History of Glassproduction
Submitted By sermincaliskan
PRE DIPLOMA PROJECT
ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE COMPANY SISECAM
II.1. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASSWARE IN THE WORLD
II.1.1. BIRTH OF GLASSWARE AND FIRST
Glass is used since approximately 4000 years and it surely is an important invention in the history of humanity. According to knowledge passed from Senior Plinius, first glass was found by chance on the coasts of Phoenicia (present Syrian and Lebanese coasts).
According to this chance, saltpetre soils mixed with sands by fire. Phonic merchants, who strived with sailing, had used to saltpetre soils for seated their stew pot that their meals cooked in it.
The first known glassware products were glass vases and were produced in Ancient
Egypt that dated at approximately B.C. 2700. Ancient Egyptians produced glass pots that were first known and decorated zigzag and invented coloured glass. They embedded their deads in glass coffins. Their habit had been passed to Assyrians and Greeks in
Hellenistic era by commercial relationships.
The glassware passed from Ancient Egypt to Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece approximately B.C. 2500. Mesopotamians produced glass objects for religious ceremonies and daily usage and spread their glassware to Anatolia. However, the glassware in Mesopotamia started to decline at approximately B.C. 1500 due to continuous wars between Mesopotamian states and foreign invasions.
II.1.2. GLASSWARE IN SYRIA AND EGYPT
The glassware in Syria was started by Phoenicians but it was brought by Ancient
Egyptians. Ancient Syrians produced glass product like Ancient Egyptian at first.
However, they invented blow technique. The melted glass, which has paste consistency, is gathered on a pipe with hole. The glass mass is inflated as balloon by air is blown from pipe. After, it is rolled around pipe. It turned into pot that is rolled on a flat stone or iron surface. If the additions as handle and leg is needed the pot, added zone is melted.
After, handle merged with pot by welding. This glass mass can be worked by hand tools or cut by scissors before it is freezing. Formerly, Syrian glaziers had glass pot that had shapes of oyster skin, grape cluster and human head to blow glass into moulds. Later, they had succeeded to make spherical pots without used to moulds or directly blew on glass. Their products were exported to Roman Empire that had directed towards daily or
special usage. Finally Roman Empire captured Syria in B.C. 64 and some Syrian glaziers were taken away to Rome like Greek ones.
The glassware in Syria and Egypt was declined in Roman and Byzantine rule. However, this decline was stopped in first half of 7th century because Muslim Arabs were conquered Syria in 638 and Egypt in 641. This case was led to start Arabisation in Syria and Egypt. Muslim Arabs freshened glassware in Syria and Egypt. Syrian and Egyptian glassware developed again until the Crusaders in 12th century. However, this pause case lasted shortly and Syrian and Egyptian glassware lived the brightest period in Ayyubid
(1171-1250) rule because techniques of glass enamelling and gilding were found at this era. In addition to Crusaders were receded to coasts of Eastern Mediterranean. Crusaders expelled by Mamluks who dissolved Ayyubid rule in 1250. This development was lasted until Tamerlane’s invasion of Syria in 1401. Tamerlane brought the most important glaziers to Samarkand who was his capital so that Syrian glassware declined. The glassware at Egypt declined after Ottomans captured Egypt in 1517.
II.1.3. GLASSWARE AT ROMANS AND BYZANTINE
Romans exported glass products from Greece and Syria at first. Afterwards, the Romans captured Syria in BC. 64. Also some Syrian glaziers taken away to Rome. They taught their glassware to the Romans. Thus, the Romans got advance of glassware. They had opened first glass workshops in Cumae, Liternum (now, Laterno) and Pozzuoli towards
A.D. 20 and glassware industry had become widespread whole Roman provinces in the
A.D. 1st century.
The Romans had invented technique of cameo glass in the A.D. 1st century. In this technique, two glass layers that have different colours, are melted and blown together.
This glass mass is cooled. The draft of design is drawn on a face of the mass. The drawn surface is covered with beeswax. Afterward, no drawn surface is eroded by acid until bottom layer is arisen. The best work to remain from Romans is Portland vase. It had been produced at A.D. 1st century. This technique is used to whole Europe till 17th century. After, it had been forgotten until 1876. John Northwood who is an English glazier, made similar of Portland vase. Like this cameo technique is started to reuse.
The Romans had been divided to 2 parts in A.D. 395 so that Roman Empire’s superiority at glassware had been passed to eastern part of Roman Empire what afterwards had been known as Byzantine Empire. Because Western Roman Empire lasted only 81 years, due to invasions of German people and European Huns and she ended in A.D 476.
The Byzantines had utilized from glass that was in various shapes by decorating aim.
Huge drop glasses had been used to decorate jewelleries, icons, building fronts and furniture. The glass had been applied as artificial pearl to dresses and fabric covers. The
Byzantine’s advance at glassware was lasted until 12th century. Venice had become new leader of it in this century due to Venice, who was a Byzantine territory until 9th century utilized to Byzantines struggled with dangers of Hungarian, Anatolian Seljuk, Bulgarian,
Serbian and Italy Norman in end of 12th century. Also, the Byzantine Empire invaded by
Crusaders and her capital was captured in 1204. Crusaders founded Latin Empire whose capital was Constantinople (Istanbul) and left some Aegean islands to Venice.
