura decided to major in pre-law when she was a sophomore at Yale. 19. This warm-up jacket is actually too warm. 20. This high-tech alarm clock—a present from my mom—is too complicated to use.

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apostrophes
If the English language made any sense, a catastrophe would be an apostrophe with fur.
DOUG LARSON (1902–1981) ENGLISH GOLD MEDALIST AT PARIS OLYMPICS, 1924

The apostrophe is also part of the small but powerful group of punctuation marks. In this lesson, you will see how they make your words contract and show possession.

WE USE THE apostrophe to create contractions, like don’t and couldn’t, and to make nouns possessive, like Harry’s goldfish and the rabbit’s cage.

C O N T R AC T I O N S
The word contract (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable— con-TRACT) means to press together or shorten. When you squeeze two words together to make another word, that’s called a contraction. For instance, the words can and not can be written as the contraction can’t. Many contractions are used in speech and in informal writing (formal writing etiquette discourages the use of slang and contractions).

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CONTRACTIONS OF COMMON PRONOUNS am/are ↓ I you he she it they we → → → → → → → I’m you’re he’s she’s it’s they’re we’re will ↓ I’ll you’ll he’ll she’ll it’ll they’ll we’ll have/has ↓ I’ve you’ve he’s she’s it’s they’ve we’ve had/would ↓ I’d you’d he’d she’d it’d they’d we’d

CONTRACTIONS OF HELPING VERBS is are was were have has had might can do did should would could + + + + + + + + + + + + + + not not not not not not not not not not not not not not → → → → → → → → → → → → → → isn’t aren’t wasn’t weren’t haven’t hasn’t hadn’t mightn’t can’t doesn’t, don’t didn’t shouldn’t wouldn’t couldn’t

POSSESSIVE NOUNS
A possessive noun implies ownership of something by that person, place, or thing (the noun). To make a singular noun—like boy, dog, or school—possessive, add -’s. the boy‘s yo-yo the school‘s bleachers the kite‘s tail

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Be careful not to confuse the plural form of a noun for its possessive form. Plural Form: Singular Possessive: His parents drove us to school. We went to school in his parent‘s car.

The first sentence indicates that two parents drove to school. The second sentence indicates that the car of only one parent was driven to school. To form the possessive of a plural noun (for example, parents) simply add an apostrophe after the final s. Plural Possessive: We went to school in his parents’ car.

This sentence implies that the car belongs to both of his parents, not just one. This rule applies to all plural nouns ending with an s. Irregular plural nouns not ending in s (children, women, mice) follow the rule for singular possessives: children‘s women‘s mice‘s

TIP: There are only a very few words whose plural is formed with an apostrophe: numbers, letters, abbreviations, and expressions like umm, uh, and hmm. For example: Ph.D., M.D. → Ph.D.‘s , M.D.‘s

I have two friends who are M.D.’s and three who have Ph.D.’s. A, B, C, → A‘s, B‘s, C‘s,

She received two A’s and three B’s on her report card this marking period. 1, 2, 3, → 1‘s, 2‘s, 3‘s,

Please try to write your 4’s and 9’s more clearly; they look too much alike. umm, uh, hmm → umm‘s, uh‘s, hmm‘s

Try to avoid umm’s and uh’s when you are giving a speech.

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TIP: Only one possessive—its—does not require an apostrophe. If you mistakenly add an apostrophe to it to make it possessive, you are actually forming the contraction meaning it is, usually creating utter nonsense: The puppy wagged it’s tail. → The puppy wagged it is tail.

P R AC T I C E : A P O S T R O P H E S
Place apostrophes where they belong in the following sentences. You may check your answers on the opposite page. 1. I havent heard from Daniel in a week. 2. Lindas best friends name is Grace. 3. It wasnt Tricias fault that Kyles keys got lost. 4. Our schools policy on tardiness is strict. 5. One of her blouses buttons is missing. 6. The books title sounded corny, but its exciting plot kept me reading all night. 7. Why arent we going to Jodis party this afternoon? 8. The salesclerks bright smile was all I needed to lift my spirits. 9. Be sure to check that the bikes tires are inflated properly. 10. The weathermans prediction of a blizzard made everyone anxious.

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ANSWERS
1. I haven‘t heard from Daniel in a week. 2. Linda‘s best friend‘s name is Grace. 3. It wasn‘t Tricia‘s fault that Kyle‘s keys got lost. 4. Our school‘s policy on tardiness is strict. 5. One of her blouse‘s buttons is missing. 6. The book‘s title sounded corny, but its exciting plot kept me reading all night. 7. Why aren‘t we going to Jodi‘s party this afternoon? 8. The salesclerk‘s bright smile was all I needed to lift my spirits. 9. Be sure to check that the bike‘s tires are inflated properly. 10. The weatherman‘s prediction of a blizzard made everyone anxious.

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capitalization
The words of the world want to make sentences.
GASTON BACHELARD (1884–1962) FRENCH PHILOSOPHER

In addition to words that are capitalized at the beginning of sentences, we capitalize other words for very specific reasons. In this lesson, you will learn when and why these “other words” are capitalized.

AS YOU HAVE already learned, the first word of a sentence is always capitalized. This provides a visual clue for the reader that a new sentence is beginning, especially when several sentences are grouped together, as in a paragraph. The first word of a direct quotation (a person’s exact spoken words) is also capitalized: “Really, I’m so tired I could sleep standing up,” moaned Frank. The only time we don’t capitalize the first word of a direct quotation is when the quotation is continued after an interrupter (such as she said or he replied): “I told you,” Frank’s mom scolded, “not to stay up so late last night!” Proper nouns must also be capitalized. Unlike common names—general names for people, places, or things, like person, city, store, school, holiday—proper nouns are very specific—Avril Lavigne, Los Angeles, Wal-Mart, Sonora High School, Memorial Day—and require capitalization to recognize their importance.

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Sometimes when we name a person, we need to include a title (Mr., Rev., Dr.), abbreviations that follow their name (Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D.), and initials, for example, Mr. Andrew G. Milling, Jr., or Dr. Nathan A. Mahanirananda, M.D. As you can see, all three of these items are capitalized.

