Free Essay

History of Press in Sub Continent

In: Historical Events

Submitted By razi
Words 499
Pages 2
History of Muslim Press in Sub-Continent – Part Four
Continued from the previous part …
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was a great Muslim reformer, educationists and politician of the Sub-continent. After the revolt against the British, when the position of the Muslims in the Sub-continent was quite pathetic and Muslims were going through a social and financial crisis, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan came to the forefront and created awareness amongst Muslims about the importance of education and a lifestyle which was closer to the British. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan made sure that the Muslims understood the importance of the modern education and science, so that they could compete with the Hindus and could claim their rights for the job opportunities and a better lifestyle.
Sir Syed started Aligarh Movement, which had a motto of promoting education amongst the Muslims after the revolt of 1857. He fought against the Hindu conspiracies against Urdu. Risala-dar-Asbab-i-Bhagawati-i-Hind, Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahl-i-Kitab and Loyal Mohammadans of India were some of his best works. He started various schools and colleges where English language was taught with Urdu and Persian. He founded a Scientific Society where he started the periodical which was first called Scientific Society Papers and later, the Aligarh Institute Gazette.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan played a significant role in reshaping the public opinion amongst the Muslims. After 1857, Sir Syed had realized that it is very hard for Muslims to survive with the Hindus but still he was in favour of the United India until the Urdu-Hindi controversy. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan would always be remembered in the history books as a revolutionary leader who gave a new direction to the Muslims of the Sub-continent which took them to the way of independence. Sir Syed’s role can be referred as the root of the making of Pakistan and the separation from the Hindus.
For the purpose of creating awareness amongst the Muslim masses in India, Sir Syed used press to great effect during the late 19th century.
Khilafat movement was an effort by the Indian Muslims to save the Ottoman Empire. It was a pan-Islamic movement between 1919 till 1924. Some of the great journalists of that time like Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali worked very hard for this cause with lots of other important personalities. The Muslim press and newspapers also played an important role amongst the Muslims about the importance of the Khilafat Movement. Initially the movement was quite successful through strikes and protests all over India but this movement could not gain a lot of success in the long run. However, the role of Muslim press during that time would always be remembered in history with golden words.
Although the Khilafat Movement was not a success, it united the Muslims of Sub-continent and injected a new spirit amongst them which was the real energy behind the independence movement later on.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

History of Media and Journalism in the Sub-Continent

...Over the past two or three centuries we had seen innovations, inventions and developments all around the world and almost in all fields of life which we are experiencing currently. Journalism and media are also one of those fields which came into existence, progressed with the passage of time and then proved their worth and importance for any nation and its common man’s life. Both of these fields were not as exciting, couple of centuries ago, as they are now because at that time they possessed a different meaning and ideology. The history of journalism and media varies from one part of the world to the others and this essay is only focussed on such history in the subcontinent. Beginning in the Subcontinent In the sub-continent, journalism started with preliminary handwritten news sheets, prepared by government news-writers during the Muslim rule. They were written, dated, appeared at regular and frequent intervals. Such news sheets provided the rulers with information from all corners of the empire, regarding public occurrences, current-events, mischief in societies and hardships faced by the people. From this information, the rulers used to take decisions and plan initiatives to uphold good governance. In short, the early hand-written sheets proved effective social mobilization vehicle to hold peace and contentment in the empires. The legendary Mughal emperors enhanced and strengthened it to the superior degree of excellence. News-writers or stringers were assigned...

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gender Analysis

...1.1 INTRODUCTION HIV and AIDS pandemic in the African continent has had a short but devastating history. Sub-Saharan Africa is more profoundly affected by HIV as compared to any other part of the world. Approximately 23 million people are said to be living with the deadly virus in the region which translates to about two thirds of the universal total. In 2010 alone, around 2 million people contracted the disease while 1.2 million died in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the onset of the pandemic, over 15 million children have lost one or both of the parents to HIV and AIDS. The social- economic effects of AIDS pandemic have not only been experienced in the health sector but also in agriculture, transport, human resource, education and the economy as at large (UNAIDS 2010). HIV and AIDS is therefore a major burden and challenge to the social, health and economic development of the African continent. There can be no significant growth in the region as long as the issue of AIDS is not addressed urgently. The impact of HIV and AIDS in the African continent and the world at large cannot be down played. This means that immediate measures should be taken by the general public and governments in order to curb the ever increasing effects of HIV pandemic to the African continent. Due to the economic standing of the African continent coupled with socio-cultural practices, HIV continues to spread at an alarming rate. Any further delays to address this issue will turn out to be detrimental...