Some members of Byzantine dynasty escaped from Constantinople and founded states in
Nicaea (Iznik) and Trebizond (Trabzon) and Epirus (present divided into Greece and
Albania) region. These states fought against each other. Finally, Nicaea Greek Empire dissolved Epirus Desporate in 1240 and captured Constantinople assistance with Genoa so that Byzantine Empire was set up again. However, Anatolian emirates conquered
Byzantine territories in Anatolia since 1262. Also, Serbians were set up an empire that compromised present Serbia without Vojvodina, Montenegro, Albania, south-west of
Bulgaria and most of Greek mainland approximately 1340s and pressed Byzantines to regions of Peloponnesus (Mora) and Western Thrace in Balkan Peninsula. Finally, the
Byzantine Empire dissolved by Ottoman Empire in 1453. Mora Desporate was dissolved in 1460 and Trebizond Greek Empire was dissolved in 1461 by Ottomans.
These states were successors of Byzantine Empire.
II.1.4. GLASSWARE IN CHINA
The glass objects had been imported from Rome and Iran by Silk Road, before start of glass production in China. The glass had been produced first time in China in the B.C.
2nd century but glass production in China was ended in the A.D. 3rd century because the porcelain was found more valuable than the glass and administration instability was lived in China in the course of time so that someone did not produce the glass again till
17th century. The glass workshops were found in Beijing by the Qing (Manchu) who was last imperial dynasty in China. The imitations of valuable stones and porcelains were produced in these workshops. This product was called empire glass. The empire glass production lasted until 1912 when the Republic of China set up so that glassware lost its importance again in China.
II.1. 5 GLASSWARE IN VENICE
The glassware production was made in Venice since Roman rule. However, it was paused in 5th century due to Barbarian invasions and this case lasted until 8th century when Lombard Kingdom dissolved by Charlemagne in 774. Also, Venetian glaziers learnt new techniques from Byzantine, Egyptian and Syrian colleagues. This professional accumulation was prepared Venice’s superiority at glassware that lasted four centuries.
The guilds of glass blow were founded in Venice and whole glass workshops were moved to Murano Island opposite to her in 1227.
The clear or transparent glasses were made that were brought to mind crystal of mountain and were called cristallo (crystalloid) in the 15th century. Those glassware applications were made in 16th century. Among of them, colourisation of clear glass, glass gilding and enamelling by gold and removing smoke colour from glass that was given from raw materials of glass. In addition to glass was brought to mind a marble or other stone that was called calcedonio (chalcedony) technique and white glass bars were embedded to glass object as construct various decors that was called latticinio (latticing) technique. The quality of glass was improved and technique of engraving with diamond was found.
The knowledge about glass art was hidden as secret in Venice and the people who given them to another people were generally executed. However many Venetian glaziers went to Altare where near Genoa. Like this these secrets were learnt by people of Altare.
Altare glass industry had been found glaziers who came from Normandy in 11th century.
This industry was improved independent from Venice and was become the most important competitor to Venice. Altarians spread their glassware knowledge to whole
Europe continent with France way.
Venetian glaziers especially produced wineglasses, mirrors and beads in 16th and 17th centuries. The biggest characteristic of the wineglasses were produced that had their legs. The legs were worked by pincers as a thin shape that glass did not cool yet. 2 sides of a wineglass were done symmetric wings. The wings were worked as shapes of animal or mask. Some of the wineglasses could not used due to they were decorated excessive.
These wineglasses were called bouquetier (vase).
II.1. 6 GLASSWARE IN BOHEMIA
The glassware in Bohemia (now in Czech Republic) region dated back Eurasian Avar rule (552-835). Coal, which was needed to glassware, was brought from Silesia (divided to Poland, Czech Republic and Germany, the most part in Poland) region. Bohemia participated to Great Moravia (822-924) but she declared independence in 895. Her independence was interrupted between 1003 and 1004 due to Polish occupation. After
Polish occupation, she became vassal state of Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). This region devastated due to Bohemian Wars (1420-1434) broke out due to Jan Hus’ execution at council of Constance (present in Germany) in 1415 and passed to Hungary in 1437. Finally, she passed to Austria in 1526.
The glassware at Bohemia won importance in 17th century and the first known glassware products dated back 17th century were cutting and engraving glasses at baroque style that were made between 1685 and 1750. Caspar Lehmann was a valuable stone sharpener who accepted to palace of Rudolf II who was Austrian emperor, became first person who applied to glass technique of sharpening wheels made from cupper or bronze that had been applied to valuable stones. Intaglio (Its German is Tiefschnitt, its mean is deep
cutting) and high relief (Its German is Hochschnitt, its mean is high cutting) techniques were known since from the oldest time. Lehmann developed them and created a personal style. He founded a school for spread his style. However the most qualified students of him migrated to out to Bohemia. The most important person of them was Georg
Schwanhart who was became to founder of Nuremberg engraving press school so that glass cutting could not improve until bohemian crystal was found in 1700. This glass what a glass of potassium and lime was become heavy and very bright. The crystal was gone to search due to it had interesting drawings, wideness of motifs and imposing decorations. However rococo style was appeared at the end of 18th century so that
English cutting glass that was decorated was brought to more widespread than
Bohemian glassware. Bohemia continued to competition with works of Hyalith and
Lithyalin. Hyalith was made Chinese style designs with gold gilding on black glass.
