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Dan Lupascu, Raluca Gâlea

155

CONSIDERATIONS ON REGULATING THE ENGAGEMENT IN THE NEW ROMANIAN CIVIL CODE1) AND SOME FOREIGN LEGISLATION
Dan LUPAùCU Raluca GÂLEA

Abstract The new Civil Code brings back into the Romanian legal landscape a very rare and apparently obsolete institution – the engagement. This article analyses the evolution of engagement, its substantial and formal conditions, the content of this sui generis act and also the sensible issues concerning the judicial effects of the engagement, especially as regards its cessation. Also, elements of comparative law are depicted, highlighting the correlation between the consequences of breeching the engagement and the fault of parties in other law systems. Keywords: engagement, the promise to marry, breeching the engagement, accountability, gifts.

1. Introduction
The engagement has a considerable history, being mentioned even in the Old Testament, under the Hebrew term of „aras” having the meaning of „engagement to marry”2) or „vow to marry”. As regards the religious implications, the man and woman were already considered as husband and wife, without the right to sexual relations until the marriage3). According to Vasile the Great, breech of these interdictions was sanctioned with exclusion from communion for 11 years. Considering the engaged persons as being married also implied a series of extremely severe consequences. For example, the priest could refuse to wed a person who was initially engaged during a religious ceremony with another person than the one the former intended to marry. Also, the 98th Canon of the Sixth Synod considered wedding a woman engaged to another man as adultery (and punished the offender). The engagement – a symbol of the union between a man and a woman – after the solemn vow to marry, was also known in the Roman law4) by the term „sponsalia”. According to the Roman tradition, the engagement ring – awarded for this occasion – must be worn on the left ring finger considering that at the base of this finger starts „vena amoris” (love vein) that went up to the heart.
The new Romanian Civil Code (Law 287/2009) was published in the Official Journal, Part I, no. 511 of 24 July 2009. This work was supported by CNCSIS –UEFISCSU, project number 860 PNII – IDEI 1094/2008. Associated Professor, Judge, Ph.D., Faculty of Law, “Nicolae Titulescu” University, Bucharest and member with permanent activity of Romanian Superior Council of Magistracy (danlupascu@csm1909.ro). This work was supported by CNCSIS –UEFISCSU, project number 860 PNII – IDEI 1094/2008.

Judge, head of Directorate of European Affairs, International Relations and Programmes within the Romanian Superior Council of Magistracy. 2 In English, the promise to marry is defined by the term „engagement”. 3 See also: Christian Moldavia. The reality from Bible’s outlook – www.moldovacrestina.net. 4 See also: I. Chelaru – Marriage and divorce. Judicial issues on civil, religious and comparative law matters – Publishing House „A92 Acteon”, page 27.
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In our country, it was the custom for the parents of the boy (the future “greater” parents-inlaw) to go and “ask in marriage” at the parents of the girl (the future “smaller” parents-in law). The two families mutually agreed the details of the wedding (term, place, guests) and the dowry. Sometimes, the girl was asked in marriage from her parents only by the future husband. In certain geographic areas it was used to bring a pledge (usually an amount of money, named „cap r ” or „arvun ”), that was returned if the engagement was breeched5). The engagement was sealed by putting the engagement ring on the ring finger of the girl’s right hand6). Subsequently, in order to receive the divine blessing, the two partners went to church where the “ceremonial of engagement”, was performed at least one month before the marriage7). On this occasion, the engagement rings (usually made of silver) were put on, and were worn on the right hand of the future married couple, until the wedding ceremony. The involvement of the church strengthened the engagement to be considered as “conform and solid”. This custom is somehow kept until today, the wedding ceremony being preceded, in the same day, by the engagement ceremony. The traditional pattern of the wedding proposal suffered severe transformations: thus, in some situations, even the roles are inversed, so that the man is now proposed. As regards the spiritual side, the engagement is almost as important as the marriage because it signifies the mutual declaration of the feelings and the vow to wed, supplemented by the blessing of the relationship by the parents and priest. It is also important from the legal point of view only if it acknowledged by the law to this end. Our old regulations8), as well as the old French law9), regulated the engagement, as a covenant, generating for the parties the obligation to do, namely to conclude of the marriage. Non execution of this obligation triggered the punishment of the party who without reasons refused to do so, to pay reimbursements to the other party.10). Still, the agreement on damages (clauza penala) was not admitted. Starting with the 17th century, under the powerful influence of the legal doctrine and of the case-law, in order to ensure the full liberty of the agreement of the parties to wed, it was set the engagement has no legal validity as a contractual matter11), still the practice admitted the possibility for a tort responsibility in the case of a faulty breech of the engagement. Due to the fact that, lacking a legislative consecration, the courts admitted for “a young man deceived in his hopes by the unlawful breech of the engagement, the right to ask the restitution of