Words: 4288 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

African Culture

...diversified regions in the world, which has been influenced by several foreign nations. The African culture cannot be viewed as a simple, unified, and standard entity, which is persistent throughout the vast region. Africa is one of the largest continents of the world, and it consists of numerous socio culturally diverse societies. The main difference that exists in the African culture is present among the diversified regions of North African and Sub Saharan Africa. These regions have been influenced by different foreign societies, which led to the development of two distinct subcultures, which exist in the African culture. The native cultural development in the African region has been the target of foreign influences thorough the history of the continent, where the western and the Middle Eastern powers have played a pivotal role. Discussion The European Influence The initial European influence in the African culture was initiated by the Portuguese, who arrived in the continent in the middle of the 15th century. Ever since the arrival of the Portuguese, the region became the sole target of the majority of the European countries, who sought out to exploit the vast resources present in the continent. The European countries were experiencing several dilemmas, concerned with the excessively over growing population, and the resources available in the national perspective (Comaroff, 1985). In this scenario Africa represented an ideal...

Words: 690 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

1947 Partition of India

...Analyse the reasons for the 1947 partition of the South Asian sub-continent into India and Pakistan. The partition of the South Asian sub-continent into India and Pakistan was one of the most crucial events in both countries histories. There was exceeding tensions in India between the two main political parties; the Indian National Congress, with predominantly Hindu based support and members and the Muslim League formed later as protest against the minority Muslim population and their overlooked rights. Violence and bloodshed between Hindu and Muslim population had become increasingly severe and forced the decision surrounding partition to be made quickly before it escalated any further. Furthermore, the British intention to leave India was a ticking clock forcing the two parties to come to a decision quickly rather than be granted independence only to be left in a civil war. However, the social and economic barriers between Muslims and Hindus also furthered the support for partition Tensions between the Muslim League and Congress led to the League’s increasing insecurity of being disadvantaged by having a single Indian nation dominated by Hindus and that their interests would not be accounted for. The Muslim League felt increasingly isolated which led them to push harder for the partition of India. Much of this sense of isolation was set about by the actions of Congress. For instance, in the 1937 elections the Congress won majorities in seven of eleven provinces in which...

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

History of Chennai

...structures, cramped and colly, perpetually cropping up beside them, diverse and anachronic in their designs. The neighbourhood is peopled by a bustling population, exercising multifarious vocations, whose diversity stands unparalleled in the entire region. The streets are always hustling with hawkers in ostentatious clothing and beggars with deformed limbs, trying every trick in the book to eek the sympathy out of one’s heart. Reminding one of Lord Kubera’s Alaka, the realm of Yakshas, Kinnaras and other preternatural beings, the entire neighbourhood is a world of its own. But the romantic onlooker will find tremendous heritage entombed under the sheath of malignance and stink that characterises today’s north. The locality’s first tryst with history occurs in the year 1639, when the idea of a city was ingrained here; thereby making North Madras the seed from which the entire Metropolis of today’s Chennai blossomed. But few people know about the hormonal slant of one man, Francis Day, that ultimately led to the founding of Fort St.George at its present location. Francis Day was an English merchant and a representative of the British East India Company. He brokered a deal with Venkatadri Nayak for setting up a trading outpost. He was smitten by a Portuguese noblewoman who resided in San Thome, a Portuguese establishment, and therefore wanted to set up the outpost as close to her as possible. This humble trade post, burgeoned into a fort and, at the behest of merchant Beri Thimappah, soon...

Words: 1206 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

African International Politics

...Adeola Adegbite March 21st 2013 African International Politics Professor Throup Failure of Organizations Throughout modern history, Western powers such as the United States and Europe have always assisted weaker nations in order for those countries to maintain internal stability and external relations with other nations. Most often, Western powers to aid states with failing democratic systems or nations that are strategic allies in certain regions of the world. For Western powers, it is important to promote the ideals of Democracy, and assist other nations deemed as crucial to Democracy’s development. Democracies and its expansion are vital for several reasons Democratic nations foster peace and stability. Following World War II, the United States believed it was imperative to sustain and support Western Europe. At the time Western Europe was facing the encroachment of the Soviet Union and its communist ideologies. The United States saw its support for Western Europe as essential in order to preserve their alliance, and most importantly to continue strengthening and expanding democratic ideals. However, as of the past twenty years, when it comes sub-Saharan Africa, Western nations are not nearly as concerned about a states internal or external stability. For example, countries such as Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and many other sub-Saharan countries are in utter turmoil, but the West has turned a blind eye. The burden now falls on organizations like the United Nations, Organization...