Lithyalin was brought to mind to semi valuable stones. The works of cheap ruby glass with cutting designed and enamelled, glass of white opal covering and valuable chandelier stones were produced in 18th century. Despite of artistic value of Bohemian glassware was declined in the 19th century, Ludwig Lobmeyr was an industrialist who came from Vienna, found a glass workshop in Steinschoenau (now Kamenicky
Schenov) and refreshed Bohemian glassware. Bohemia passed to chandelier production.
These chandeliers were popularized and decorated various palaces.
Bohemian glassware was declined at the beginnings of 20th century due to some of
Bohemia Germans migrated to Germany and Austria why Bohemia was bounded to
Czechoslovakia. The glassware was lost her importance since German occupation between 1938 and 1945.
II.1. 7 GLASSWARE IN ENGLAND AND IRELAND
The glassware in England dated back Roman rule. However, glass production was declined in 5th century due to collapse of Roman rule and never was began again until
15th century. Altarian glaziers spread Venetian glassware to Europe and the glassware in
England had began again. English glaziers followed Venetian traditions till in the 17th century. George Ravenscroft who was an English glazier, added lead oxide to glass of
Venetian style and obtained a thick and heavy glass that was called leaded glass or flint glass. Afterwards this glass was become popular as a valuable object.
English glasses were known wineglasses with their decorated legs. The glass model with her leg was nodded was become widespread in England at beginnings of 18th century.
Afterwards the spirally decors were made with method of draw and twist to coloured lines helped with air blasters in nodes that was formed leg of glass. At the same period, engraving technique was used to make coats of arms and texts on glass.
The Beilby family came from Newcastle to Bristol. This enamelling work was become widespread and type of glass that called Bristol glass was arisen.
The English glassware naturally spread to Ireland who managed by Englishmen. First
Irish glasses had smoky and bluish grey colours and their colours were seemed a mistake but present collectors appreciate to first period glasses. Clear crystal was produced in
Waterford in 1830. The most important products were made in Waterford were wall lamps, legs of candlestick, carafes, vases and the rococo style chandeliers had coat of arms with diamond skin cutting. This technique had passed to Europe and USA by migrations and trade.
Waterford glassware was separated to 2 periods followed each other. The rococo style and cuttings were applied in Waterford. Neo-classic style was applied in England, thinner and simpler than Waterford ones at first period. After 1770, the style in England was adopted at Waterford glassware in the course of time. The Waterford glassware came to an end in 1851 because of Englishmen introduced heavy taxes to glassware.
However Irish Glass Bottle Company was founded a new manufactory in city in 1951.
Like this Waterford glassware was refreshed.
II.1.8. GLASSWARE IN USA
Many glass manufactory companies were found since from 16th century in USA.
However none of them won to importance until end of 18th century. The first important glass production in USA was started towards middle of 18th century in New Jersey State.
The products were produced by Caspar Wistar who found first glass workshop that was first examples of Southern Jersey glassware. The glassware was lasted to 1870 despite of
Wistar’s workshop was closed in 1780. The glassware was originated from glass production at Central Europe. The meal objects as carafe and sugar-bowl were natural colours of green, amber and glass-green because of used glass raw materials. The glass decorations were formed glass blisters at various shapes and glass ribbons wrapped on pot. These decorations were applied for a long time in Europe. Despite of leaf of water lily technique, special to Southern Jersey was applied too. The deep of the glass pot was covered with extra melted glass at this technique. The glassware lived the brightest period between 1820 and 1850. Afterwards the glassware depended on blowing declined because of USA glass industry became mechanized and used to coal and gas as fuel so that Southern Jersey glassware came to an end in 1870.
Henry William Stiegel was originated German, like Wistar, found a workshop in town of
Mannheim in Pennsylvania State in 1768. The glass works were produced in it that had colours of blue, purple, green or crystal white. Despite of they were become popular,
Stiegel glassware came to an end in 1774 because of he went to bankruptcy.
John Frederick Amelung was found New Bremen Glass Manufactory in city of
Frederick in Maryland in 1784. Amelung took to capital support from German and
American enterprisers and utilized from tax law of protective custom. He wanted to form a society who were been enough themselves with brought glaziers from Germany.
The most important parts of Amelung glassware were decoration objects that were decorated with engraving method. Besides a service set was given to George
Washington who was first president of USA republic and beer wineglasses with lid were given to German enterpriser who supported to him were produced. The assertive plan of him was fallen so that he wanted to borrow from Congress in 1790. She rejected this proposal after long discussions so that Amelung glassware came to an end in 1795.
The glassware that called named of the city was appeared in Pittsburgh in the
Pennsylvania State. The first workshop was opened in 1763 and followed new ones at short time. The reason of Pittsburgh glassware was appeared was coal bearing in the city and became on the water way that was supplied cheap transportation. The number of workshop was increased to 40. Solely 14 workshops were produced to flint glass that was a crystal. Other workshops were produced window glass and bottle suitable for daily usage. Pittsburgh became centre of USA glassware owing to these workshops.
The most important glass factory was Pittsburgh Flint Glass Factory was found by
Benjamin Bakewell who was an English enterpriser. It continued her production until
1882 that changed her came as Bakewell & Company and after Bakewell & Page. The cutting and engraving glass works were made from 1810 in it. These products with high quality were form of Irish glassware adjusted to USA.