See also: I. Ceterchi, and others – History of Romanian Law, volume I, Bucharest, 1980, page 505. According to an opinion, the custom that a boy shall give an engagement ring to a girl exists since 1447 when Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg (1459 – 1519) gave to his girlfriend – Maria de Burgundia – a diamond ring. 7 See also: www.grace.ro. 8 „Pravila” (ancient term for regulation) of Matei Basarab and „Pravila” of Vasile Lupu (in force during 1652 – 1711), Code of Andronachi Donici (in force until 1817), Calimach Code and Caragea Code (in force between 1817 – 1832), etc. 9 See also: D. Alexandresco – Theoretical and practical explanation of the Romanian civil law as compared to the older law and with the main foreign legislations, National Printing House, Iaúi, 1898, page 140. 10 See also: A.R. Ionaúcu – Romanian civil law, Vol. II, Family Law, Sibiu, 1941, page 18; C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – Treaty of Romanian Law, Vol. I (republished), All Publishing House, Bucharest 1998, page 188. 11 For the solutions of Italian Civil Code and Austrian Civil Code of that time, see also: D. Alexandresco – mentioned works, page 140.
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gifts and fair damage claims”12), sharp criticism appeared13) and some states reconsidered their point of view on engagement. On this backdrop, the engagement was regulated by the Civil Code of Carol II in 194014), that never entered into force. At that time the engagement was also regulated in Transilvania (where the Law XXXI of 1894 was applicable), and also in Bucovina (where the General Austrian Code was applicable).

2. Legal framework
The new Romanian Civil Code regulates the engagement in the Second Book (On Family), Title II (Marriage), Chapter I (Engagement), articles 266 – 270. Also, this institution is regulated by foreign legislation, for example the engagement exists in the Swiss Confederation, Italy and also in the Anglo – Saxon system.

3. Definition and legal nature
According to the influence of some older regulations, the engagement was defined in the specialized literature as being “the mutual agreement between two persons in order to wed”15) or „the mutual promise of two persons to wed in the future”16). Basically, both definitions comprise the same elements, namely: the expression of will, enacted by the mutual confidence; the bilateral type of agreement; the object of the agreement: sealing the marriage in the future. The new Civil Code uses the following enunciation: „Engagement is the mutual promise to 17) wed” . The same normative act defines marriage as being a „ (…) freely accepted union between a man and a woman, concluded according to the provisions of law”18). Comparing the two texts of law it can be noticed that for engagement it is underlined, exclusively, the mutual agreement and for the marriage the highlight is put on the legal status subsequent to the expression of will. Is this differentiation justified? In our opinion the answer must be negative, considering that both institutions have the origin in a legal act, but generate a judicial status regulated by law that can not be ignored. Consequently, the term of “engagement” has a double sense: of legal act and of legal status. The legal act of engagement is the previous agreement of the future married couple which shall be perfected by sealing the marriage.

See also: Reasoning on the regulation of engagement in the Civil Code of Carol the Second, lectured by the ministry of justice, Victor Iamandi, in November 1939. 13 The French teacher Josserand considered this system of jurisprudence as being faulty and contradictory: „of two one, or the promise to wed has no compulsory value and than it is not understood how its non execution could sometime generate accountability; or the author of breeching may be declared accountable for the prejudice and this means he was somehow engaged by his promise” [Josserand – Le problème juridique de la rupture des fiançailles, Chronique D.H., 1927, page 21. (quotation by A.R. Ionaúcu – mentioned works, pages 18 – 19)]. 14 See also: Civil Code of Carol the Second, enforced by the High Royal Decree no. 3993 of 7 November 1939 and published in the Official Journal no. 259, Part I, of 8 November 1939 (Title V, Chapter I, articles 135 – 156). 15 See also: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – mentioned works, page 188. 16 See also: A. R. Ionaúcu – mentioned works, page 17. 17 See also: article. 266 paragraph (1). 18 See also: article 259 paragraph (1).