Words: 2340 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...Evaluating the role of ethnic identity in explaining the occurrence of contemporary civil conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. High hopes for many newly independent states of Africa became diminished as the 1990s saw over a quarter of the continent's states facing armed insurgencies within their borders (Young, 2002: 534). Commentators often point to pathological, deep-seated hatreds in an African tribal mosaic as the bases of such conflict. The fact is, however, that the continent is awash with political grudges, ethnically-framed and otherwise, but civil wars rarely break out. Thus this essay seeks to take a more nuanced approach to understand the analytical challenge posed by such disorder. Starting out by countering the centrality of ethnic identity, it firstly seeks to demonstrate that ethnic identities do not exist primordially, but that they are constructed on weak foundations. Secondly it endeavours to show that where cleavages do exist along lines of cultural difference, simple heterogeneity is insufficient to account for the outbreak of conflict. Next, it moves to underline the fact that more important in explaining civil conflict is whether such conflict is feasible. This is understood both in terms of the perceived capacity of the state and in terms of the viability of insurgency for would-be rebels. A final conclusion will then be expounded that ethnicity is not a central factor, but that it is simply one of a number of strategies under which conflict may be framed...

Words: 2475 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...academic discipline. For a general history of human beings, see History of the world. For other uses, see History (disambiguation). Page semi-protected Historia by Nikolaos Gysis (1892) Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1] —George Santayana History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation"[2]) is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.[3][4] Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[3][5][6][7] The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history.[8][9] Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory. Amongst scholars, the 5th-century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary...

Words: 7792 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay


...of barriers to international trade. The barriers include tariffs, export fees and import quotas. Its aim is to raise goods, services and material wealth from a global division of labor (Robertson, 1992). Globalization is a process, driven by a combination of factors including financial, technical, sociocultural, political, and biological. The term may also refer to transitional circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture (Waters, 2001). The history of globalization is debatable. Some people perceive it to be from the ancient times dating back to occasions like Ottoman Empire spice trade routes in 1453 spurring exploration of different lands. Others situate the origins to the modern era, citing examples like the ending of the First and Second World War in the mid-20th century which was necessitated by the need to break down borders and foster peace (Osterhammel & Petersson, 2005). Expansion of multinational companies and exchanging of scientific developments and information has led to globalization in most continents. In the late 1900’s inventions like networking in communications allowed for work done using computers from varied locations in the world, his enhanced a spirit of camaraderie amongst members of different societies (Osterhammel & Petersson, 2005). Globalization may be measured in various ways. The main ones include goods and services, like exports and...

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Understanding the Aryans

...UNDERSTANDING THE ARYANS A roadmap for students and beginners Burjor Avari (Manchester Metropolitan University) It is a known fact of history that the British curiosity and interest in Indian cultures increased phenomenally after the East India Company came to acquire a territorial hold on Bengal from the late 1750s onwards. Their paramountcy over India’s millions depended upon their thorough understanding of the cultures of the sub-continent which required a mastery in its languages.[i] The small circle of dedicated and assiduous students of India’s languages included Sir William Jones, the eminent jurist and polymath who resided in India between 1783 and 1794.[ii] After studying Sanskrit for just under three years he observed, in 1786, that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin and Old Persian had all descended from an original speech. His observation has proved correct; and, since his time, most learned philological opinion has accepted that, in terms of language classifications, the common source of these tongues was what is now called proto-Indo-European. Its geographical focus was presumed to be the area around the Caspian Sea. It is also generally accepted that the eastern branch of the Indo-European family of languages is known as the Indo-Iranian whose first speakers called themselves Aryans. Whether the Aryans, speaking some variety of Indo-European languages, invaded or migrated into Iran and India from their original trans-Caspian homeland or...

Words: 11691 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Security of the Human Rights Defenders in Protecting Human Rights in Bangladesh

...World. Concept of Human Right is not a new one but ancient. From the earliest time, human history is a history of long struggle to protect human rights, liberty and independence. Scholars like Plato and Aristotle championed thought that People/Men were not subject who are exclusively made to bow but, also were Human Beings who needed to be taken care of. History witnesses that powerful Emperor/Rajas by dint of their power and superiority conquered another weak state/ country and Land and Independent citizens of conquered/vanquished state/ country were taken to the Land of Conquerors and their Liberty and Independence were seized, thus grossly violating their Human Rights to live in their state/ country/Land as free and Independent citizens. citizens of the conquered country were taken to the Land Conquerors as slaves. We speak of Roman Civilization. But the question is- By dint of sheer power and arms did Romans not violate Human Rights of free and Independent citizens of another weak and powerless countries. In the face of Human Right violation can Romans be characterized as Civilized? My answer is in firm Negative. British people/Englishmen kept the people of this sub-continent under their feet for long two hundred Years by dint of conspiracy, intrigues, with the help of some traitors/betrayers of the soil of Bengal. British people came to this sub-continent only to rule the sub-continent, not that with a Missionary object to educate people and to help people in building of up...