John P. Bakewell who was son of Benjamin Bakewell was found glass moulding for produced handle of wardrobe and drawer by mechanical vehicles from pressed glass in
1825. He took the patent of his invention at same year. Owing to this invention in the glassware passed to serial production so that prices of glass products were reduced.
Number of glass factory was dropped below 20 in end of 19th century in Pittsburgh because of excessive competition.
II.1.9. GLASSWARE IN FRANCE
The glassware at France dated back the Roman rule. It had been paused because of collapse of Empire of Western Roman (395-476). However Franks filled an administration gap that left by Romans quickly at France and found Merovingian dynasty. This dynasty refreshed glassware at France. First bottle factory had been found in Ququengrogne at Aisne region. First glass workshops that were bounded to kingdom were found Henri II and Henri III who were kings of France but French glassware did not make to jump until glaziers came from Altare. These glaziers opened workshops in
Melun, Lyon and Nevers and transported Venetian style to France who invited by Henri
IV who reigned from 1589 to 1610.
The number of glass workshops was increased in Henry IV period but most of them were closed after French Revolution but the longest lived workshop in Baccarat still continues to production. This workshop was found by bishop of Metz in 1674. Antoine
Renault bought it in 1773. Renault lost his wealth at French Revolution so that it was turned over a German enterpriser. The first examples of Baccarat glassware were windows, service sets and glass with soda used in industry. It was bought by D’Artigues, who was Dutch after passed to nationality of Belgium in 1830, in 1817. Crystal glass was started to produce after 1817 in it. The quality of crystal products was produced by first gold medal where in an international glass exhibition in 1823.
Baccarat workshop passed to produce glass weight in 1846. These weights were very cheap despite of they were worked various techniques that were with a thousand flowers, cameo, statue, engraving and covering etc. they look by collectors that are not made at present. This workshop produces various service sets who uses to old models at present. Some of glaziers started to leave work with much decorated and directed to simple decorations who gave to importance its beauty of glass. This direction was born art nouveau (new art) style that lasted between 1890 and 1910. Confort Tiffany, Emilé
Galle and Daum Fréres became the most important representatives at glassware of this style. René Lalique was a French glazier produced glass objects with relief decorated.
These glass products were perfect as imitation topic of valuable stones like they were not search real. Steuben Glass Company who followed same style and found in New
York produced transparent glasses. Their products were counted real crystal statues with really design with engraving.
II.1.10. GLASSWARE AT SCANDINAVIA REGION
Scandinavia region was won to importance in 20th century. The principals of these products were various chandeliers and wineglasses with leg were made by blowing.
They were made in cities of Orrefors and Kosta in Sweden and were called Orrefors glassware. The most important invention was Graal glass, a variety of stained glass. It was made to coloured relief decorations were covered with a transparent crystal layer that were perceived like a liquid is frozen. The decorations of them were shown to unite complex style in 18th century with simple one in 19th century.
II.1.11. GLASSWARE TYPES AND THEIR USAGE FIELDS
The invention of glass was the one of the biggest steps for humanity history. The glass used for daily usage only. However, the glass was begun to use religious ceremonies at first. The chandeliers and lenses were added to glassware products at Middle Age.
However, the biggest glassware type increase was occurred after Industry Revolution and some glassware types were found in 20th century. The most important glassware types and their usage fields are shown in Table II.1:
II.2. GLASSWARE AT TURKS
II.2.1. EARLY PERIOD OF TURKISH GLASSWARE
The glassware at Turks dated back in 6th B.C. century and the glassware art passed from
Persians who conquered western part of Central Asia. This think was verified by glass pieces were found near Samarkand. The first known Turkish glassware products were remained from Asian Huns (B.C. 220-A.D 216), Asian Avars or Juan-Juan (A.D. 216-
552) and Gokturks (552-745). Turkish glassware had been paused because of internal disorders, Chinese sovereignty between 630 and 682 and region of Transoxiana were took by Umayyads (661-750). However this bad period was lasted shortly. China was defeated by Abbasids (750-1258) who destroyed Umayyads in 750 at war of Talas (now in Kyrgyzstan) and withdrew from Central Asia. This event was luck for Turks.
II.2.2. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT UYGHURS AND
The Uyghurs were a Turkish people who lived in Central Asia. However they were dependent to Gokturks. They rebelled to Gokturks who benefited from decline powers of
Gokturks and Uyghurs destroyed Gokturks in 750. The Uyghurs were Shaman but they converted to Mani religion. This religion provided to Uyghurs’ development at art so that The Turkish glassware lived first bright period at Uyghur. However, The Uyghurs lost warrior individuality due to they converted to Mani religion and their state were collapsed by the Kyrgyz who were another Turk people in 840. Uyghurs withdrew to
Eastern Turkistan in 840 and East of Central Asia remained to Kara-Khanids (840-
The west of Central Asia was conquered by Umayyads at beginning of 8th century. This region passed to Abbasids in 750. However, this region was very far from Abbasids’ administration centre so that Abbasids left administration of west of Central Asia region to Samanid rule as governor. The Samanids (819-1005) originated from Iran. Cities of
Bukhara and Samarqand became centres of Samanid glassware. However, the Samanids began to decline at first half of 10th century and collapsed by Ghaznavids and Kara-
Khanids who were first Turkish Islam states in 1005.
