Free Essay

Submitted By WeeOrgans

Words 659

Pages 3

Words 659

Pages 3

Free Essay

...Measurement, Instrumentation, Statistics and Error Group 1A Lab Performed: 9-5-2012 Report Submitted: 10-11-2012 Table of Contents: I. Motive…………………………………………………………….…………….iii II. Experimental…………………………………………………………………..iv III. Results/Discussion ………………….………………….…………..…….v-viii Part 1 Data…………………………………………..………………………….......v Part 1 Histogram……………………………………...……………………………vi Part 1 Calculations…………………………………...………………………….v-vi Part 2 Data summary……………………………………..…………………….…vii Part 2 Calculations……………………………………….………………………viii IV. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….ix V. Appendix…………………….……………………………………………...x-xii I. Motive: The purpose of this lab is to analyze the error and deviation of manmade and manufactured objects. Measuring the marbles 100 times gives a population. The block’s dimensions (length, width, height) were measured 20 times each. This gives a sample for each dimension. From the population and samples, a histogram can be made of the data. Additionally, from these mean, mode, median, and standard deviation can be calculated. Lastly, the error and error propagation must be included because there is human and instrumental error. II. Experimental: This lab had two parts. For the first part, 100 glass spheres were measured. The A spheres were used. In the second part, the dimensions of block #15......

Words: 1468 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

...13. Variance and Standard Deviation (expected). Using the data from problem 13, calculate the variance and standard deviation of the three investments, stock, corporate bond, and government bond. If the estimates for both the probabilities of the economy and the returns in each state of the economy are correct, which investment would you choose considering both risk and return? Why? | |Forecasted Returns for Each Economy |Investment |Boom |Stable Growth |Stagnant |Recession |Stock |25% |12% |4% |-12% |Corporate bond |9% |7% |5% |3% |Government bond |8% |6% |4% |2% ANSWER Variance of Stock = 0.10 x (0.25 – 0.033)2 + 0.15 x (0.12 – 0.033)2 + 0.50 x (0.04 – 0.033)2 + 0.25 x (-0.12 – 0.033)2 = 0.10 x 0.0471 + 0.15 x 0.0076 + 0.50 x 0.0000 + 0.25 x 0.0234 = 0.0047 + 0.0011 + 0.0000 + 0.0059 = 0.0117 or 1.17% Standard Deviation of Stock = (0.0117)1/2 = 0.1083 or 10.83% Variance of Corp. Bond = 0.10 x (0.09 – 0.052)2 + 0.15 x (0.07 – 0.052)2 + 0.50 x (0.05 – 0.052)2 + 0.25 x (0.03...

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Provide all histograms you are asked to print, but DO NOT print data you are asked to generate. 1. Continuous distributions: Generate and store in column c1 10,000 values from the uniform distribution on the interval [3,7] as follows: random 10000 c1; uniform 3 7. [3] a. Use mean command to ﬁnd the sample mean x of these data———————– ¯ [2] b. What is the mean µ of the uniform distribution on the interval [3,7]?————[1] c. Compare µ to the value x you found in part a). ———————– ¯ Generate and store in column c2 1,000 values from exponential distribution with parameter λ = .125 as follows: random 1000 c2; exponential 8. Note: The mean µ and the standard deviation σ of such distribution are both equal to 1/λ = 8 and this is the value you are asked to enter in the command above. [3] d. Use desc command to ﬁnd the sample mean x and sample standard deviation s for ¯ these 1,000 data —————– and —————— Are x and s close to the value 1/λ = 8?———————– Why?——————————¯ [3] e. Print (and include in your assignment) the histogram of the 1,000 values you generated from this exponential distribution. What is the shape of this distribution?———————– 2. Normal distribution: Generate and store in column c3 10,000 values from the standard normal distribution as follows: random 10000 c3; normal. [3] a. Print (and include in your assignment) the histogram for these data. What is the shape of this histogram?———————————– [3] b. What is the value on the horizontal axis around which the histogram seems......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

