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History of Digital Crimes and Digital Terrorism and Their Common Current Forms

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History of Digital Crimes and Digital Terrorism and Their Common Current Forms
Stephanie Fisk
Strayer Universality
CIS 170
Professor CIANCIOTTA
Dec. 12th, 2013

Introduction Computer crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Net crime refers to criminal exploitation of the internet. Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) defines cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet chat rooms, emails, notice boards, groups, and mobile phone. Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health. Problems surrounding these types of crimes have become high profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise. Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Activity crossing international borders and involving the interests of at least one nation state is sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions through the International Criminal Court.
History
Public interest in cyber terrorism began in the late 1980s. As 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened an interest in potential cyber terrorist attacks also increased. Although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports. The high profile terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 and the ensuing War on Terror by the US led to further media coverage of the potential threats of cyber terrorism in the years following. Mainstream media coverage often discusses the possibility of a large attack making use of computer networks to sabotage critical infrastructures with the aim of putting human lives in jeopardy or causing disruption on a national scale either directly or by disruption of the national economy. A common thread throughout what critics perceive as cyber terror-hype is that of non-falsifiability; that is, when the predicted disasters fail to occur, it only goes to show how lucky we have been so far, rather than impugning the theory. Cybercrime in the United States is estimated to cost $100 billion annually.
Common Types
Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into two categories; crimes that target computers directly; and crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices that are primary the target, which is independent of the computer network or device. Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include; computer viruses, Denial-of-service attacks, and Malware also known as malicious code. Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include; cyber stalking, fraud and identity theft, information warfare, phishing scams, and spam.
Spam
The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes is unlawful in some jurisdictions. While anti-spam laws are relatively new, limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed for some time.
Fraud
Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something that causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes. Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output is usually to conceal unauthorized transactions and this is difficult to detect. Altering or deleting stored data. Finally altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes. Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information. A variety of internet scams target direct to consumers.
Obscene or offensive content
The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene, or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances, these communications may be illegal. Over 25 jurisdictions within the USA place limits on certain speech and ban racist, blasphemous, politically subversive, libelous or slanderous, seditious, or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes. The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. The courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs in a sensitive area. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography.
Harassment
Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties. Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment. There are instances where committing a crime, which involves the use of a computer, can lead to an enhanced sentence. For example, in the case of United States v. Neil Scott Kramer, Kramer was served an enhanced sentence according to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual for his use of a cell phone to “persuade, induce, entice, coerce, or facilitate the travel of, the minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct.” Kramer argued that this claim was insufficient because his charge included persuading through a computer device and his cellular phone technically is not a computer. Although Kramer tried to argue this point, U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that the term computer "means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device." Connecticut was the first state to pass a statute making it a criminal offense to harass someone by computer. Michigan, Arizona, and Virginia have also passed laws banning harassment by electronic means. Harassment as defined in the U.S. computer statutes is typically distinct from cyberbullying, in that the former usually relates to a person's "use a computer or computer network to communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious, or indecent language, or make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature, or threaten any illegal or immoral act," while the latter need not involve anything of a sexual nature. Often it is confusing wondering why harassment occurs over the internet. The fact of the matter is that bullying over the internet may occur for no reason. These crimes are considered a computer harassment crime of convenience.
Threats
Although law in most democratic societies protects freedom of speech, it does not include all types of speech. In fact, spoken or written speech/text is criminalized because of intent to harm or intimidate, that also applies for online, or any type of network related threats in written text or speech. The US Supreme Court definition of "true threat" is statements where the speaker means to communicate a serious expression of an intent to commit an act of unlawful violence to a particular individual or group.
Drug trafficking
Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-mail and other Internet Technology. Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes, use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills, and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms. The rise in Internet drug trades could also be attributed to the lack of face-to-face communication. These virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more comfortably purchase illegal drugs. The sketchy effects that are often associated with drug trades are severely minimized and the filtering process that comes with physical interaction fades away.
Cyber terrorism
Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. However, there is a growing concern among federal officials that such intrusions are part of, an organized effort by cyber terrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyber terrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers, network, and the information stored on them. Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed with cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet, that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyber terrorism. As well, there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, and blackmailing. Cyber extortion is a form of cyber terrorism in which a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers, who demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyber extortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack.
Cyber warfare
Sailors analyze, detect, and defensively respond to unauthorized activity within U.S. Navy information systems and computer networks. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) notes that cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance. Among those are included the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers. In August 2008, Russia again allegedly conducted cyber attacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future.
References
Baranetsky, Victoria (November 2009). What is cyber terrorism? Even experts can't agree.
Harvard Law Record.
Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2011) Cyber crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws,
Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global
Jaishankar, K. (2008). Space Transition Theory of cyber crimes. In Schmallager, F., & Pittaro,
M. (Eds.), Crimes of the Internet. (pp.283-301) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Kruse, Warren G.,& Heiser, Jay G. (2002). Computer forensics: incident response essentials. Addison-Wesley. p. 392.
Latest viruses could mean ‘end of world as we know it,’ says man who discovered Flame, The Times of Israel, June 6, 2012
Mann, David, & Sutton, Mike (2011-11-06). "Net crime". Bjc.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
Matusitz, Jonathan (April 2005). "Cyber terrorism:". American Foreign Policy Interests 2: 137– 147.
Moore, R. (2005) "Cyber crime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime," Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing.
Parker D (1983) Fighting Computer Crime, U.S.: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Taylor, Robert W., Fritsch, Eric J., Liederbach, John & Holt, Thomas J. (2011, 2006). Digital
Crime and Digital Terrorism, Second Edition, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
Taylor, R., Caeti, T., Loper, K., Fritsch, E., & Liederbach, J. (2006). Digital crime and digital terrorism: Chapter 3 - The Criminology of Computer Crime. Pearson/Prentice Hall

Willison, R. (2006a). Understanding the offender/environment dynamic for computer crimes.
Information Technology & People. Vol 19. Issue 2. , (pp.170–186).

Week 10 Term Paper Submission .
If you are using the Blackboard Mobile Learn IOS App, please click "View in Browser." Click the link above to submit your assignment.

Students, please view the "Submit a Clickable Rubric Assignment" in the Student Center.
Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center.

Due Week 10 and worth 250 points You have been asked to participate in a presentation on digital crime and terrorism for local and national law enforcement agencies. The presentation is to be geared toward law enforcement personnel who are beginning their career protecting the U.S. from digital crimes. Possible topics to choose from include: the history of digital crimes and digital terrorism; common current forms of these crimes; common hacker / terrorist profiles; investigations and digital forensics; key legislation and laws pertaining to law enforcement; law enforcement roles and responses on these crimes (including federal, state, and local roles); and the future of digital crimes and digital terrorism.

Write a 6-8 page paper in which you:
1.Explain why the topic is relevant in the context of digital crime and digital terrorism.
2.Describe how the issue has evolved or been altered over its lifespan.
3.Identify the cause theories associated with the topic.
4.Describe strategies for reducing or eliminating the types of crime associated with the topic.
5.Use at least five (5) quality references for this assignment. Your assignment must:
•Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
•Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
•Explain digital crime and digital terrorism activities.
•Describe law enforcement roles and responses.
•Describe the criminology of computer crime.
•Analyze the types of digital criminals and hackers.
•Explain the various digital laws and legislation in support of law enforcement.
•Describe law enforcement roles and responses.
•Explain the procedures in the investigation of computer-related crime.
•Describe the technologies and processes involved in digital forensics.
•Describe future trends in digital crime and terrorism.
•Use technology and information resources to research issues in information technology in criminal justice.

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