II.2.3. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT GHAZNAVIDS AND
The Kara-Khanid state was established by Qarluqs who were a Turkish people in 840.
The Kara-Khanids were Shaman but they converted to Islam in 920 so that Kara-
Khanids became the first Turkish Islam state. They developed Uyghur glassware and
Turkish glassware lived second bright period at Kara-Khanids. However, Kara-Khanids divided as West Kara-Khanids and East Kara-Khanids in 1042 due to dynasty quarrels.
East Kara-Khanids were dependent to Great Seljuks between 1082 and 1141 and Kara-
Khitans who were a Mongol people, between 1141 and 1211. Finally they collapsed by
Kuchlug Khan who was leader of Naiman Mongol tribe. West Kara-Khanids were dependent to Great Seljuks between 1082 and 1141 and Kara-Khitans who were a
Mongol people, between 1141 and 1211. Finally they collapsed by Khwarezm-Shahs in
Ghaznavids or Ghaznavid Empire (963-1187) founded by Alptigin who was Ghazni governor of Samanids. However, they separated from Samanids in 963 and after destroyed them in 1005 and left region of Transoxiana to Kara-Khanids. Ghaznavids contributed to spread of Islam in present Pakistan by campaigns against India.
Ghaznavids made glassware like Kara-Khanids one. However, they could not prevent to
appear of Great Seljuks and left Eastern Iran region to Great Seljuks by defeat of Battle of Dandanaqan in 1040 so that they lost previous powers. Ghaznavids moved their capital from Ghazni to Lahore in 1149. Finally they collapsed by Ghurids who were originated from Tajik in 1187.
II.2.4. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT GREAT SELJUKS
Seljuks were originated from Oghuz Turks and were soldiers for Khazar Empire (650-
967). Khazar Empire collapsed by Kiev Principality in 967 and Seljuks migrated to
Central Asia and helped Kara-Khanids at wars against Ghaznavids. Toghrul Beg, who was leader of Seljuks, conquered Ghazna,vid cities of Merv and Nishapur in 1029. The
Ghaznavids began to decline after death of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1030. The Ghaznavid ruler of Masud who was son of Mahmud of Ghazni, decided to remove Seljuks danger.
However, he defeated by Seljuks at Battle of Dandakaqan in 1040. Thus, Seljuk state that was established in 1038, recognized by Ghaznavids. Seljuks expelled Ghaznavids from Eastern Iran and put an end Buwayhids (932 -1055) who handled Western Iran and
Iraq. Seljuks became defender of Abbasids and ended sovereignty of Byzantine at
Anatolia by defeat Battle of Manzikert (now, Malazgirt in Turkey) in 1071 and led to
Turkisation of Anatolia. Seljuks’ first centre was Nishapur but after Isfahan and later
Merv were centres of him. The empire lay down from Palestine to river of Amu Darya or Oxus. The Seljuks established braches in Anatolia, Syria, Kerman and Iraq. However, the longest branch was lasted in Anatolia.
The pieces of coloured glass were found in palaces that were built by Seljuks and Artuks who managed region of South-eastern Anatolia. They were shown to use stained glasses at these buildings. The glass pots were produced by techniques of engraving, cutting and moulding and were decorated with texts and shapes of plant and animal. Thus, Turkish glassware at Central Asia lived the brightest period in Great Seljuks (1038-1156) period.
The bright period Great Seljuks came an end death of Sultan of Malik-Shah I. after death of him, heritage fights were started. The Crusaders began at same period so that Seljuks withdrew from Western Anatolia and region of coast because of them. Great Seljuks were defeated by Kara Khitans (1124-1211) who originated Mongol at Katvan war in
1141 and lost Turkistan. Seljuks came to an end in 1157.
II.2.5. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT ANATOLIAN SELJUKS
Great Seldjuks had begun to separate several branches that were set up by dynasty members since 1072. These branches were founded in Syria (1076-1117), Kerman
(1041-1187), Iraq (1119-1194) collapsed in 1157 and their heritage passed to Anatolian
Seljuks or Sultanate of Anatolia (1075-1308) and Khwarezm-shahs or Khwarezm-Shah
Empire (1077-1231). Anatolian Seljuks made glass products that merged style of Seljuk with one of Byzantine. They took Antalya from Greek Empire of Nicea (1204-1261) in
1207 and Sinop from Greek Empire of Trebizond (1204-1461) and directed to sailing.
The biggest success of them put an end to Turkish Emirates excluded Mardin branch of
Artuk and set up Turkish Union of Anatolian first time. However, Anatolian Seljuks defeated by Mongols at Battle of Kose Dag (Mount of No beard) in 1243 and they became a vassal state of Mongols. They lost their power after Battle of Kose Dag and collapsed in 1308.
The gap of Eastern Iran was filled by Khwarezmid Empire (Khwarezm-Shahs) after collapse of Seljuks. They set up sovereignty at whole Iran and Azerbaijan region in 40 years. They put an end to Iraqi Seljuks in 1197 and Kara-Hitans in 1211 and took
Afghanistan region from Gurids (1000-1215) who put an end to Ghaznavids in 1187.
Like this they became sovereign whole Central Asia. However they did not farther go to copy Seljuks at glassware.