TIP: Be careful about nouns that can act as either common or proper nouns. For instance, when used alone, the word president is a common noun: The president was an excellent debater and public speaker. However, when a specific president is named, the title must be capitalized: President Bush is the forty-third president of the United States. This rule also applies to family member names as well, except when they follow a possessive noun (Robin’s, Harold’s, Marian’s) or a possessive pronoun (my, her, his, our, its, their): Robin’s mother is older than mine. My dad is taller than me. Mom and Grandma aren’t.

North, south, east, and west (the cardinal directions) and the seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter) are not capitalized (except, of course, as the first word in a sentence). When a specific section of the country, like the Northeast, is being referred to, or the seasons become part of the title or name of something like Fall Festival, Winter Ball, or Spring Fling, the words are capitalized. Proper adjectives must be capitalized. A proper adjective is a proper noun acting like an adjective, giving us more information about the person, place, or thing being described. For example, March winds, Italian bread, and French toast. Finally, when writing a title, remember that the first word, all personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, they, them, we, us), all verbs, and all key words in the title are capitalized. Articles (a, an, and the), conjunctions (such as so, for, and, but, nor, or, yet), and prepositions of any length (such as to, under, beyond) are not capitalized, however (unless, of course, they are the first word in the title).

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TITLES books short stories newspapers movies paintings songs magazines Number the Stars “The Sound of Summer Running” The Washington Post Pride and Prejudice Mona Lisa “Jingle Bells” Fortune magazine

P R AC T I C E : C A P I TA L I Z AT I O N
Identify and correct all the improperly capitalized words. You can check your answers using the key at the end of the lesson. 1. the statue of liberty is located in new york harbor. 2. “happy birthday, kayla!” jack cheered. 3. playing scrabble is a good way to improve your vocabulary. 4. “place the flowers in the vase,” remarked tyneal, “and put them on the front table.” 5. pizza and hamburgers were popular choices for the party. 6. dr. seuss’s the cat in the hat was played by jim carey in the movie. 7. “what did mom say when you told her you were invited to go to washington, d.c., with teddy?” james asked. 8. juneau is the capital of alaska, our forty-ninth state. 9. subs are called grinders, po’ boys, and hoagies in different parts of the united states. 10. grandpa told my uncle that aunt penny and allison went to the grove to go shopping.

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ANSWERS
1. The Statue of Liberty is located in New York Harbor. 2. “Happy birthday, Kayla!” Jack cheered. 3. Playing Scrabble is a good way to improve your vocabulary. 4. “Place the flowers in the vase,” remarked Tyneal, “and put them on the front table.” 5. Pizza and hamburgers were popular choices for the party. 6. Dr. Seuss’s The Cat in the Hat was played by Jim Carey in the movie. 7. “What did Mom say when you told her you were invited to go to Washington, D.C., with Teddy?” James asked. 8. Juneau is the capital of Alaska, our forty-ninth state. 9. Subs are called grinders, po’ boys, and hoagies in different parts of the United States. 10. Grandpa told my uncle that Aunt Penny and Allison went to The Grove to go shopping.

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confusing words

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE is filled with confusing words: difficult verbs, words that sound alike but are spelled differently, words that are spelled alike but sound differently, and words and phrases that can contort themselves (what!?). Better word choice is just a few lessons away. • Troublesome verbs: a few irregular verbs are just plain troublesome and need some extra attention. • Tricky words: homonyms and homographs are tricky words that can really throw you for a loop! • Misplaced modifiers: how do you keep those modifiers from dangling, splitting, and squinting?

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troublesome verbs
Words have a longer life than deeds.
PINDAR (522 B.C.–443 B.C.) GREEK POET

Irregular verbs can be tricky in and of themselves. In this lesson, we will learn about a few that are even more challenging.

WE KNOW THAT irregular verbs don’t follow any particular standard form, which can make them troublesome in their own right. There are, though, a few irregular verbs that are exceptionally challenging. Let’s look at them.

L AY / L I E
The verb lay means to place or put something somewhere. A noun must follow the verb lay in the sentence. Present lay, lays Present Participle (am, is, are, was) laying Past laid Past Participle (have, has) laid

Ursula laid the towel on the sand and headed down to the water.

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The verb lie means to rest or recline or be situated. A noun does not follow the verb lie in a sentence, although a prepositional phrase or an adverb may sometimes follow. Present lie, lies Present Participle (am, is, are, was) lying Past lay Past Participle (have, has) lain

After her swim, Ursula lay on the towel and soaked up the sun.

SET/SIT
Set, like lay, means to place or put something in a particular spot. Also like lay, a noun must follow the verb set in the sentence. Present set, sets Present Participle (am, is, are, was) setting Past set Past Participle (have, has) set

Karla sets her rings in the crystal bowl before washing the dishes. Like lie, the verb sit means to be situated. It can also mean seated or resting. A noun does not follow the verb sit in a sentence, although a prepositional phrase or an adverb may sometimes follow. Present sit, sits Present Participle (am, is, are, was) sitting Past sat Past Participle (have, has) sat

Vivian sits on the porch to read the newspaper on Saturday mornings.

DID/DONE
Did is the past form of the verb do. Did is used without a helping verb in a sentence. Done, on the other hand, must have a helping verb to be used properly in a sentence. Incorrect: Paula has did her homework before watching television. Correct: Correct: Paula did her homework before watching television. Paula has done her homework before watching television. Incorrect: Paula done her homework before watching television.

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E XC E P T / AC C E P T
Because these two verbs sound so similar, except and accept are often incorrectly switched in writing (and even in speaking). However, as alike as they sound, their meanings couldn’t be more different. Except means apart from or excluding, and accept means to believe or willingly receive. Except for Tuesdays, I can make plans to meet after school. I accept your apology; thank you.

TIP: Still confused about which to choose—except or accept? Here’s a trick to help you remember. When you are agreeing with someone, you are accepting their point of view—you are cc-eeing eye to eye with them. When you make an exception, you are then x-cluding something that you disagree with.

