History of Juvenile Justice System

In: Other Topics

Submitted By k7roger
Words 3409
Pages 14
History of Juvenile Justice System
Roger King
University of Mount Olive
Juvenile Justice Systems and Processes
CJC 310
Timothy Malfitano
February 7, 2015

Abstract
This paper will discuss the history of the juvenile justice system. I started this paper by looking at the history of the juvenile justice system, which showed how laws and legal measures involving juvenile offenders have an extensive history. There were no isolated courts or laws, and no services for juveniles, up till the 19th century, children who committed serious offenses were punished and restrained in prison the same way as adults. The changes in legislation rose the age at which individuals officially became adults. This change helped many juveniles escape the cruel treatment in the adult prisons. These changes were based on new understanding of the relationship between physical, mental maturity and acknowledgment. The American juvenile justice system has evolved over the past century with variation that embellished from the adult criminal justice process. The first juvenile's court was acknowledged in 1899, in Chicago, Illinois, and by1945, all states had juvenile courts. The juvenile crime rates particularly homicide rose during the 1980s and 1990s. Therefor the system faces a vast of questions about whether young offenders should be tried and sentenced in a different way than adult offenders (Lawrence & Hemmens, 2008, Chapter 1). The juvenile courts wanted to turn young felons into dynamic people by concentrating on treatment rather than punishment. The laws that established the juvenile courts illustrated their point as different from the adult penal codes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract | 2 |
Body | 4 |
Critical Analysis | 12 |
Conclusion | 12 |
Reference Page | 13 |

History of Juvenile Justice System
The two hundred and thirty-four year history of the…...

Similar Documents

Juvenile Justice

...Juvenile’s Rights   Miya Boston   CRJ301: Juvenile Justice   Professor Jodi Levit   February 27, 2010 Juvenile’s Rights The purpose of the United States juvenile justice system is to protect society more effectively by not just punishing children who commit crimes but attempting to rehabilitate them. The criminal justice system is here for us so that criminals are taken off the streets and to protect and keep us citizens safe as best as they can. Although it may seem hard to keep the nation safe, take criminals off the streets, as well as keep in mind that we all have rights, but that is what the criminal justice system is all about. Juveniles have rights at their time of arrest, as well as special adults, but juvenile’s right differing from adults. These rights include all of the Constitutional rights in the form of a Miranda warning (Wallace, & Roberson, 2008). In this essay, you will learn the rights of a juvenile during his or her arrests as well as the difference between a juvenile arrest and an adult arrest. Similar to adult offenders, juveniles have a right to know and understand why they are being arrested, the right to be silent, and the right to an attorney (Wallace, & Roberson, 2008). The laws of arrest that apply to adult offenders also apply to juveniles but with a little more simulations. Police officers know to temporarily detain juveniles to issue citations or criminal charges investigative purposes. Juveniles that...

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Juvenile Justice System in the New Era

... justified in the public interest. In India, which has a long history of Juvenile legislation, most statutory provisions have followed, more or less, the British pattern. Evolution of juvenile justice system During the closing decades of the twentieth century, juvenile justice policy underwent major change. In less than a generation, a justice system that had viewed most young lawbreakers as youngsters whose crimes were the product of immaturity was transformed into one that stands ready to hold many youths to the same standard of criminal accountability it imposes on adults. These changes took place through far-reaching legal and policy reforms in almost every state that have facilitated adult prosecution and punishment of juveniles and expanded the use of incarceration in the juvenile system. As the reforms proceeded, often in a frenzy of public fear and anger about violent juvenile crime, lawmakers appeared to assume that any differences between adolescents and adults were immaterial when it comes to devising youth crime policies. At the dawn of the juvenile court era in the late nineteenth century, most youths were tried and punished as adults. I. Several unique features characterized the early juvenile court First, because reformation was the goal, the system focused more on the individual child rather than on the nature of the criminal offense. Second, because the time within which reformation could be accomplished varied with the child, indeterminate...

Words: 10255 - Pages: 42

The Juvenile Justice System

... can return to a life of crime because they are out of options. That is the mindset that a lot of offenders tend to take on after release from a prison. That mindset might be more intensified for those that are tried at the age of 15,16, or 17. When a juvenile is waived into the adult court the idea of rehabilitation goes out the window. This is a negative aspect of the juvenile justice system because the idea behind juvenile justice is to treat the problem so that he youth does not reoffend. As an adult offender you are not given a chance to be rehabilitated. You are punished for the crime you have committed, and it is a punishment that the courts feel fit the crime. As a juvenile offender they have the right to second chance because any and all information after an arrest is not available to the public. This is a plus for those that actually learn the error of their ways, and become upstanding members of their community. References Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (2013), Juvenile justice history Retrieved from: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juveniles-youth-adult-criminal-court-32226.html Siegel, L. J. & Welsh, B. C. (2011). Juvenile delinquency: The core (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning/Wadsworth...