However, Mongol diplomats were killed by Khwarezm-Shahs so that Khwarezm-Shahs territories of were looted by Mongols in 1220 and centre of them was Gurgench (now
Urgench, Uzbekistan) surrendered to Mongols next year so that the glassware at Central
Asia declined because of this invasion of ones. Finally, Khwarezm-Shahs demolished by
Mongols in 1231.
II.2.6. TURKISH GLASSWARE UNDER OCCUPATION OF
The Mongols had lived as various tribes until Genghis Khan appeared. He established union of Mongol-Turk tribes in 1206. He started campaigns against Western Xia state which compromised most of north-western China and parts of Tibet, in 1207. Western
Xia collapsed in 1227. He started campaigns against Jin Empire who compromised northern China in 1211. Zhongdu (now, Beijing in China) where was capital of Jin
Empire was conquered by Mongols in 1215 and Jin Empire demolished in 1234 after death of Genghis Khan in 1227. Genghis Khan sent emissaries to Khwarezm-Shahs in
1218. However, the ruler of Khwarezm-Shahs executed the Mongol diplomats and sent back their entourage with their heads shaved in defiance of the emerging great power.
This behavior angered Genghis Khan and he sent a force of 200000 men against
Khwarezm-Shahs. Mongols invaded whole Khwarezm-Shahs territories. Finally,
Mongols demolished Khwarezm-Shahs in 1231. Mongols set up four states: Ilkhanate
(1256-1353) in Iran and Chagatai Khanate (1227-1370) in Central Asia, Golden Horde
(1214-1502) in Eastern Europe and West of Central Asia and Yuan Dynasty (1279-
1368) in China and Mongolia. They wanted to refresh the glassware of Central Asia. But they did not raise it to old level because of continued wars and administration fights so that state of Ilkhanate was separated to Islamic states who originated from Mongol after
Chagatai Khanate wanted to refresh glassware at Central Asia but their attempt was unsuccessful due to continued wars against Ilkhanate, Kart Maliks who was centred
Herat and Delhi Sultanate (1210-1526). Finally whole Chagatai Khanate conquered by
Tamerlane in 1370.
II.2.7. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT TIMURIDS
Tamerlane was a military leader in Chagatai Khanate. However, he claimed descendant of Genghis Khan when his power was rose so that he declared war against khanate.
Finally, he destroyed Chagatai Khanate and set up his state in 1370. He captured whole
Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus and Syria with made campaigns and destroyed Delhi in 1398.
Also, he defeated Bayezid I who was sultan of Ottoman Empire at Battle of Ankara in
1402 and captured coastal Izmir from the Genoese. He brought Syrian glaziers to
Samarkand was his capital. The Central Asia glassware lived the last bright period at his sovereignty. These glaziers created a new style by merged style of Arabian with Turkish traditions. Timurids was shaken death Tamerlane in 1405. Timurids withdrew to Eastern Iran due to throne fights and attacks of Black Sheep (Kara Koyunlu) (1365-1468) and White
Sheep (Ak Koyunlu) (1397-1507) Turcomen. Timurids destroyed by Uzbeks in 1506.
II.2.8. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT SAFAVIDS AND
The Safavids originated from Sufi dervish order at Azerbaijan region. Their dervish order was established by Sheikh Safi al-Din (1252-1334). They ordered as Sunni at first, but converted as Shiite by Sheikh Junayd (his death in 1460). Sheikh Ismail (after Shah
Ismail I) who was grandson of Sheik Junayd, utilized decline of White Sheep Emirate after death of Yaqub Beg who reigned between 1478 and 1490. He made campaigns against successors of Yaqup Beg and defeated them between years of 1501 and 1508 so that he owned territories of White Sheep Emirate and enlarged his boundaries from river of Euphrates to Samarkand. However, Safavids defeated by Ottomans at Battle of
Chaldiran in 1514 and expelled from Eastern Anatolia and Iraq by Ottomans in 30 years.
The Uzbek name was derived from Uzbek Khan (his reign 1312-1341) who was ruler of
Golden Horde. The Golden Horde began to decline after Tamerlane’s invasion then;
Uzbeks migrated to Central Asia where was under the Timurid administration. Finally
Uzbeks demolished Timurids and set up khanates of Bukhara (1506-1920) and Hive
(1500-1920) at territories of Timurids. Safavids and Uzbek khanates wanted to refresh the glassware of Central Asia. However, they did not prevent to lose importance of the
Silk Road that was principal trade way of them due to the Geographical Discoveries.
This event led to decline both their economies and glassware. Most of Iran invaded by
Afghans between 1722 and 1730 and finally, The Safavids finished in 1736.
The Uzbek khanates fought each other and Safavid Persia until 1740. Nader Shah of
Persia conquered Uzbek khanates in 1740. However, the Uzbek khanates declared independence in 1747. However, east part of Emirate of Bukhara separated as Khanate of Kokand in 1709. The Russian army began to entry the Central Asia by occupying
Kazakhstan at beginning of 19th. Russians defeated Uzbek khanates of Hive and Kokand and emirate of Bukhara. Khanate of Hive and Emirate of Bukhara were become Russian protectorates. Also, Khanate of Kokand dissolved by Russians and he became Fergana
Province of Russian Empire in 1876. Finally Khanate of Hive and Emirate of Bukhara dissolved by Bolshevik Russians in 1920. The territories of former Khanate of Hive and
Emirate of Bukhara compromised present Turkmenistan, most of Uzbekistan, west of
Tajikistan and south-west of Kazakhstan.