C A N / M AY
Can means capable of doing something. When you say, I can lift 250 pounds, you are saying you have the ability to lift that much weight; I can drive a car means that you have the ability to drive a car. On the other hand, may means having permission to do something. When you ask, “May I have a piece of cake?” you want to know whether you can have permission to have a piece of cake; when you say, “Ned may come inside now,” you are saying Ned has permission to come inside. Incorrect: Can I get a drink of water? [Asking if they are capable of getting a drink of water, as though something is keeping them from being able to do so.] Correct: May I get a drink of water? [Asking permission to get a drink of water]

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TIP: The verbs hang and lie are tricky because each is both a regular and an irregular verb. Which one it is, and therefore how it is conjugated, depends solely on the context.

If the word hang in a sentence means going to the gallows, then it is a regular verb, conjugated like this: Present hang, hangs Present Participle (am, is, are, was) hanging Past hanged Past Participle (have, has) hanged

On the other hand, if it means hang out or hang a picture on the wall, then it is an irregular verb, conjugated like this: Present hang, hangs Present Participle (am, is, are, was) hanging Past hung Past Participle (have, has) hung

Earlier, we saw that lie can mean to recline. But it can also mean to tell an untruth or falsehood. In this case, you would conjugate it like this: Present lie, lies Present Participle (am, is, are, was) lying Past lied Past Participle (have, has) lied

P R AC T I C E : T R O U B L E S O M E V E R B S
Select the correct verb needed to complete each of these sentences. You may check your answers with the key at the end of the chapter. 1. (Can, May) I have some friends over tonight? 2. We would have enjoyed the hike more, (except, accept) Sheila got a blister on her foot. 3. Beatrice (lay, laid) her coat and hat on the chair when she came in. 4. Marcus (has did, has done) a great job keeping up with his chores this summer.

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5. How do you expect me to (accept, except) this answer without any explanation? 6. Dad carefully (hanged, hung) the family portrait over the sofa. 7. At the park on a nice day, you can find people (sitting, setting) or (laying, lying) on a blanket relaxing. 8. Jackson, you (can, may) have a second piece of pie if you like. 9. Poor Grandma (has laid, has lain) in bed with a headache most of the afternoon. 10. Without hesitation, the king sentenced the thief to be (hung, hanged) at the gallows.

ANSWERS
1. May 2. except 3. laid 4. has done 5. accept 6. hung 7. sitting, lying 8. may 9. has lain 10. hanged

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Grammar is a tricky, inconsistent thing. Being the backbone of speech and writing, it should, we think, be eminently logical, make perfect sense, like the human skeleton. But, of course, the skeleton is arbitrary, too. Why twelve pairs of ribs rather than eleven or thirteen? Why thirty-two teeth? It has something to do with evolution and functionalism—but only sometimes, not always. So there are aspects of grammar that make good, logical sense, and others that do not.
JOHN SIMON (1925– ) CRITIC

Words that sound alike but are spelled differently (homonyms), or are spelled the same but pronounced differently (homographs) are found all throughout the English language. In this lesson, you will learn many (but not nearly all) of the homonyms and homographs that are out there.

IF YOU’VE EVER looked at a dictionary, you know that there are many tricky words in the English language. We see homonyms and homographs in our reading all of the time, which is proof that it is not only knowing how to spell words correctly that is important, but also knowing which word you need to spell in the first place!

HOMONYMS AND HOMOGRAPHS
Words that are pronounced exactly the same, even though they may be spelled differently, are called homonyms. The list on the following pages shows you some homonyms we use in our everyday lives.

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HOMONYMS ad/add allowed/aloud aunt/ant ate/eight bear/bare blue/blew break/brake by/buy cent/sent/scent The ad on the bulletin board was expired. Be sure to add all of the numbers carefully. I was never allowed to ride a motorcycle. Reading aloud can be fun. Aunt Rosie is so kind. The ant carried the leaf across the limb. Nate ate the entire pizza by himself! There is enough room for eight people in my van. The brown bear lumbered across the field. He split the piece of wood with his bare hands. Two blue birds chirped in the tree. Kelly blew the dust off the keyboard. You may have a five-minute break now. She slammed on the brake and went into a skid. Dan and Shelly walked by the river. You must pay cash when you buy gas here. One cent is a penny. Omar sent his son to his room. The scent of her perfume was overwhelming. The puppy chews on almost anything. You may choose the next restaurant. Grandpa was a colonel during World War II. There was only one kernel of popcorn left in the bowl. Look at the five deer beside the house! Martha is a dear friend. Do you like this song? I could see the morning dew on the grass. My report is due in two days. The ewe watched her lamb from afar. You are my best friend. A yew is a small evergreen. The plane flew high overhead. She gets a vaccination for the flu each year. He forgot to open the flue in the chimney. Flour is needed to make bread. The pink flower looked pretty in the window.

chews/choose colonel/kernel deer/dear do/dew/due

ewe/you/yew

flew/flu/flue

flour/flower

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HOMONYMS (Continued) he’ll/heal/heel He’ll be going to college next year. Will your scratch heal soon? My heel hurt for three days after the fall. Please place the paper here on the desk. Grandma doesn’t hear well. The dog dug a hole by the backyard fence. She ate the apple whole instead of slicing it. It was a ten-hour drive to Virginia. Our house needs new shutters. I’ll be leaving soon. She pushed the cart down the aisle. The small isle off the coast was uninhabited. I knew I should have chosen the green one. My new shoes hurt my feet. It was impossible to get the knot out of her shoestring. Jason would not say he was sorry. Do you know the capital of New Jersey? No way! The track meet was this weekend. The meat is in the freezer. You will need one stick of butter for that recipe. The midfielder got kneed in the leg by his opponent. The recipe said to knead the dough after it raised. One slice of pizza remained in the pan. Cory was glad that he won the prize. Wash this pair of jeans before wearing them. The pear was ripe and juicy. My principal was a kind man. Paul was a man of principle. It might rain tomorrow afternoon. Take hold of the horse’s rein and pull back gently. The king’s reign was successful for 30 years. I like to be right. It’s important to learn to write well. Marriage is a rite of passage.