...standard deviation, represented by s’, and compare its efficiency with the efficiency of other quick estimates of standard deviation, σ. Research Questions: This study questions whether the proposed calculation of s’ is an efficient quick method of estimating standard deviation, and how s’ compares to past quick estimates of standard deviation. Hypothesis: s’ can be used as a quick estimate of standard deviation by replacing the weighing of individuals by an estimated ranking of the individuals, with the weighing of groups of individuals. s’ is more efficient than other past quick estimates of standard deviation. Main Findings: Except for sample sizes less than 10, s’ is shown to have an insignificant difference when compared with s. There is only a slight increase in bias as the number of groups increases. The use of s’ as an estimate for standard deviation is efficient and is a preferable method of estimating standard deviation when it is more convenient to rank the individuals than to measure them. However, it is probable that in most cases ranking is more difficult than using the standard method of finding standard deviation. The method of calculating s’ used here is more efficient than past recorded estimates of standard deviation. The disadvantages of this method are error due to subjective ranking and the assumption of normality. Non-normality may affect the efficiency of s’. Mead, R. (1966). A quick method of estimating the standard deviation.......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Standard Deviation Abstract Paper Miguel Ramos, Waleska Molina, Pollyana Cotto, Jessica Casiano, QRB 501 Quantitative Reasoning for Business University Of Phoenix October 30, 2013 Prof. Angel Melendez-Melendez Standard Deviation Abstract Paper The purpose of this paper is to write a basic abstract for each article selected by the member of the learning team and establish for each article the purpose of the study, the research question(s), the hypothesis of the study, and the main findings of the study. The articles selected by each members of the learning team were: Explaining satisfaction in double deviation scenarios: the effects of anger and distributive justice (Jessica); Consumer Socialization in a Wired World: The Effects of Internet Use and Parental Communication on the Development of Skepticism to Advertising (Waleska); Real Estate in the Real World: Dealing with Non-Normality and Risk in an Asset Allocation Model (Pollyanna); and Social network productivity in the use of SNS. (Miguel). In the student (Jessica) article is an article in where the research has shown that more than half of attempted recovery efforts only reinforce dissatisfaction, producing a double deviation effect. Surprisingly, these double deviation effects have received little attention in service marketing literature. To fill this gap, this article aims to develop and empirically test a model of how customers form satisfaction judgments in double deviation scenarios. The article......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...Mean and standard deviation The median is known as a measure of location; that is, it tells us where the data are. As stated in , we do not need to know all the exact values to calculate the median; if we made the smallest value even smaller or the largest value even larger, it would not change the value of the median. Thus the median does not use all the information in the data and so it can be shown to be less efficient than the mean or average, which does use all values of the data. To calculate the mean we add up the observed values and divide by the number of them. The total of the values obtained in Table 1.1 was 22.5 , which was divided by their number, 15, to give a mean of 1.5. This familiar process is conveniently expressed by the following symbols: (pronounced "x bar") signifies the mean; x is each of the values of urinary lead; n is the number of these values; and σ , the Greek capital sigma (our "S") denotes "sum of". A major disadvantage of the mean is that it is sensitive to outlying points. For example, replacing 2.2 by 22 in Table 1.1 increases the mean to 2.82 , whereas the median will be unchanged. As well as measures of location we need measures of how variable the data are. We met two of these measures, the range and interquartile range, in Chapter 1. The range is an important measurement, for figures at the top and bottom of it denote the findings furthest removed from the generality. However, they do not give much indication of the spread of......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

...Discuss your 1st variable, using graphical, numerical summary and interpretation Numerical Summary of Credit Balance are as follows: Mean: 3970.5 Minimum: 1864 Standard Deviation: 931.9 Q1: 3109.3 Variance: 868429.8 Median: 4090 Skew: -0.15043 Q3: 4747.5 N: 50 Max: 5678 The histogram above shows the Credit Balance variable of the 50 customers surveyed. The histogram is almost symmetrical with one outlier which is the credit balance of $2,000. While it being symmetrical you can almost fold the y-axis in half to have it look the same. While observing the histogram, its skewed to the left because of the outlier, and the skew is -.015043. Using the Anderson-Darling Normality Test, the P-value for Credit Balance is 0.400, and A^2 is 0.38. Throughout the mean, median, and Standard Deviation there is a 95% confidence interval as well. Discuss your 2nd variable, using graphical, numerical summary and interpretation Numerical Summary of Size are as follows: Mean: 3.4200 Minimum: 1.000 Standard Deviation: 1.7390 Q1: 2.0000 Variance: 3.0241 Median: 3.0000 Skew: 0.527896 Q3: 5.0000 N: 50 Max: 7.0000 The histogram above shows the Size variable of the 50 customers surveyed. The graph is not symmetrical compared to the Credit Balance (shown above), this graph is also skewed to the right. This graph also shows that 15 people......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

...Abstract Hearing protectors are used in business to lessen the affects of noise exposure in construction, forestry, or other industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between attenuation performance and standard deviation. Businesses expect that hearing protectors provided to employees will reduce the noise level that they are exposed to, resulting in noise at an acceptable level. The hypothesis was that the attenuation performance of the hearing protector would fall within a reasonable range of values, or a norm. Research questions are whether or not various hearing protectors are reliable based on their attenuation performances, how reliability varies adversely with the mean attenuation and standard deviation, and the implications for the utilization of hearing protectors in the workplace. Test data indicated that attenuation performance varies based on the type of hearing protector used and the person using it; however, hearing protection devices should be designed so that the majority of people experience similar levels of attenuation. Results of the study also indicate that a large number of staff who use hearing protectors are actually protected more than necessary. Because of this they may be less likely to use the hearing protectors because they feel that they do not need them, especially in environments where they may experience lower noise levels. Exposure to high levels of workplace noise regularly can cause harm to employees’...