II.2.9. TURKISH GLASSWARE AT OTTOMANS
The Ottomans were related to Kayi tribe of Oghuz Turks and lived in Eastern Anatolia until Mongol invasion started. They migrated to north-western boundary region of
Anatolian Seljuks. Aladdin Kayqubadh I who was sultan of Anatolian Seljuks, gave
Eskişehir region to Ertugrul Beg who was father of Osman Beg and leader of Kayi tribe.
He conquered Thebasion (now Sogut, Bilecik) in 1231 and became Byzantine border beg. He died in 1281 and Osman Beg became leader of Kayi tribe. He bounded to
Chobanoglu Emirate who was an Anatolian Emirate and his center was Kastamonu, until
1299. Chobanoglu emirate stopped war against Byzantine Empire, Osman Beg declared independence. The brightest period of state of Anatolian Seljuks was ended due to death of Aladdin
Kayqubadh I in 1237. The army of Anatolian Seljuks were defeated by Mongols at Kose
Dag war in 1241. This war caused to led Anatolian Seljuks depended on Mongols and appeared new Turkish emirates that were called Anatolian emirates (beyliks) at boundaries of Seljuks. These emirates at first expelled Byzantine Empire from Western
Anatolia slow to slow that seemingly bounded to Ilkhanate until 1335. Afterwards they attempted to superiority struggle at period was followed to collapse of Anatolian Seljuks in 1308. Ottoman emirate of them set of Turkish Union of Anatolian again excluded
Sinop branch of Candaroglu, Dulkadir and Ramadan (Ramazan) in 1398. But this situation lasted shortly. Tamerlane defeated Beyazid I who was Ottoman sultan at
Ankara war in 1402. Tamerlane (Timur) restored Anatolian emirates that were destroyed by Ottomans again excluded Karesi (1297-1360).
Ottomans began to recapture to lost territories at Interregnum period (1402-1413). They conquered to Istanbul who was capital of Byzantine Empire in 1453. Istanbul solely was taken by Crusaders in 1204 when before Ottomans. This conquest did not led to end of
Byzantine Empire but also it is started the New Age and the Geographical Discoveries.
Finally, Ottomans set up Turkish Union of Anatolian in 1517. They moved glaziers from
Anatolia to Istanbul after conquest of him. They merged style of Byzantine with one of
Seljuks with success at glassware. The glassware was become an industry and art at
Ottoman period. The most important documents were accounting books and imperial edicts interested in building of Suleymaniye Mosque and additional buildings.
Surname-i Humayun that was an important source was published in 1582 was told to make a great festival at Murad III period. One of miniatures at this book was seen glaziers to make production in a glass furnace on a car. Tradesmen of glazier worked as bounded to state by a glaziers guild. The glaziers were called camger at this period.
These glaziers worked at various expertise divisions were bounded to guild. The glass production was making like at Eğrikapı, Tekfur Sarayı, Makriköy (Bakırköy), Eyüp,
Balat and Ayvansaray where around the Golden Horn. This glassware was sold per chest or unit where at it. These workshops were needed to rearrange on account of development of glassware at Western countries in the course of time.
The grandfather of Mehmet who was a Melvin dervish went to Venice for learn glass and crystal workmanships at period of Selim III. He came back from her who found a workshop in Çubuklu district of Beykoz. Turkish glassware lived the last bright period owing to this workshop. Among these products wineglasses, cupboards, plates, carafes, bowls, shallow frying pans, bottles, tulip vases, pots of rose water, glasses, saltcellars, sugar-bowls, candlesticks and washtubs were counted what were called Beykoz art or glassware. The most important characteristics of them reflected to a red light during they were held on light. This situation is explained to red sand that was supposed to add to glass dough and we did not know to take out from where.
Other glass workshops were closed one by one because of capitulations and both competitions of European countries and ones at Beykoz in spite of openings of new ones at Beykoz in 19th century. Ones at Beykoz supported from state at this period. The glass objects with transparent and semi transparent tissues in addition to types of coloured and gilded were made. The glass objects that were called Çeşm-i Bulbul (Eye of nightingale) were produced too. Eye of nightingale name was resulted from decorations on ones compared to lines on eye of nightingale or a fountain that was called eye of nightingale was existed once at Çubuklu. The first models of these glass objects were produced in
1846. Originally eyes of nightingale at were adapted shape to Turkish style some types of glass objects were produced at Europe. These products differences from similar at
European ones were found thick lines at determined ranged with thin ones and were become thinner and more qualified than European ones. These products were made glass bars at various colours to embed in glass dough. They were hardened at less heat and longer time than according to normal. Type numbers of eye of nightingale less than ones of Beykoz art. These products were made to export and were admired at their time. This situation was understood to find ones at Cyprus, Tunisia, Greece, Egypt and Syria. But the workshops at Beykoz were started to close towards to end of 19th century.
Modern glass industry was found by Saul Modiano who was a Jew from Turkey at
Paşabahçe in 1899. Modiano glass factory could not compete with European glass industry and was closed in 1920. Now Paşabahçe Factory of Ethyl Alcohol and Drink is existed instead of it.