here/hear hole/whole hour/our I’ll/aisle/isle

knew/new knot/not know/no meet/meat need/kneed/knead

one/won pair/pear principal/principle rain/rein/reign

right/write/rite

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HOMONYMS (Continued) sail/sale scene/seen there/their/they’re Mrs. Williman likes to sail with her family. This sofa was on sale. The winter scene was almost surreal. Have you ever seen a three-toed sloth? There are probably a million ants here! Has their team won many games? I think that they’re twins. The center fielder threw the ball to third to make the out. Red Ridinghood walked through the forest to Grandma’s house. To lock the door, just turn the key. I have had to tell him too often to turn his music down. The two rolls left in the bag were moldy. Chopping wood is hard work. I would like to order a steamed lobster, please. Tony didn’t know which movie to see first. The Good Witch of the North was kinder than her sister. The weather turned frigid overnight. Harold had to decide whether he wanted to leave early. Whose muddy shoes are these? I don’t know who’s supposed to be going with us.

threw/through

to/too/two

wood/would which/witch weather/whether whose/who’s

Homographs are words that are spelled exactly the same way, but have completely different meanings. The following list shows some familiar homographs. HOMOGRAPHS address Address the envelope in script. The address is on the desk. address: directions for delivery address: place where a business or person resides The professional bass fisherman also plays bass in a band. bass: a type of freshwater fish bass: a stringed instrument He will bow before the king and present him with a golden bow. bow: to bend at the waist bow: flexible wood used for shooting arrows

bass bow

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HOMOGRAPHS (Continued) close conflict desert does The store owner lives close to the store. He’ll close up tonight. close: to be near in proximity close: to shut The stories’ details conflict about the country’s initial conflict. conflict: to disagree conflict: a disagreement It was easy to desert his town in the desert for the city life. desert: to leave desert: a barren, dry place Does the ranger see the whitetail does down by the stream? does: interrogative (questioning verb) does: more than one female deer The dove angrily dove in the flock of gulls to defend his mate. dove: a white bird dove: past tense of the verb dive This duplex house can house more than one family. house: a place to live house: to contain or to shelter While in the lead, the contestant’s lead broke in both pencils. lead: at the head or front position lead: graphite metal substance used in pencils The stadium I live next to has many live concerts. live: to reside live: not pre-recorded or taped At one minute after midnight, the minute creature disappeared. minute: one-sixtieth of an hour minute: very small It was an honor to present this special present to the king. present: to give present: a gift Local growers produce produce to sell all summer long. produce: to create, to grow, or to generate produce: vegetables and fruit Although I’ve read the book before, I will gladly read it again. read: past tense of the verb read read: to examine and understand the meanings of written words The school will officially record this newly defeated record. record: to write, to register, or to document something record: a list of achievements Use separate files to separate this year’s work from last year’s. separate: disconnected separate: to keep apart A tear came to her eye when she saw him tear the note in two. tear: watery, saline fluid that is released from the eyes tear: to rip

dove house lead

live minute present produce

read

record

separate tear

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HOMOGRAPHS (Continued) use well If you don’t have any use for this basket, may I use it? use: the need to use use: to take or to consume Well, we sent her home because she didn’t feel well. well: an interjection used to introduce a thought well: good or satisfactory health I tried to wind the kite string but the strong wind pulled it away. wind: to wrap around or coil wind: air velocity or movement He wound the bandage around his wound to protect it. wound: wrapped around wound: a minor injury

wind wound

P R AC T I C E : H O M O N Y M S A N D H O M O G R A P H S
Look at each set of clues to determine the words that they are describing. Then identify whether those words homonyms or homographs. You may use the word bank on the previous pages to help you. Check your answers in the section that follows. 1. to bend at the waist or a large tree branch: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 2. correct or a sacrament or to jot down: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 3. devoured or ten minus two: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 4. discounted price or to navigate a small boat: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 5. permitted to do something or easy to hear: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 6. tiny or sixty seconds: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 7. motionless or fancy writing paper: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 8. uppercase (letter) or center of state government: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH

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9. to make something or fresh fruits and vegetables: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 10. to move quickly through the air or a pesky insect: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 11. gnaws or decide on: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 12. a freshwater fish or a low-toned voice or guitar: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 13. excessively or deuce: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 14. aroma or dispatched: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH 15. nearby or to secure: HOMONYM / HOMOGRAPH

ANSWERS
1. bow or bough: HOMONYM 2. right or rite or write: HOMONYM 3. ate or eight: HOMONYM 4. sale or sail: HOMONYM 5. allowed or aloud: HOMONYM 6. minute or minute: HOMOGRAPH 7. stationary or stationery: HOMONYM 8. capital or capitol: HOMONYM 9. produce or produce: HOMOGRAPH 10. fly or fly : HOMOGRAPH 11. chews or choose: HOMONYM 12. bass or bass: HOMOGRAPH 13. too or two: HOMONYM 14. scent or sent: HOMONYM 15. close or close: HOMOGRAPH

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Grammar and logic free language from being at the mercy of the tone of voice. Grammar protects us against misunderstanding the sound of an uttered name; logic protects us against what we say having double meaning.
EUGENE ROSENSTOCK HUESSY (1888–1973) SOCIOLOGIST AND PHILOSOPHER

Dangling, split, and squinting modifiers can wreak havoc on your writing (and maybe even make you laugh). In this lesson, you will learn how to steer clear of these modifying mistakes.

MODIFIERS ENHANCE A sentence. These enhancers include adjectives and adverbs, as well as phrases and clauses that behave like adjectives and adverbs. Without modifiers, our sentences would be uninteresting and dull. Modifiers can make written and spoken language more interesting and meaningful, and easier to understand. Sometimes, even though modifiers are helpful, they can become misplaced and confuse the reader or listener. It happens more often than you think. What do misplaced modifiers look like? Read on to find out.

DA N G L I N G M O D I F I E R S
Just like adverbs and adjectives, phrases that function like adjectives or adverbs should be put near the words they are modifying to avoid confusion. You want to avoid a dangling modifier.

