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History of Communications Technlogy

In: Historical Events

Submitted By vadim93
Words 1370
Pages 6
Introduction into the history of Communications Technology
Much of technology today started firstly as military mechanisms. Wars put a colossal demand upon a nation’s resources. These resources include everything from materials to military personnel. As soldiers are deployed off to battle, the people left behind must keep the nation’s infrastructure from collapsing. This puts engineers and scientist under tremendous pressure to develop the systems necessary to combat the opposition effectively in warfare. Examples of such are Alan Turing and Wernher von Braun.
Alan Turing was the first to suggest of using a computer to do things that were too hard for a person to do. During World War II Alan Turing worked on breaking German ciphers. This was achieved by using cryptanalysis to break the Enigma code which was later used to decipher all German signals.
Wernher von Braun He was one of the developers of the V-2 rocket, these where the first rockets to penetrate space. He also developed the Saturn V rocket which took Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the moon in 1969.
In a way wars tend to have beneficial effects on economic and technological development. In general, wars tend to accelerate technological development to adapt tools necessary to solve specific military needs. Later, these military tools may evolve into non-military devices. Examples of such mechanisms are:
The Radar
The radar was initially designed my Sir Robert Watson-Watt with its sole purpose being a method to help airmen locate and avoid approaching thunderstorms. He then later discovered that radio waves could be used to detect more than storms. The radar was tested on a Royal Air Force Heyforth bomber for its ability to detect enemy aircraft. Three times a plane passed overhead and three times the main beam of a short-wave radio transmitter picked up reflected signals. The air ministers embraced this new technology and by September 1939, when war broke out in Europe, the British had a network of radar installations covering the English Channel and North Sea coasts. It was the radar that tipped the scales in England's favour in the Battle of Britain. (http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Radar_during_World_War_II)
The Internet
In a way the internet itself began as a military project. Establishing in the 1960’s by the U.S. Department of Defence who funded a project called ARPANET. The purpose of this project was to develop the technologies and protocols necessary to allow multiple computers to connect directly to one another. This would allow people to share information with each other at unimaginable speeds. Another benefit of creating a flexible network is national security. The United States could ensure that in the event of catastrophe, access to the nation's supercomputers could remain intact. ARPANET's protocols allowed information to travel across different routes. If something happened to a computer node along one route, the information could take another path to get to the right destination.

Space Race
Another example of how the possibility of war affected technological development is the space race between the United States and what was previously known as the Soviet Union.
On Oct. 4, 1957, The Soviet Union successfully launched the first manmade satellite into the Earth's orbit. Its name was Sputnik. This was the trigger for the space race and marked an era of technological innovation. Several factors fuelled this race. The biggest one was fear it was believed that if the Soviets could launch a rocket of the magnitude such as the Sputnik into orbit, it was feasible the country could launch a missile attack on the United States from across the globe. The other factor was the tension between the two nations. The success of Sputnik 1 put pressure on the United States of America who launched Explorer 1 four months later. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_race)
The Soviet Union responded firstly by launching Sputnik 2 with a dog by the name of Laika who became the very first living creature to enter orbit. However, since the Soviets did not create a re-entry plan and Laika died in space.
Secondly The Soviet Union achieved to put a man into space when Major Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth on April the 12th 1961.
This famously led to President John F Kennedy’s speech on May the 25th 1961, in a joint sitting of congress where an impossible goal was set of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the decade. The Americans won this part of the race in 1969 when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon and returned safely to the earth.
The space race was a symbolic conflict between both countries and this rivalry forced scientist, mathematicians, engineers and aerospace academies to develop the technology to put human life into space. Some of this technology later evolved into other forms, and was eventually adapted to serve civilian purposes. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_race)

Uses of Communications Technology
Private
Mobile Phones – A device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network
Computer – Can be in a form of Laptop or PC. A computer is a device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations.

Public
CCTV - Closed circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, for example a limited set of monitors that are used for surveillance. CCTV has many purposes such as Crime Prevention, Transport Safety and Industrial Processing
Traffic Lights - Traffic Lights are the signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic. Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to road users by displaying lights of a standard colour (red, orange/amber, and green) following a universal colour code.

The impact of Communications Technology on our lives
The impact of communications technology is that nowadays we are closer to our families no matter where they are globally. Communications technology had provided us with a way to interact trough messaging, email and the internet. We are also able to make purchases from online merchants using a credit card. We are able to make an online business with potential clients from all over the world.

Current Issues and Development in CT
Advantages: Communication between people worldwide is now faster and more efficient than ever. Examples such cases are emergency scenarios where an ambulance or authority are needed urgently it can be contacted immediately.
Disadvantages: Due to Communications technology being made very easy it has made communication less personal. The advancements in social media sites have opened the doors to cyber-bullying. In present day we also see the events of governments supposedly spying trough communication technology on other nations as well as their own citizens. An Example of such a case is Edward Snowden releasing files on NSA’s spying regime.

Relevant Legislation

Data protection Act
When you give your personal details to an organisation or individual, they have a duty to keep these details private and safe. For example banks, insurance companies, medical professionals and telephone companies to use their services or meet certain conditions. Under data protection law, you have rights regarding the use of these personal details and data controllers have certain responsibilities in how they handle this information.
Freedom of Information Act
The FOI Act confers three new rights on members of the public:
A right of access to information.
A right to have information relating to them amended where it is incomplete, incorrect or misleading.
A right to reasons for decisions affecting them, for example, if prospective employees are not awarded a job following interview.
Copyright
In Ireland, copyright law is contained in the Copyright & Related Rights Act, 2000. Copyright protects:-

* Original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works (traditionally called the “classical” copyrights); * Film, sound recordings, broadcasts and the typographical arrangement of published editions (often called “related rights”, because they involve the exploitation of “classical” works); * Computer software and non-original databases (despite their modest credentials as “creative” works) and performances.

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