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Historical Materialism- Karl Marx

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The theory of Historic materialism by Karl Marx understands the history economically; the institutional changes like changes in social, political and legal institutions are being explained by changes in economic system over the period of time. There are three basic needs of human beings - Food, clothing and shelter. Humans satisfy these three basic needs by their own means. These needs are never changing but the means to produce, procure these needs change over the period of time. Human nature depends on their material needs and the way they produce these means. ‘It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness.’
For example: nature of beings of 21st century is very much different from the nature of humans existed in tribal and ancient times because the means which ancient people used to procure basic necessities were different from the processes used now a days.
According to Marx, there exist two classes in the society: the owners and the non-owners of the means of production. Owners own all the means such as land, labour, etc. and form the strong minority which tends to dominate the majority, which consists labour and people from other lower sections of society. The majority by its political and monetary power supress majority forming the ruling class and they make all the religious, cultural and political rules in society. This conflicting situation gives rise to the ‘class struggle’ or ‘class conflicts.’
Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in a constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted […]fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-construction of society or in common ruin of contending classes.
Further, Marx says that economy forms the...

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