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Ben’s grandpa mowed the lawn wearing a bright red hat. Who is wearing the bright red hat—Grandpa or the lawn? A better way to word the sentence would be to move the modifying participial phrase closer to Ben’s grandpa, which is the noun it’s enhancing. Wearing a bright red hat, Ben’s grandpa mowed the lawn.

SQUINTING MODIFIERS
When a modifier is vague, appearing to describe the nouns on both sides of it, it is called a squinting modifier. For instance: Brushing your teeth frequently helps keep cavities away. Does this mean you should brush your teeth frequently in order to keep cavities away? Frequently brushing your teeth helps keep cavities away. Or does it mean that brushing your teeth can frequently help keep cavities away? Frequently, brushing your teeth helps keep cavities away.

SPLIT INFINITIVES
As we learned in Lesson 3, the infinitive form of a verb begins with the word to, for example, to play, to dance, or to study. Inserting a word or phrase between to and the verb creates a split infinitive, disrupting the flow of the sentence. Incorrect: The team was told to, before the game, warm up by running around the field. Correct: The team was told to warm up by running around the field before the game. OR Before the game, the team was told to warm up by running around the field.

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M A N AG I N G M O D I F I E R S
Whenever possible, place simple adjectives before the nouns they are modifying. Sporting a new football jersey, the excited fan stood in the rain for hours to buy a ticket to the big game. Place any phrases and clauses acting as adjectives as near as possible to the noun being modified. The dog with brown and white spots wagged its tail happily. Strategically placing limiting modifiers like only, barely, just, and almost can widely vary a sentence’s meaning. Only John plays baseball. John only plays baseball. John plays baseball only. [No one else can play it, only John.] [He doesn’t watch it or read about it; he only plays it.] [He doesn’t play anything else but baseball.]

P R AC T I C E : M I S P L AC E D M O D I F I E R S
Rewrite each of these sentences so that the modifier is correctly placed. Check your answers on the following page. 1. While riding my bike to the library, the dog began to bark. 2. She observed the monstrous skyscraper with binoculars. 3. Donna served hot dogs, fries, and potato salad to her guests on paper plates. 4. Did you see a guy cross the bridge with a beard? 5. The red sports car was reported stolen by the police officer. 6. While fixing my bicycle chain, the ice cream man drove by.

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7. Buddy sat in the chair with a broken leg. 8. Sam played the “Star-Spangled Banner” to the audience on his saxophone. 9. Covered with dirt, I saw the farmer plowing his field on my bike. 10. While lacing my shoelaces, the cat yawned and settled into the chair.

ANSWERS
1. While I was riding my bike to the library, the dog began to bark. 2. With binoculars, she observed the monstrous skyscraper. 3. Donna served hot dogs, fries, and potato salad on paper plates to her guests. 4. Did you see a guy with a beard cross the bridge? 5. The stolen red sports car was reported by the police officer. 6. The ice cream man drove by while I was fixing my bicycle chain. 7. Buddy, who had a broken leg, sat in the chair. 8. Sam played the “Star-Spangled Banner” on his saxophone to the audience. 9. While on my bike, I saw the farmer who was covered with dirt plowing his field. 10. While I was lacing my shoelaces, the cat yawned and settled into the chair.

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NOW THAT YOU have completed 30 lessons in grammar, it’s time to find out how much you’ve improved! The posttest that follows includes 30 questions based on the grammar concepts you’ve just learned. To check yourself, go to page 204 for the answers. It is suggested that you write your answers to the posttest on a separate piece of paper so you can review and test yourself as many times as you need.

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POSTTEST
1. Circle the common nouns, underline the proper nouns, and box the abstract nouns. Missouri glass horizon evil drawing juice laziness jewelry toast integrity loneliness fear pride Peru glue dessert canoe pennies

2. Underline the antecedents/pronouns that properly agree in gender. Ben / it knives / they rice / they Mr. Hoyle / they Chelsea / she man / him

3. Underline the antecedents/pronouns that agree in number. mice / they moose / they some / he or she band / they moose / it group / we lion / it fish / it some / they

4. Underline the action verbs. serve give look did are could blew spoke rest cook chased fry

5. Underline the linking verbs. proved became felt took appear tastes grew could is sat nodded dust

6. Box the regular verbs and underline the irregular verbs. hug cross buy climb cost make hold fly read choose save sting

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7. Circle the correct form of lay/lie in each sentence. The old haunted house (lays, lies) across the river. We have (lain, laid) out our uniforms for the game. Who (laid, lain) the TV remote on the floor? 8. Circle the correct form of sit/set in each sentence. The waitress (set, sat) the ketchup bottles on the table. We will (sit, set) beside the bleachers in our own chairs. Mom (set, sat) down on the bench to watch Gina and Greg play in the playground. 9. Identify the tense of the verbs that follow as present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, present progressive, past progressive, or future progressive. will buy ____________________ am buying ______________________ will mow ___________________ mow ___________________________ had bought _________________ have bought ____________________ has mown __________________ will have mown _________________ 10. Circle the common adjectives in these sentences. My next-door neighbor’s dog darted across the front yard chasing the red ball. The chorus teacher, Mrs. Johnson, has a very melodious voice. The sweet smell of jasmine filled the air when the tree bloomed. 11. Write the correct indefinite pronoun in front of each noun. ___ loaf ___ universal truth ___ one-way street ___ chair ___ mythical creature ___ umbrella ___ needle and thread ___ only child ___ elegant lady ___ queue ___ honest person ___ shopkeeper ___ apple ___ historian ___ insult

12. Change the following proper nouns into proper adjectives by crossing out and writing in what’s needed. Jamaica China Italy California Mexico Georgia Germany Alaska Maya

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13. Determine whether each boldfaced word in the sentences is a possessive pronoun or a possessive adjective by writing PP or PA above it. My little sister Joanne says that it’s not her fault, it’s mine. Kyle’s mom let him and Dan go to the mall to buy a present for their father. “This one’s his; that one’s yours,” Vin counted, “and those three are theirs.” 14. Determine whether each boldfaced word in the sentences is a demonstrative pronoun or a demonstrative adjective by writing DP or DA above it. What was the title of that movie we saw last weekend? Those have got to be the funniest pictures I’ve ever seen! I will have to take this suit to the dry cleaners to get these spots out. 15. Circle the form of the adjective (positive, comparative, or superlative) that best completes each sentence. The weather today was (bad, worse) than yesterday’s. The (longer, longest) the wait, the (most, more) it irritates Grandpa. It was the (most interesting, interestinger) conversation I’ve had with her yet. 16. Circle the correct form of the adverb (positive, comparative, or superlative) in these sentences. Matthew (more frequently, most frequently) does his homework on the kitchen table. Our team played the (bestest, best) of all the teams at the tournament. This presentation is going (slowly, more slowly) than I thought it would.