Words: 3969 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

In the Context of the Years of 1847- 1947, How Far Was the Partition of India in 1947 Inevitable?

...In the context of the years of 1847- 1947, to what extent was the Partition of India in 1947 inevitable? ------------------------------------------------- The countries India, Pakistan and Bangladesh were once united as a whole Sub-Continent mixed with Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs ruled under the British raj in 1857. Where these countries are now, what they have become and their relationships with each other have very much been forged by the events of 1947 with Independence from Britain and the subsequent partition of India. When assessing the extent to which partition was inevitable, it can be difficult as the action itself justifies the inevitability, “Partition happened therefore it was inevitable Khaswant Singh **historian**. This tends to suggest that all history is a predetermined narrative that cannot be changed and altered.  This would very much be consistent with Indian philosophy that ‘it has happened because it was written’ this suggests the inevitability of partition is considered to be seen inevitable even before looking at the contributing factors. However from a Western and particularly British perspective, 1947 heralded not only the beginning of the end of the British Empire; but as Lawrence describes, “The end of period of history which from 1492 had seen the domination of the globe by a handful of European Powers.” (1994 The rise and fall of the British Empire.) The manner of departure also calls into question the extent to which the British and on a wider level...

Words: 3899 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay


...connected to the Sinai Peninsula—and hence to the Asian continent by a very narrow strip of land. This is the only spot where Africa touches another continent; otherwise, it is surrounded by water. The Mediterranean Sea separates it from Europe in the north; the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden lie between it and the Arabian Peninsula to the east. Two vast bodies of water—the Indian Ocean on the eastern side, and the even larger Atlantic on the west—surround the remainder of Africa. A Why Africa is important One of the greatest civilizations of all time, Egypt, was in Africa. Perhaps the only ancient civilizations that can be compared with it are those of Greece and Rome, which were influenced by it. Egypt, of course, has had its own chapter in this series; and Carthage, in North Africa, is also covered elsewhere. The focus of this chapter is entirely on Africa south of the Sahara 283 Map of Africa. XNR Productions. The Gale Group. Desert—that is, sub-Saharan Africa—as well as on the desert itself. That desert would have an impact on African history right up to the modern day; so, too, would the African civilizations of ancient times. There was the kingdom of Kush, which developed its own form of writing and briefly ruled Egypt; the kingdom of Aksum, an important trading center; and the Bantu peoples, who developed ironworking and spread it, along with their languages, throughout the southern part of the African continent. The origins of humankind Though there is much dispute...

Words: 7373 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Native Americans

...been an ongoing process to the current day. This paper examines the origins of their Native Americans. This paper also explores their journey into the Americas as the first Immigrants. Their settlement patterns and ways of life will also be examined. The paper also explores how the Native Americans in the Americas fared during the European conquest of the region that is currently identified as the America. Euro-Indian relations, conflicts and their aftermath is also a focus point of the paper, which culminates into the current state of affairs of the Native American community in the Americas. Origins of the Native Americans There are diverse sources of information on the origins and history of the Native Americans. They include oral history passed down through generations. This oral history is as diverse as the Indian Nations. Different tribes have different folklore to explain their origins. For instance, the Haida who reside in British Columbia say that man was shaken out of a clam shell by a raven. The Navajo of Arizona say they sprung out of the ground after which there was a time of great wandering and searching for a home. Almost all Indian nations have...

Words: 2083 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast Japanese and Western Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific

...Compare and Contrast Japanese and Western Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific 23 October 2013 at 18:10 The Japanese pursuit for an empire in South East Asia helped changed the balance of world power away from Europe, by taking their most lucrative colonies. Soon after the Japanese defeat in World War II, most of the colonies won their independence from their European masters. This essay will be arguing that despite the vast geographical distance and cultural, racial differences, as well as the different time periods involved, Japanese and European intentions were very similar, and that these similarities contributed to the weakening of Imperialism as a doctrine. To do so, this essay will be examining the reasons for the Japanese conducting policies of imperialism, when they expanded, what methods they use to expand and the systems of government. Japanese Imperialism will be compared to those of a well known European power active in the region, Britain. J.A Hobson’s seminal work Imperialism: A Study puts forward the idea of the ‘Economic Taproot of Imperialism’. A taproot is the largest root in some plants and is the plant’s primary source of nourishment. Military aggression is simply capitalist expansion. He described it as “As one nation after another enters the machine economy and adopts advanced industrial methods, it becomes more difficult for its manufacturers, merchants and finaciers to dispose profitably of their economic resources and they are tempted more and more to...

Words: 3840 - Pages: 16