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Future of the Juvenile Justice System Proposal

... keenly limited by the guidelines set by the state. Historically, the juvenile justice system has attempted to help juveniles learn the difference in what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior in society. It also teaches juveniles the consequences of what happens when the definition of legal norms are broken. Juvenile treatment over history has trended more toward rehabilitation than punishment, especially because of the significant increase in juvenile crimes in recent years. Part of rehabilitation needs to include working on the maturity levels of the juveniles because it seems to be a key component of why they make these decisions in the first place. Over history, maturity in juveniles has been linked to their criminal tendencies. The juvenile justice system often takes this into consideration, as on more than one occasion a minor has had his or her age taken favorably into consideration when issuing a sentence. Decision-making according to Repucci (1999), is often flawed for juveniles because we often invoke immaturity and lack of judgment concerning their decisions. This is a reason why juvenile court raised the maximum age for a juvenile to 18. In earlier times, states were not uniform in what age a juvenile could be tried as an adult. It is quite possible that this thinking is playing a role in why juvenile crimes is trending. Lack of maturity is not considered to be a causation theory on why juveniles commit crimes. There are other reasons...

Words: 2603 - Pages: 11

Juvenile vs Adult Justice System

...Adult Justice v Juvenile Justice System There is no question that if a person is involved in any type of crime they will at some time make their way through the justice system. However, when that person is an adolescent they will go through the juvenile justice system, as an adult would go through the adult justice system. Even though the crimes of each can be of the same manner or hold the same severity the punishment results can differ. The main reason for having the two different justice systems is that children cannot be held to the same punishment levels as an adult. Even though a child has committed the same crime an adult may commit, not every child has a mental understanding to make mature adult like decisions. The juvenile justice system was made in effort of saving children. (Siegel, pg281) The thought that a child has suffered from abuse or neglect among other factors; they could be rehabilitated into productive members of society. Much like an adult justice system a juvenile justice system also has different stages of the process. Whether it is an adult system or juvenile system the parties involved will have the right to an attorney, the right to cross examine witnesses, be notified of charges, and the prosecution must prove guilt beyond reasonable doubt.(legalmatch,2014). This is known as Due Process, which for many years’ juveniles did not have the rights to. This was due to the fact that juveniles were not being punished but yet rehabilitated...

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Future of the Juvenile Justice System

... creation of a negative opinion of police from this type of contact. Effective prevention programs involving the community can be implemented without fear that contact will create a negative perception of the police for juveniles (Balcazar, Keys, & Garate-Serafini, 1995, p. 243). In both the transitional process and in the community based programs, family ties and volunteers in the community are greatly needed. These members of the community need to be recruited and provided with additional services that can help them best serve the juveniles. More focus and emphasize needs to be placed on the delinquent juvenile in the community setting to best help them in the rehabilitation process (Flash, 2003, p. 523). Justification and Funding for the Juvenile Justice System The juvenile justice system was founded on the belief that children are different from adults; therefore, the justice system and corrections sanctions for juveniles should acknowledge the differences. “Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court” (Fagan, 2008). The acknowledgement of these differences should be the bases for a proper juvenile justice system. The examination of the juvenile justice’s systems history, trends, and causation theories will provide an insight into the future of the juvenile justice system. History The...

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Juvenile Justice

...Juvenile Justice Process and Corrections Cheryl Cooper CJA/374 July 8, 2014 University of Phoenix Juvenile Justice Process and Corrections Case Study A youth on parole in Louisiana, Mychal Bell, 17, was ordered back to prison for 18 months following numerous parole violations. He had been placed on probation on four previous occasions for violent incidents. Bell was a former member of the “Jena 6,” a group of six black teens who had beaten a white student, Justin Barker, in December 2006. The incident was a culmination of a fight between blacks and whites. Various religious leaders, including Rev. Al Sharpton, called Bell’s re-imprisonment “revenge” by the judge and called upon the governor, Kathleen Bianco, to intervene (Champion, D. J., 2010). Brief Corrections Plan Mychal Bell will be ordered back to prison for 18 months for parole violations. Upon his release, he will be required to attend and complete an Anger Management class. The extra 18 months complete the original sentence, so any new crimes committed by Mr. Bell will bring new charges. Mr. Bell will be an adult upon release, so no communication is necessary with Child Protective Services or school. Juvenile Justice Process in Ohio Juveniles’ first encounter with the juvenile justice process is usually his or her arrest by a law enforcement official. Other ways that youth enter the system include "referrals" by parents and schools, delinquency victims, and probation officers. A decision is...