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17. Underline the adjectives and box the adverbs in these sentences. The spotted yellow-and-black butterfly fluttered happily around the yard. Pamela often jogged around the neighborhood park after work to unwind. Natalie watched closely as Rhonda carefully poured the thick black paint into the small plastic bottle. 18. Underline the prepositional phrases in the sentences below. While the horse ate in the stable, the cow and the goat grazed lazily in the field. Arpan quickly drank from his thermos before the second half of the game started. Our fish, Bubba, always seems lonely in his small fish tank. 19. Rewrite each sentence so that the misplaced modifiers are properly placed. The culprit was described as a short man with a dark beard weighing 137 pounds. _______________________________________________________________ They visited the college wearing varsity jackets. _______________________________________________________________ Smothered in barbecue sauce, we devoured the platter of ribs. _______________________________________________________________ 20. Underline the simple subjects and box the simple predicates. Many people visit the Statue of Liberty every year. The phone rang six times before I could answer it. What is the sum of the numbers twelve and eleven? 21. Identify whether the boldfaced word is a direct or an indirect object in these sentences by writing DO or IO above it. I would like peach ice cream with my peach cobbler, please. The postman delivered Aunt Martha a package today. The class sent the soldiers several care packages.

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22. Circle the verb that correctly agrees with the subject in each sentence. They (studies, study) together every Wednesday night. My neighbor’s dog (bark, barks) a lot at night. Spaghetti and meatballs (is, are) my favorite Italian meal. 23. Circle the verb that will agree with the indefinite pronouns in the following sentences. Alice is right; only a few of us (likes, like) split pea soup. Each of the students (are, is) receiving an award. None of the teachers (give, gives) homework over the holidays. 24. Determine which pronoun best fits for proper pronoun–antecedent agreement in these sentences. Either Troy or Marty will bring ________ camera to take pictures at the parade. Marge never lets __________ cat outside. Tina and Patricia started _________ tennis lesson today. 25. Correctly identify the types of phrases in the sentences below. Betsy, who tried to avoid slipping on the ice, wore her winter boots. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

Washing windows on a skyscraper can be a scary job. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

Sitting in the sun, the cat dozed contentedly. a. participial phrase b. appositive phrase c. gerund phrase

26. Determine whether the group of words is an independent or a subordinate clause by writing IC or SC. Mr. Christopher teaches English ____ Although you might change your mind ____ Please pass the butter ____ If it rains tomorrow ____ We’ll see ___ When we got to the shore ____

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27. Identify the coordinating conjunction in each sentence and underline the word or group of words it is connecting. The lemonade was cold and delicious. The little piano etude was simple yet lovely. Jared did not like the movie, nor did Walter. 28. Identify the simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. a. Shelly raked the leaves and placed them into the compost pile. b. On Saturday mornings, I enjoy orange juice with my pancakes. c. I like chocolate-covered almonds and cashews. d. When the weather is cold, Dad likes to build a fire and read a favorite book. 29. Add punctuation where necessary in the following items. Campers could play tennis soccer basketball or baseball What kind of day did I have The hamster got loose in the house the washing machine overflowed and Jimmy fell and skinned both knees Wow This project is terrific 30. Correctly place quotation marks, commas, and endmarks in these sentences. You should close the windows and lock them before going to bed suggested Ian Matt blurted Hey That’s my bowl of popcorn Get your own Why interrupted Mrs. Ross do you always insist on sitting in the front seat

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ANSWERS
1. Common nouns: glass, horizon, drawing, juice, jewelry, toast, glue, dessert, canoe, pennies; proper nouns: Missouri, Peru; abstract nouns: evil, laziness, integrity, loneliness, fear, pride. 2. knives / they, Chelsea / she, man / him 3. mice / they, lion / it, moose / they, moose / it, fish / it, some / he or she, some / they 4. serve, did, blew, cook, give, spoke, chased, look, rest, fry 5. proved, grew, became, appear, felt, tastes, is 6. Regular verbs: hug, cross, climb, save; irregular verbs: buy, cost, make, hold, fly, read, choose, sting 7. lies, laid, laid 8. set, sit, sat 9. will buy = future will mow = future had bought = past perfect has mown = present perfect am buying = present progressive mow = present have bought = present perfect will have mown = future perfect 10. next-door, front, red, chorus, melodious, sweet 11. a loaf an umbrella an honest person a universal truth a needle and thread a shopkeeper a one-way street an only child an apple a chair an elegant lady a historian a mythical creature a queue an insult 12. Jamaican, Californian, German, Chinese, Mexican, Alaskan, Italian, Georgian, Mayan 13. PP = possessive pronoun, PA = possessive adjective My = PA, her = PA, mine = PP him = PP, their = PA his = PP, yours = PP, theirs = PP 14. DP = demonstrative pronoun, DA = demonstrative adjective that = DA, those = DP, this = DA, these = DA 15. worse, longer, more, most interesting 16. most frequently, best, more slowly 17. The spotted yellow-and-black butterfly fluttered happily around the yard. Pamela often jogged around the neighborhood park after work to unwind. Natalie watched closely as Rhonda carefully poured the thick black paint into the small plastic bottle.