The glass production at Turkey was collapsed due to he could not European glass industry so that Ottoman Empire was obliged to import glass products. This situation was borne to Ottoman economy was captured by stranger what was caused to ending of state. It continued until end of Independence War. Republic of Turkey was founded and capitulations were removed with Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
II.2.10. TURKISH GLASSWARE IN TURKEY REPUBLIC
Ottoman Empire was separated by the Allies that are United Kingdom, France, USA,
Italy and Greece due to Armistice of Mudros was signed in 1918 and Treaty of Sevres was signed in 1920. However, Mehmed VI who was the last Ottoman Sultan did not sign it. Also, Turkish republican movement under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Pasha did not recognize. The Turkish Independence War was resulted of Turkish victory. The
Armistice of Mudanya concluded to the Allies withdraw from Istanbul and Eastern
Thrace where was occupied by Greece. However, Turkey’s independence did not recognized until signing of Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. This treaty concluded to recognize Turkey’s independence and removal of capitulations. Removal of capitulations should an important movement to stranger sovereignty at Turkish economy. The First Economy Congress was gathered before the treaty to development strategy became dominant special enterprise and opened to outside be made one’s own at
Smyrna. However old structure continued that was incited to stranger enterpriser excluded external trade prohibitions were removed at Lausanne and cabotage justice was gained in 1926. The most important reasons of this situation, economic power was held on minorities and number of Turkish enterprisers was become scarce. In spite of this negative table at Turkish economy, Türkiye İş Bankası (Bank of Turkish Labour) was founded in 1924 and Sanayi ve Maadin Bankası (Bank of Industry and Metals) was founded in 1925. In addition to Teşvik-i Sanayi Kanunu (Law of Incitement to Industry) went into effect in 1927. Like this the way was opened to establishment of national economy. Bank of Labour was undertaken missions of factory establishment and partnership making at sectors of agriculture, industry, mining, energy production and delivery, public works, transportation, tourism and external trade on establishment contract. In addition to Bank of Labour provided to establish relations among enterprisers and politicians and managed them. Bank of Industry and Metals lived until
1932. The establishment aim of him was not only operated factories of Hereke, Feshane,
Bakırköy cloth and Beykoz Leather and Shoe what were took over from Ottomans till turned over to special sector. But also he gained to take mining privilege himself or together with special sector and make banking services and mining. But the bank went to bankruptcy because of his special partners did not carry out obligations of partnership to him and The Big Crisis was started in 1929. Authorities of the bank turned over temporarily to Bank of Labour.
Industry companies, who worked at sectors of production and mining and were grouped according to determined criteria, were important incitements. Among these incitements were free land were giving to incited companies until 10 hectare, exemption from taxes of revenue and customs and expenses, transportation of building materials, machines and tools relating to them by railways and maritime lines were reduced 30 %. This law lasted for 15 years. According to the law as rule Turks could work in incited factories, only managers and accountants were become strangers. If qualified worker was needed then stranger workers brought from abroad. However stranger workers were worked shorttime and obliged to learn their jobs to Turks. 470 existed and 140 new found ones utilized from incitement in 1927. 1857 existed and 104 new found ones utilized from it in 1930. But meaningfulness of utilized from incitement law did not remain after 1932.
Statism policy was passed from this year. After the law that was ended 1941, the incitement was not given a long-time.
However, The Big Crisis was appeared to collapse of New York exchange in 1929 and effected negative to world economy so that policy of liberal economy was given up at
Turkey. Statism policy was passed at this period. Yusuf Ziya Üçüncü who was an enterpriser found a glass factory around Tekfur Sarayı. But the factory was short-lived and closed at end of 1933. The glassware sector was held on strangers and it needed to nationalization the most important step for nationalization was taken with decision of
Council of Ministers that were dated 17 February 1934 and were numbered 2/162.
According to the decision, joint venture of Turkish Bottle and Glass Factories shortly
Bottle and Glass (Şişecam) were found and Bank of Labour undertook to find duty of the company. This company’s establishment capital was 1 million Turkish liras and first factory of her was found at Paşabahçe. This factory was opened in 1 July 1935.
Paşabahçe Glass Manufactory’s management was held on Stein who was a French company until 1936. She’s management passed to Turks. Automatic machine first time was used at her next year. The manufactories of Gökyiğit special glass and Çubuklu
Bottle were opened at Istanbul in 1944. Türkgenç firm opened workshop of lamp and bottle at Cibali in1950. The first electric bulb factory was opened by General Electric who was an international company in 1952. The first glass factory that was outside of
Istanbul was found in Arifiye village at province of Sakarya.
Number of glass factories was increased to approximately 35 in 1960. Approximately 30 of ones excluded Paşabahçe, 2 of ones in Smyrna and 1 of ones in Sakarya. Total production capacity was between 70 and 80 thousand tons that 50 % of one was
Paşabahçe’s. However, the factories in Arifiye and Cibali were closed down in 1980s.
Şişecam opened new factories in Sinop in 1980, Eskisehir and Kirklareli in 1990s and bougth Mersin Cam in 1975, Istanbul Porselen (Porcelain) in 1979 and Denizli Cam in
1994. However, Istanbul Porselen was closed down in 1990 and Sinop Cam was closed down in 1993. Şişecam bought various companies from Austria, Georgia and Russia and opened representatives in Russia, China and Egypt after second half of 1990s. Şişecam decided to close the first factory in Paşabahçe and this decision was applied by police force in 2002. This decision was much discussed.