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

History of Juvenile Justice System

...History of Juvenile Justice System Roger King University of Mount Olive Juvenile Justice Systems and Processes CJC 310 Timothy Malfitano February 7, 2015 Abstract This paper will discuss the history of the juvenile justice system. I started this paper by looking at the history of the juvenile justice system, which showed how laws and legal measures involving juvenile offenders have an extensive history. There were no isolated courts or laws, and no services for juveniles, up till the 19th century, children who committed serious offenses were punished and restrained in prison the same way as adults. The changes in legislation rose the age at which individuals officially became adults. This change helped many juveniles escape the cruel treatment in the adult prisons. These changes were based on new understanding of the relationship between physical, mental maturity and acknowledgment. The American juvenile justice system has evolved over the past century with variation that embellished from the adult criminal justice process. The first juvenile's court was acknowledged in 1899, in Chicago, Illinois, and by1945, all states had juvenile courts. The juvenile crime rates particularly homicide rose during the 1980s and 1990s. Therefor the system faces a vast of questions about whether young offenders should be tried and sentenced in a different way than adult offenders (Lawrence & Hemmens, 2008, Chapter 1). The juvenile courts wanted to turn young felons...

Words: 3409 - Pages: 14

Juvenile Justice

... the basis for placing the juvenile in different programs, including intuitions, foster care, alcohol and drug abuse programs etc or sending the juvenile home. The elements included in the Social History start with the crime or behavior that brought the juvenile into the justice system. the officer also examines all the legal documents provided by the police and the courts. the information needed is the date, description of the offense, and type of offense. It is especially important to document the seriousness of the offense since this will have a major impact on what the court will decide to do with the juvenile. the juveniles immediate family has a profound effect on a juveniles behavior and lifestyle. the major problems that show up in the social history are: Drug and alcohol abuse Family violence Emotional abuse lack of supervision effect of criminal neighborhoods poor school attendance and grades Serious delinquents generally lack emotional stability and middle class values Boys tend to be more aggrassive whiel girls tend towards promiscuous and suicidal behavior Delinquents compared to youth who do not get into trouble are more likely to be egocentric, impulsive, with low anger control and poor social skills. They also lack empathy. A major trait of delinquents is immediate gradification. The purpose for collecting the social history information is to evaluate the juvenile and the juveniles behavior The assessment model evaluates the...

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Juvenile Justice System

...Juvenile Justice System Essay Juvenile justice is something that our country has been dealing with for a very long time, since the first juvenile court in 1899. There is something that goes along with juvenile justice and that is dissenting justices. What that means is an opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disagreement. Before the first juvenile court, a juvenile delinquency had to be processed through the adult justice system. This system gave youths much more harsh penalties. Separate juvenile courts started appearing in every state by 1945. In 1966, a young boy named Gerald Gault was taken into custody for making a telephone call that was obscene. Gerald Gault was 15 years old and had previously been on probation. When Gault was arrested, his parents happened to be at work and the police did not leave any notice to them. Gault was then held before a juvenile court and was further admitted to the State Industrial School until he was 21 years old. The disagreements between the judges were if the procedures that were used to commit Gault were legitimate under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision was made by Judge Mcghee and was later found to be wrongly decided. The Court found Gault’s case met none of the requirements of the Fourteenth Amendment. These requirements include notification of both the parents and the child the juveniles opportunity for confrontation and cross-examination during hearings...

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Future of the Juvenile Justice System

... because they are base on the offense and the minor's criminal history”. According to (Djj.gov, n.d.) “With every decision they Decisions hold offenders accountable for their crimes, but they Decisions may not be cruel or unusual punishment”. According to (Djj.gov, n.d.) Private offices are worked by private charitable or revenue driven partnerships or associations; the individuals who work in these offices are workers of the private partnership alternately association. State or neighborhood government offices work open offices; the individuals who work in these offices are state or nearby government representatives. Private offices have a tendency to be littler than open offices. In this way, despite the fact that there are more private than open offices across the nation, this presentation we secured a ton of information and what we can do to help our youngsters in the as well as help the group and how to spare and redistribute cash to make the adolescent equity framework somewhat better the distance around. In this Presentation I talked about how Many communities want the juvenile justice system to change. Some want the teens and minors off the street and some want them to get help. Law enforcement want are there to help. With courts and sentencing it I talked about how there are different then adult court. The goal with juvenile justice system are to help with interventions and to prevent delinquency. Future of the Juvenile Justice system...