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18. While the horse ate in the stable, the cow and the goat grazed lazily in the field. Arpan quickly drank from his thermos before the second half of the game started. Our fish, Bubba, always seems lonely in his small fish tank. 19. (possible answers) The culprit was described as a short man weighing 137 pounds with a dark beard. Wearing their varsity jackets, they visited the college. We devoured the platter of ribs that were smothered in barbecue sauce. 20. Many people visit the Statue of Liberty every year. The phone rang six times before I could answer it. What is the sum of the numbers twelve and eleven? 21. DO = direct object, IO = indirect object ice cream = DO, Aunt Martha = IO, package = DO, soldiers = IO, care package = DO 22. study, barks, is 23. like, is, give 24. his, her, their 25. b. appositive phrase, c. gerund phrase, a. participial phrase 26. IC = independent clause, SC = subordinate clause Mr. Christopher teaches English = IC If it rains tomorrow = SC Although you might change your mind = SC We’ll see = IC Please pass the butter = IC When we got to the shore = SC 27. The lemonade was cold and delicious. The little piano etude was simple yet lovely. Jared did not like the movie, nor did Walter. 28. (a) compound, (b) complex, (c) simple, (d) compound-complex 29. Campers could play tennis, soccer, basketball, or baseball. What kind of day did I have? The hamster got loose in the house, the washing machine overflowed, and Jimmy fell and skinned both knees. Wow! This project is terrific! 30. “You should close the windows and lock them before going to bed,” suggested Ian. Matt blurted, “Hey! That’s my bowl of popcorn! Get your own!” “Why,” interrupted Mrs. Ross, “do you always insist on sitting in the front seat?”

hints for taking standardized tests

THE TERM standardized test has the ability to produce fear in test takers. These tests are often given by a state board of education or a nationally recognized education group. Usually these tests are taken in the hope of getting accepted— whether it’s for a special program, the next grade in school, or even to a college or university. Here’s the good news: Standardized tests are more familiar to you than you know. In most cases, these tests look very similar to tests that your teachers may have given in the classroom. The following pages include valuable tips for combating test anxiety—that sinking or blank feeling some people feel as they begin a test or encounter a difficult question. You’ll discover how to use your time wisely and how to avoid errors when you’re taking a test. Also, you will find a plan for preparing for the test and for the test day. Once you have these tips down, you’re ready to approach any exam head-on!

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hints for taking standardized tests

C O M BAT I N G T E S T A N X I E T Y Ta ke t h e Te s t O n e Q u e s t i o n a t a T i m e
Focus all your attention on the question you’re answering. Block out any thoughts about questions you’ve already read or concerns about what’s coming next. Concentrate your thinking where it will do the most good—on the present question.

I f Yo u L o s e Yo u r C o n c e n t ra t i o n
Don’t worry about it! It’s normal. During a long test, it happens to everyone. When your mind is stressed, it takes a break whether you want it to or not. It’s easy to get your concentration back if you simply acknowledge the fact that you’ve lost it and take a quick break.

I f Yo u F re e z e b e fo re o r d u r i n g t h e Te s t
Don’t worry about a question that stumps you. Mark it and go on to the next question. You can come back to the “stumper” later. Try to put it out of your mind completely until you come back to it. Chances are, the memory block will be gone by the time you return to the question. If you freeze before you even begin the test, here’s what to do: 1. 2. 3. 4. Take a little time to look over the test. Read a few of the questions. Decide which are the easiest and start there. Before long, you’ll be “in the groove.”

T I M E S T R AT E G I E S
With the strategies in this section, you’ll notice the next timed test you take is not as scary.

hints for taking standardized tests

209

Pa c e Yo u rs e l f
The most important time strategy is pacing yourself. Before you begin, take just a few seconds to survey the test, noting the number of questions and the sections that look easier than the rest. Estimate a time schedule based upon the amount of time available to you. Mark the halfway point on your test and make a note beside that mark of what the time will be when the testing period is half over.

Ke e p M ov i n g
Once you begin the test, keep moving. If you work slowly in an attempt to make fewer mistakes, your mind will become bored and begin to wander, and you will lose concentration.

T h e P ro c e s s of E l i m i n a t i o n
For some standardized tests, there is no guessing penalty. What this means is that you shouldn’t be afraid to guess. For a multiple-choice question with four answer choices, you have a one in four chance of guessing correctly. And your chances improve if you can eliminate a choice or two. By using the process of elimination, you will cross out incorrect answer choices and improve your odds of finding the correct answer. In order for the process of elimination to work, you must keep track of what choices you are crossing out. Cross out incorrect choices on the test booklet itself. If you don’t cross out an incorrect answer, you may still think it is a possible answer. Crossing out any incorrect answers makes it easier to identify the right answer: There will be fewer places where it can hide!

AVO I D I N G E R R O R S
When you take a test, you want to make as few errors as possible in the questions you answer. Here are a few tactics to keep in mind.

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hints for taking standardized tests

C o n t ro l Yo u rs e l f
If you feel rushed or worried, stop for a few seconds. Acknowledging the feeling (Hmmm! I’m feeling a little pressure here!), take a few deep breaths, and send yourself a few positive messages (I am prepared for this test, and I will do well!).

D i re c t i o n s
In many standardized testing situations, specific instructions are given and you must follow them as best as you can. Be sure you understand what is expected. If you don’t, ask. Listen carefully for instructions about how to answer the questions and make certain you know how much time you have to complete the task. If you miss any important information about the rules of taking the test, ask for it.

I f Yo u F i n i s h E a r l y
Use any time you have left at the end of the test or test section to check your work. First, make sure you’ve put the right answers in the right places. After you’ve checked for errors, take a second look at the more difficult questions. If you have a good reason for thinking your first response was wrong, change it.

T H E DAY S B E F O R E T H E T E S T P hys i c a l Ac t i v i t y
Get some exercise in the days preceding the test. Play a game outside with your friends or take your pet for a walk. Exercise helps give more oxygen to your brain and allows your thinking performance to rise on the day you take the test. But moderation is key here. You don’t want to exercise so much that you feel too tired; however, a little physical activity will do the trick.

Balanced Diet
Like your body, your brain needs the proper nutrients to function well. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables in the days before the test. Foods like fish and beans are also good choices to help your mind reach its best level of performance before a big test.

hints for taking standardized tests

211

Rest
Get plenty of sleep the nights before the test. Go to bed at a reasonable time, and you’ll feel relaxed and rested.