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

...1 This is a report on a ideal product life cycle and its deviations from reality using the example of Volkswagen 2 Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction 2. The ideal product life cycle 2.1 Definition 2.2 Stages and characteristics 2.2.1 Market introduction stage 2.2.2 Growth stage 2.2.3 Maturity stage 2.2.4 Saturation and decline stage 3. Discrepancy between idealism and reality 3.1 Differences in product selection 3.2 Differences in duration 4. Conclusion 5. List of graphs 6. Reference section 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 3 2. Introduction The following report contains information about an ideal product life cycle and its characteristics unlike reality influences. It is an important part of managing marketing aspects and is classified as an economic basis of the instrumental marketing concept. Going back to the first models, Vernon, an American economist built up the theory that every product which is supplied to consumers changes in regard to the sales market and the productions function by passing different stages of lifetime (Kruber, 2008). Products such as other ephemeral objects or creatures take up a subordinate role to the cycle of life which remains to the process of life and death. They all go through similar stages of growth and decline until they disappear from the stage of life. Specific reasons for such a behavior of products include changes in population and hence resulting changes in demand. Other reasons to consider can be technological innovation and......

Words: 2489 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

...LAB 1 –Mohammed Abdo 1.Analyze and discuss the results shown in the Statistics table (including definitions of the following statistical measures: Mean, Std. Error of Mean, Median, Mode, Std. Deviation, Variance, Skewness, Std. Error of Skewness, Kurtosis, Std. Error of Kurtosis, Range, Percentiles) (15%) Statistics | | Variable 1Life expectancy at birth (years), 2006 | Variable 2 Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above), 2006 | Variable 2 Combined gross enrolment ratio in education (%), 2006 | Variable 4GDP per capita (PPP US$), 2006 | N | Valid | 179 | 172 | 179 | 179 | | Missing | 1 | 8 | 1 | 1 | Mean | 67.7291 | 83.8767 | 71.5654 | 12258.81 | Std. Error of Mean | .80424 | 1.44937 | 1.33369 | 1066.857 | Median | 71.3000 | 91.2000 | 73.5000 | 6679.00 | Mode | 71.30a | 99.90 | 59.60a | 630a | Std. Deviation | 10.76001 | 19.00828 | 17.84362 | 14273.577 | Variance | 115.778 | 361.315 | 318.395 | 203735005.245 | Skewness | -.901 | -1.378 | -.470 | 1.811 | Std. Error of Skewness | .182 | .185 | .182 | .182 | Kurtosis | -.168 | 1.156 | -.040 | 3.633 | Std. Error of Kurtosis | .361 | .368 | .361 | .361 | Range | 42.20 | 77.10 | 88.70 | 76808 | Minimum | 40.20 | 22.90 | 25.50 | 281 | Maximum | 82.40 | 100.00 | 114.20 | 77089 | Percentiles | 10 | 50.1000 | 54.3300 | 45.1000 | 888.00 | | 20 | 57.8000 | 69.6200 | 57.3000 | 1592.00 | | 25 | 62.0000 | 73.7500 | 60.8000 | 1965.00 | | 30 | 64.5000 | 80.0500 | 63.2000 | 2489.00 | | 40 |......

Words: 2876 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

... Nicole Lynn Hicks 716 F Ave. #5 Coronado, CA. 92118 US Evening Phone: 509-449-6253 - Ext: Day Phone: 509-449-6253 - Ext: Email: nlhicks662@msn.com Availability: | Job Type: Permanent, Recent Graduates, Internships Work Schedule: Full-Time, Shift Work | | Desired locations: | United States - WA | | Work Experience: | | | | | FRCSW Naval Air Station North Island Coronado, CA 92118 United States 09/2015 - Present Salary: 56,595.00 USD Per Year Hours per week: 40 | Series: 0850 Pay Plan: GS Grade: 07 | Electrical Engineer (This is a federal job) | Duties, Accomplishments and Related Skills: •Solving difficult electrical engineering problems with design systems to assess feasibility, operating condition effects, and necessity of modification. •Modifying electrical designs and/or drawings packages to meet engineering requirements. •Using engineering computed aided design and/or drafting tools to provide engineering documentation for planning. •Implementing standardized processes and/or principles to develop new electrical designs. | Supervisor: Gary Middlebrook (619-545-5880) Okay to contact this Supervisor: Yes | | | | | Sparton Electronics 2720 Kelly Ave Watertown, SD 57201 United States 09/2014 - 09/2015 Salary: 52,000.00 USD Per Year Hours per week: 50 | | Quality Engineer | Duties, Accomplishments and Related Skills: Na | Supervisor: Marty Geffre (605 -878-1685) Okay to contact......