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The use by the legislator of terms as “mutual promise” may lead to the idea of covenant, more precisely that of “pre-covenant”. Furthermore, on this backdrop, the bilateral essence of the agreement may be considered. All those issues may thus legitimate the conclusion that a contract is present in this case? In our opinion, this conclusion is not possible, because there are several differences between the act of engagement and a covenant as regards: the quality of parties; appearance of the approval; breeches of approval; capacity of the parties; the scope; the method for appraising the judicial effects; the possibility to be affected by modalities; cases of nullity and the regime of nullity, etc. In fact, this is a legal act within the family law or, in other terms, a legal act sui generis, that involves a certain legal status for engaged persons. It can be noticed that the legal definition of marriage perfectly matches the engagement that is, in essence, still a “union” (as regards the concept of association, connection between two persons for a common goal) freely accepted between a man and a woman, concluded according to the provision of the law. The difference is mainly provided by the pursued goal: by closing the engagement the sealing of marriage is “prepared” that also aims at establishing a family. In other words, the engagement is only a project for marriage. It is necessary to underline that marriage is not conditioned by the engagement, as the engagement does not transform itself into a marriage. Concluding those issues, we define the engagement as being the optional legal status, preliminary to marriage, born from the mutual promise made, according to the provisions of law, between a man and a woman to wed. Thus, the engagement is a real civil institution grounded on the expression of will of the future grooms, as materialized in a legal act.

4. Legal characteristics19)
The institution of engagement has the following judicial characteristics: 1) The engagement is a union between two persons The act of engagement involves an association (connection) between the two persons for a common goal: to wed. 2) The engagement is between a man and a woman As a judicial status preliminary to wedding, the engagement borrows these essential characteristics, being forbidden the engagement between persons of the same sex. On the other side, as marriage is governed by the principle of monogamy, as a consequence of the exclusive character of love, the engaged persons can not engage again as long as the previous one did not cease. (lato sensu). 3) Engagement is freely accepted Thus, nothing forbids the involved persons to mutually promise to wed. 4) The engagement is mutually accepted According to article 266 paragraph (3) thesis I of the new Civil Code: „The engagement is not subject to any formality (…)”. Thus, it is not necessary the intervention of any authority in order to notice the engagement, the parties having the full liberty of choosing the concrete way for expressing their consent.
On the judicial characteristics of marriage, de lege lata, see also: I.P. Filipescu, A.I. Filipescu – mentioned works, page 26.
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Different from the marriage, where the fundamental law itself provides for the possibility of religious celebration, but only after the civil wedding20), for engagement there is no such regulation. Still, traditionally, the engagement is a civil institution that subsequently may be celebrated in a religious manner. 5) The engagement is in force until the marriage According to our old regulations, the engagement must be followed by the marriage, in a term of two up to four years. The current regulation does not provide for a term in this respect. From this outlook, the parties may agree, at the engagement, on the term for wedding (according to the provisions of the law), but also the parties have the liberty to not decide on this issue. Irrespective of the chosen option, the duration of engagement can not be prolonged after the wedding. 6) The engagement is grounded on the equality of rights and obligations for the engaged persons The equality between a man and a woman exists in all the domains of social life21). As regards the engagement, this equality concerns both the conditions of engagement and the relations between the involved parties. 7) The engagement is concluded with the purpose of marriage The mutual promise made by the parties is aimed at marriage, of which goal is the setting of family. In other words, by engagement it is not set up a family but only a possible premise for its birth.