Words: 994 - Pages: 4

Juvenile Justice

... base for all new legislation, policy and agenda is focus on rigorous assessment within Government. As well, the Legislative Appraisal Committee examines all Bills initiated to Parliament and all systems theme to disallowance conditions in the Legislation Review Act 1987 Youth Justice Youthful People and kids – The Juvenile Justice Continuum This part of the story argued they require of intervening early to deal with the risk issues connected with juvenile offending and re-offending. The practices of law enforcement, the courts system, and Juvenile Justice are differentiated or conversed as well as some meticulous juvenile justice programs. • Mental, physical condition and academic disabilities Lack of structured spare time and recreational chases.• Alcohol and other drug misuse • Accommodation problems • Education, preparation and employment problems • Relationship problems including relatives dysfunction • Criminal lifestyles and connections • Distorted and illogical thinking counting pro-criminal attitudes, and • Restorative justice in Australia To date, healing justice in Australia has been employ to deal almost exclusively with criminals who have confessed to offense (Daly 2001). It can, and its use is at the majority points of getting in touch with the illegal fairness system. For example, it can be utilized by law enforcement to redirect offenders away from court (e.g., youth conferencing), by judges as a sentencing outcome or as a means of arriving at...

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Future of the Juvenile Justice System

...) Some citizens are demanding that the juvenile system confronts the problem with serious offenders with a more aggressive approach. However, the private sector was set up to give our youth a second chance, but in the mean time there should be better ways set up to improve the private sector than to tear it down. There are ways to improve the private sector which would have more youth willing to participate. The private sector has to be set up in away which will allow each youth to work within their community and help people and younger kids that live their. More YMCA’s more parks and summer and winter programs which allow are youth to have jobs andwork together and be supportive of each other. References CENSUS OF JUVENILES IN RESIDENTIAL PLACEMENT DATABOOK, (n.d), Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov HISTORY OF AMERICA’S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM, (n.d.), LawyerShop.com Retrieved from http://www.lawyershop.com...

Words: 884 - Pages: 4

Future Juvenile Justice System

...Future of the Juvenile Justice System Abel Rosas, Kimberly Garner, Brenda Brown Professor: Cory Kelly University of Phoenix CJA374 June 18, 2012 Introduction The juvenile justice system follows along the same lines and guidelines of adult court with a few exceptions to the rules and regulations. There are some changes that need to be made in order for the juvenile justice system to run better. We need to be more adverse in the decisions that are made for our youth of today and their futures tomorrow. What changes need to be made in order for a better adverse system to exist? How are we supposed to make sure that the changes that are made are going to be sufficient enough for everyone to follow? These are just a few questions that need to be answered. These are just a few changes that need to be made in order for the juvenile justice system to work accordingly. Community Involvement In order for the juvenile justice system to have any type of future, the communities need to get more involved in programs where these juveniles can go to after or before school. Prevention programs are very important in decreasing juvenile crime. Children need to know that their actions can have serious consequences and that there are programs out there that can help them if they choose to get help. There are many programs that have been successful in helping juveniles stay out of trouble these include: Boys and Girls Club, after school programs, family...

Words: 1882 - Pages: 8

Future of the Juvenile Justice System

...Future of the Juvenile Justice System Lashanna Banks-Augustus Bryan Knight Samantha Mathis Barbara Minish Jenny Sutton CJA 374 July 2, 2012 Mecca Brown The Future of the Juvenile Justice System In 1899 the first separate Juvenile Court system opened in the United Sates. The Juvenile Justice system design was to separate juvenile delinquents from adult criminals. Documentation proves that juveniles do not have the maturity level or the responsibility level of an adult to receive the same punishment as adults should. Juvenile Justice System main focus is rehabilitation as a replacement for punishment in which the adult court system focuses on punishment. The juvenile system methods are based on causation theories throughout history. However, with new trends comes new theories and with new theories comes a new wave of both rehabilitation techniques and designing those techniques to fit each juvenile personal needs; proving that change is in need throughout the different areas of the juvenile justice system. Community Community helps juveniles in different ways. Juvenile law will place them accountable for their actions. The community can help to hold the youths accountable for each of their delinquent actions. The community could help intervene by providing an effective intervention for the offender and to have the child protection protect the neglect or abused juveniles (The future of children). Each community should help develop different programs that will...

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9