Words: 920 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

...QRB 501 WEEK 4 STANDARD DEVIATION A+ Graded Tutorial Available At: http://hwsoloutions.com/?product=qrb-501-week-4-standard-deviation Visit Our website: http://hwsoloutions.com/ Product Description PRODUCT DESCRIPTION QRB 501 week 4 Standard Deviation, Standard Deviation Introduction Standard deviations (SD) and variance are commonly used statistical tools that measure dispersion, risk, and predict certain outcomes in the business world through data. Through decades of academic research, investors and businesses have settled on standardized norms or patterns for various types of calculations, using standard deviations. Data sets, like mean or median, are manipulated to make an inference. This abstract will highlight five articles where the SD is assimilated in mixt conditions or settings. Each article will classify the purpose, any research questions, hypothesis, and the main findings. What to Use to Express the Variability of Data: Standard Deviation or Standard Error of Mean? Statistics is a major element in any industry, failing to provide adequate information to the reader can easily mislead the receivers. Therefore, using the correct highlights to display the variability of data, can minimize error and clarify any study. According to Barde (2012), “It is depressing to find how much good biological work is in danger of being wasted through incompetent and misleading analysis” (p. 113). Case in point, this experiment was based on the hypothesis that......

Words: 466 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Standard Deviation (1 of 3) Introduction So far, we have introduced two measures of spread; the range (covered by all the data) and the inter-quartile range (IQR), which looks at the range covered by the middle 50% of the distribution. We also noted that the IQR should be paired as a measure of spread with the median as a measure of center. We now move on to another measure of spread, the standard deviation, which quantifies the spread of a distribution in a completely different way. Idea The idea behind the standard deviation is to quantify the spread of a distribution by measuring how far the observations are from their mean, x. The standard deviation gives the average (or typical distance) between a data point and the mean, x. Notation There are many notations for the standard deviation: SD, s, Sd, StDev. Here, we'll use SD as an abbreviation for standard deviation, and use s as the symbol. Calculation In order to get a better understanding of the standard deviation, it would be useful to see an example of how it is calculated. In practice, we will use a computer to do the calculation. Example: Video Store Customers The following are the number of customers who entered a video store in 8 consecutive hours: 7, 9, 5, 13, 3, 11, 15, 9 To find the standard deviation of the number of hourly customers: 1. Find the mean, x of your data: (7+9+5+. . .+9) = 9 8 2. Find the deviations from the mean: the difference between each......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

...Standard deviation is key to predicting price volatility Wednesday, December 03 - 2008 at 12:10 Prices move up and down; all the time. Sometimes a little, but every now and then by large amounts. The measurement for these movements is called volatility, and is measured using standard deviation. Volatility is the most important price driver of option premiums. We are interested in future volatility. However, this is the only kind of volatility that we cannot know. We are able to calculate historical volatility, but is this a good bias for future volatility? Every option pricing model tries to evaluate options by ascribing probabilities to several different possible prices of the underlying value at expiry. Because the distribution of prices occurs in the future, and every underlying value has its own characteristics, there is no clear answer to the question of how probabilities must be allocated. But, as an approximation, most models (some with adjustments) start with the assumption of a normal distribution. A normal distribution curve is always defined by two things: the average or mean (reflected by the spike in the figure below) and the standard-deviation (the speed of expansion of the curve). The standard deviation can also be interpreted in terms of a probability of an occurrence. Once you know a certain mean and standard deviation, it is always possible to calculate the probability of an occurrence within a certain range of the mean. Usually......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...data Chapter 3: Histograms – Looking at the Distribution of Data • Histogram: a picture that gives you a visual impression of many of the basic properties of the data set as a whole o Answers – what values are typical in this data set, how different are the numbers from one another, are the data values strongly concentrated near some typical value, what is the pattern of the concentration (do data values trail off at the same rate at lower values as they do at higher values), are there any special data values that might require special treatment, and do you have single/ homogeneous collection or are there distinct groupings within the data that might require separate analysis o Many standard methods of statistical analysis require that the data be approximately normally distributed 3.1 – A List of Data • List of Numbers: the simplest kind of data set, representing some kind of information (a single statistical variable) measured on each item of interest (each elementary unit) • Number Line: a straight line with the scale indicated by numbers o In order to visualize the relative magnitudes of a list of numbers o The numbers need to be regularly spaced on a number line so that there is no distortion 3.2 – Using a Histogram to Display the Frequencies • Histogram: displays the frequencies as a bar chart rising above the number line, indicated how......

Words: 8039 - Pages: 33