T E S T DAY
It’s finally here: the day of the big test! Eat a good breakfast, and avoid anything high in sugar (even though it might taste good, no sugary cereal or doughnuts). If you can, get to your classroom early so you can review your materials before the test begins. The best thing to do next is to relax and think positively! Before you know it, the test will be over, and you’ll walk away knowing you did the best job you could!

G

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S

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Y

abstract noun a word denoting something that cannot be seen or touched, such as freedom or pride. action verb a physical or mental verb.

adjective a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjectives answer what kind? which one? how much? how many? about a noun or pronoun. adverb a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs answer where? when? how much? how many? about the verb, adjective, or other adverb. antecedent the word or words to which a specific pronoun refers. appositive phrase a word or phrase that identifies the noun or pronoun that comes before it in the sentence. clause a group of words with a subject and a verb. collective noun a word that names groups of living things.

214

glossary

colon the punctuation mark that comes before a series, a lengthy quotation, or an example, or after the salutation in a business letter. comma the punctuation mark that is used to separate words, phrases, and items in a series. common noun ordinary name for a person, place, or thing.

complex sentence a sentence that is made up of an independent clause and subordinate (dependent) clause. compound-complex sentence a sentence that is made up of more than one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. compound noun a new noun made up of two or more single nouns. Compound nouns may be fused (spelled as one word), hyphenated, or spelled as two separate words. compound sentence a sentence that contains at least two independent clauses with no subordinate (dependent) clauses. compound subject two or more subjects that share the same verb in a sentence. concrete noun a word denoting things that are countable and uncountable. conjunction a word or phrase that connect other words or groups of words.

dangling modifier a word or phrase that is meant to modify one specific component in the sentence, but because of poor placement, alters the meaning of the sentence. dash the punctuation mark that indicates a strong pause to emphasize a point, or to set off a comment or a short list within a sentence. demonstrative pronoun the words this, that, these, and those, used to replace a specific noun in a sentence. direct object a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. direct quotation the exact spoken or written words of a person written by another; they must be enclosed in quotation marks. endmarks punctuation marks that belong at the end of a sentence. exclamation point the punctuation mark that is used to indicate strong emotion in writing. first-person pronoun the pronouns I, my, mine, me, myself, we, our, ours, us, ourselves. fragment an incomplete sentence that lacks either a subject or a predicate.

future tense the verb tense that implies that something hasn’t yet happened, but will.

glossary

215

gerund phrase a phrase that begins with an -ing verb and functions as a noun in a sentence. homograph one of two words that are spelled exactly the same way, but have completely different meanings. homonym one of two distinct words that have different spellings and meanings but are pronounced the same way. hyphen the punctuation mark that is used to join or separate numbers, letters, syllables, and words for specific purposes. indefinite pronoun a word that refers to a noun, but not a specific one, such as no one, anyone, anybody, or somebody. independent clause a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate (verb) and can stand by itself as a sentence. infinitive phrase a phrase beginning with the infinitive form of a verb (it follows the word to) that functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence. irregular verb a verb that does not use an -ed ending in the past tense. The past tense endings for irregular verbs do not follow any specific pattern. italicizing a way of showing emphasis of a word or words in a sentence or to distinguish them from other words in the text, such as with titles. linking verb a state-of-being or condition verb that links a noun with either another noun or an adjective. misplaced modifier a word or phrase that is placed too far from something it is modifying, but does not alter the meaning of the sentence or require further clarification. modifier a word that modifies, or changes, another word. Adjectives modify only nouns. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. noun a word that names a person, place, or thing (including ideas and feelings). object of the preposition the noun or pronoun that follows a phrase that begins with a preposition; often abbreviated OOP. object pronoun a pronoun that is the object of the sentence (the person or thing receiving the action from the verb). parentheses the punctuation marks that are used to set off information that is not necessarily pertinent to the surrounding sentence or words. participial phrase a phrase that begins with an -ing word and functions as an adjective in a sentence.

216

glossary

past tense the verb tense that implies something that already happened. perfect tense the verb tense that implies that an event or state was started and ended. period the punctuation mark found at the end of a declarative sentence, an imperative sentence, an indirect question, and in abbreviations. personal pronouns words such as I, you, me, he, him, she, her, it, they, them, and we that refer to the speaker, the person or thing being spoken about, or the person or thing being spoken to. phrase a group of words that do not have a subject and verb. Phrases can act like various parts of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, or preposition). predicate another word for verb. preposition a word which shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence in terms of time and/or space. prepositional phrase a phrase beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun. present tense the verb tense that implies action happening in the present or an action which happens constantly. pronoun a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence. A pronoun can be possessive, demonstrative, personal, and indefinite. proper noun a very specific noun which is indicated by its capitalization. punctuation a set of special symbols that imply specific directions for the reader to better understand the writer’s meaning. question mark the punctuation mark placed at the end of an interrogatory sentence (a question). quotation marks the punctuation marks used to indicate the exact words of a speaker or to convey hesitation or misgiving in a person’s written words. run-on a sentence that consists of two or more sentences combined improperly without proper punctuation. second-person pronoun the pronouns you, your, yours, yourself, yourselves. semicolon the punctuation mark used to join together two independent clauses that share a similar idea and are not already joined by a conjunction. sentence a group of words that share a subject and predicate, and express a complete thought. sentence fragment an incomplete thought punctuated as a complete sentence. simple sentence an independent clause.

glossary

217

subject-verb agreement when the subject and the verb of a sentence agree in number and in person. subordinate clause (a.k.a., dependent clause) a group of words that includes a subject and a verb, but cannot stand alone as a complete thought. superlative the form of an adjective or adverb that implies the greatest degree compared to that of something else. Superlatives end in the suffix -est. third-person pronouns the pronouns he, his, him, himself, she, her, hers, herself, it, its, itself, they, their, theirs, them, themselves. underlining a way of showing emphasis of a word or words in a sentence or to distinguish them from other words in the text, such as with titles. verb a word that expresses action or condition of the corresponding noun or pronoun. Verbs can also indicate the time of the action or condition.

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