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History Of Paper Chromatography

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Chromatography which literally means “color writing” was invented by Mikhail Tsvet, a Russian botanist in 1903 while studying the coloring materials in plant life. It is defined as a laboratory technique utilized by scientists for the separation of organic and inorganic mixtures into their respective components in order to analyze, identify, purify and/or quantify the mixture or components. There are different types of chromatography which are use including liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. In consonance with these, while each type of chromatography uses different methods to separate compounds, all forms work on the same principle. They all have a stationary …show more content…
In paper chromatography, the filter paper (stationary phase) holds the components until all the solvent (mobile phase) dissolves them and through the aid of capillary action, it travels up the filter paper. Moreover, the solvent can only move the components if they are soluble in it. Also, the component will travel up the filter paper at a rate that is determined by its affinity to the filter paper and solvent. Since each component has its own solubility with the solvent and its own affinity to the solvent and filter paper, they can be separated in multiple ways by using mixtures of different solvents and different filter papers. Therefore, the separation of components in paper chromatography highly depends on their solubility with the solvent and their affinity to the solvent and filter …show more content…
First is the application/treatment of the sample, then this is followed by the development of the chromatogram done by allowing the mobile phase to move up the paper. Lastly, the retention factor value is calculated using Equation 1.1. The retention factor (Rf) is the ratio of the distance travelled by the component or the solute to the distance travelled by the solvent. If the Rf value of a solution is equivalent to zero, then the solute remains in the stationary phase and it is motionless as a result. Whereas if the Rf value is equal to 1, then the solute has zero affinity for the stationary phase and it moves with the solvent front. Therefore, the retention factor’s value is also a representation of the movement or migration of solution in relation to the

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