5. Fundamental conditions
5.1. Preliminary remarks According to article 266 paragraph (2) of the new Civil Code: „The provisions on the fundamental conditions for marriage are also applicable, excepting the medical endorsement and the authorization from the administrative competent body”. The exception mentioned by the provision quoted before considers the engagement of the juvenile of at least 16 years of age but also the engagement between the relatives in a collateral line of fourth level. In both situations, different to marriage, it is not necessary the “medical endorsement” or the “authorization”. But, it is wrong mentioned “the authorization from the administrative competent body” when, actually, the authorization it is granted by the “wardship court” that, in our opinion, has not an administrative nature but a judicial one. Of those mentioned above we conclude the engagement is possible only for the persons who fulfill the conditions necessary for wedding. Fundamental conditions may be positive – they must exist for the engagement to be possible – or negative – they must not exit for the engagement to be possible. The latter can be defined as “obstacles against engagement”. 5.2. Positive fundamental conditions for the engagement 1) Age requirements for the engagement As a rule, the engagement may be contracted only if the involved parties have at least 18 years. Thus, only the civil age is relevant and not gaining full civil capacity 22) to contract (full exercise).
See also: article 48 paragraph (2) second thesis of Constitution, republished. See also: Law no. 202/2002 on the equality of chances and treatment between men and women, republished in the Official Journal, Part I, no. 150 of 1st March 2007 22 For the capacity to engage, see also article 90 paragraph (2) of Swiss Confederation Civil Code.
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As an exception, the juvenile who is 16 years old may become engaged with the approval of the parents (from the marriage, outside the marriage or adoptive) or as the case may be, of the legal guardian, only if there are “solid reasons” not defined by law23). In case of divergence between the parents on the approval of engagement, the wardship court24) shall decide, considering the superior interest of the child. If one of the parents is deceased (physically attested death or death declared by a court) or does not have the possibility to express the a valid will (a judicial court interdiction, coma, judicial court declaration of disappearance, mental alienation or debility) it is sufficient the approval of the other parent. Also, in the situation of splitting the parental guardianship (divorce, nullity or annulment of marriage) it is sufficient the approval of the parent exercising the parental authority. If there are no parents or legal guardians, it is necessary the approval of the person or, of the authority that has the authority to exercise parental rights, as the case may be. Endorsement of engagement is a component of the parental guardianship, being by its nature, a unilateral judicial act, revocable until the engagement.25). As the case is for the marriage of a juvenile26), both the abusive refuse to approve the engagement and the abusive revocation of the approval may be censored within the court of law, following the procedure for non contentious matters. Law does not impose any formal conditions for endorsement, thus we consider the approval may be granted in a verbal or written manner. There is no limit of maximum age27) for engagement or any condition on the difference of age28) between the engaged persons. 2) Different gender As in the case of marriage29), the engagement may be only between a man and a woman. Although it was not necessary a special provision to this end – considering the general notification
The same situation it is encountered for the marriage of juvenile. Of lege lata, on the content of the notion „solid reasons”, in doctrine it was considered there are such grounds: gravidity, birth, severe illness, concubinage (see e.g. I.P. Filipescu, A.I. Filipescu – Treaty of Family Law, 8th Edition, reviewed and supplemented, „Universul Juridic” Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006, page 12; A. Bacaci, V. Dumitrache, C. Hageanu – Family law, „All Beck” Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999, pages 18 – 19; E. Florian – Family law, „Limes” Publishing House, Cluj – Napoca, 2003, pages 26 – 27. 24 According to the Civil Code of 1864, as further amended in 1906, if for the marriage of a boy and girl under 21 years it was necessary to have the endorsement of the parents, and there were disputes between parents, the approval of the father it was sufficient (article 131). If both parents were dead or unable to express their will “the grandparents from the father side or if missing, the grandparents from the mother side shall substitute those” and if the grandparents were not available, it was necessary the approval of the guardianship) (article 133). See also: C. Hamangiu, N. Georgean – Commented civil code, 1st Volume, republished, All Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999, pages 175 – 176. 25 In this respect, on the analysis of the necessary conditions for granting the age exemption for the marriage of juvenile, see also: F.A. Baias, M. Avram, C. Nicolescu – Amendments to Family Code brought by Law no. 288/2007, in „Law” Review no.3/2008, pages. 9 – 41. 26 See also: F.A. Baias, M. Avram, C. Nicolescu – mentioned works, page. 18 27 In czarist Russia the marriage was forbidden for persons having the age of 80 or more see also: A.R. Ionaúcu –mentioned works, page 25. 28 On the age of persons to wed, „Îndreptarea legii” (The Great „Pravila” of Matei Basarab) stipulated the following: „(…) it shall not be a man of 50 years old and the woman of only 12 or 15 years or the woman of 50 years old and the man of 20(…) it shall not be an old man and a young woman or an old woman and a young man (…) because this is not right but it is even shameful, guilt and derision” (Glava 198) – see also: I. Chelaru – mentioned works., pages. 25 – 26. 29 The marriage between persons of same gender it is acknowledged by the following states: Netherlands, Belgium, Great Britain, Canada, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, South Africa, Nepal and U.S.A. (only Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Vermont and North Carolina). Public debates, with the support of the political
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made by article 266 paragraph (2) for the fundamental conditions of marriage – the legislator still intended to remove any doubts.30) The gender of each person is mentioned into the birth act and, respectively, into the birth certificate. For the persons having certain medical problems (uncertain gender, modifications in the sex life, psychological issues on the sex life) action may be lodged before a court of law in order to determine the exact gender or to change the gender31), as the case may be, 3) Consent to engage The consent to engage represents the expression of will of the two persons in order to wed. This approval shall not be assimilated to the simple proposal to wed, as the consent to marry represents a different issue. The consent for engagement must fulfill the following conditions: a) to be expressed by a person having power of discernment, namely from a person having both intellectual capacity and capacity of will; thus, the lack of discernment (in case of mental alienation or debility and of the person who temporary does not have all the mental capabilities: drunkenness, delirium, hypnosis) shall trigger the lack of consent. b) to be personally expressed by those willing to engage, being excluded the engagement by representation32); c) to be free, meaning there is no impediment for choosing the future partner (social class limitations, racial or judicial limitations). In a judicial sense the consent is free if there are no errors of consent. Possible errors of consent are: mistake on identity (only on the physical identity of the other partner), dolus and violence. d) to be completed, not affected by modalities (term, condition, tasks); e) to be expressed in a non-equivocal manner. 5.3. Fundamental negative conditions for engagement (impediments to engagement) There are certain facts preventing the engagement, namely: 1) Civil status as married or engaged person As bigamy is a fundamental negative condition for wedding33), also applicable to the engagement34), it shall be concluded that a married person can not become engage to another person. Thus, due to the specificity of the marriage project and its grounds, we consider that engaged persons can not enter into a new engagement. 2) Kinship

