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His114 Economic, Political, and Social Change

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jarednielson
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Agricultural Revolution

* The three most important contributing factors of the agricultural revolution in Europe were: the three field system, better farming equipment, and warmer temperatures. Because of the improved weather and farming equipment and system improvement, farming production increased and influenced society. These three factors combined revolutionized the way of living in Europe during the 19th century.

The agricultural revolution changed the way people worked and the jobs that could be found in 19th century European society. The new way of farming eliminated many farm jobs causing society to seek out jobs elsewhere, such as coalmines. * * Industrial Revolution

1. The three most important contributing factors of the industrial revolution include: the invention of many machines to eliminate the need for hand tools, the use of steam to relieve physical labor of humans and animals and the utilization of the factory system. These three factors changed the way that people worked and increased production within European society. * 1. Working conditions in coalmines and factories between 1800 and 1850 were very poor and extremely dangerous. Coal was mined in very primitive ways and often times miners were brought out of the mine in a bucket pulled by a single rope, resulting in many injuries and deaths. http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/039.html [retrieved December 17, 2012]. *
Western Social Change Between 1815 and 1914

1. Romanticism- * During the 19th century romanticism changed western society a great deal. The romanticism movement gave people the courage to shun classical reforms and embrace creativity and emotion. Art, music, literature were all revolutionized because of the belief that inspiration and intuition were more important than reason and science and in result the role of an artist became valued.

The role of women * The role of women during the 19th century changed as the need for a work force became more important. Employers often sought out women to do tedious jobs such as sewing because they could be paid at a much lower rate and still expected women to stay at home. Many middle class women had to work to provide what their families needed and toward the middle of the 19th century they began to protest against the expectation that kept them in the domestic domain.

Science * The new study of science studied society in a way that had never been done before and provided a new way of seeing reality. Physical science rapidly grew with the discovery if the periodic table and understanding of elements as well as the understanding of energy and mathematical formulas. Biology, economics, and human behavior were also areas of science that began to emerge and become understood.

Realism
After the idealization of romanticism, society made a change and began to focus on what reality was instead of what artists and authors wanted it to be. Now that newspapers and magazines could reach the masses information began to be shared in a more cynical way, with the intention to portray what society had become because of the industrial revolution, which caused the break down of personal and family relationships.

Western Political Change Between 1815 and 1870

Liberalism * The main focused of liberalism were individual freedom and corruptibility of authority. The drive of liberals was the right to vote, civil liberties, legal equality, and a free market. It was the belief that the less government the better and that people were basically good and would govern themselves properly and flourish.

Conservatism * The citizens that supported the conservative way of life believed that there should be a gradual growth and stability rather than aggressive progress and action. Conservatives wanted to grow out of slow development rather than throwing away tradition. Conservatives would tend to support the abolishment of liberalism and freedom of speech.

Kulturekampf * Kulturkampf, or the struggle for civilization was an anti-church campaign that raged through Germany in the 1870’s. Liberals supported this legislation, however many Germans became worried about how such religious oppression would affect society. A settlement was eventually reached and the between chancellor Bismark and the Catholic Church.

The Communist Manifesto * Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto with the intentions of describing the awful situations of the working class and calling them to action against industrialized Europe. Riots, violent protests and eventually a revolution erupted and changed the way that the European working class functioned.

Realpolitik * Realpolitik is the furthering of a country’s interest by any means needed, even if they are violent or illegal. The use of realpolitik was used throughout the 19th century but most notable in the drive to unify Germany. Many allies were made in effort to protect the national movement that was happening in the 1850’s

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