parties currently governing, in order to acknowledge this union take place in: Island, Slovenia, Luxemburg, Argentina and Venezuela. 30 See also: article 266 paragraph (5) of the new Civil Code. 31 At the level of European states there is no joint approach on the transgender issues, a phenomenon that is not encouraged. In the same time, after Decision of 11 July 2002, adopted in the Case of Christine Goodwin vs. United Kingdom, the main current is to acknowledge the new sexual identity. 32 In Roman law, the suitor or the intermediary of marriages (proxeneta or conciliator nuptiarum) had the right to a payment (Proxenetica jure licito petuntur). In our country this convention was considered as contrary to ethics, thus being null, so that the suitor or the intermediary of marriages did not receive any payment. (see also: D. Alexandresco – mentioned works, page 142). 33 According to article 273 of the new Civil Code: „It is forbidden for a married person to contract a new marriage”. 34 See also: article 266 paragraph (2) of the new Civil Code.

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It is necessary to distinct between the direct kinship – when engagement is forbidden irrespective of the level of kinship – and collateral kinship – when engagement is forbidden only up to the fourth level inclusive. For solid grounds – as in the case of juveniles’ engagement – the relatives in a collateral line up to the fourth level (cousins) may become engaged. 3) Adoption According to article 451 of the new Civil Code: „Adoption is the judicial act by which it is set up a connection of filiation between the adopter and the adopted person, but also creates kinship between the adopted person and the relatives of the adopter”. Thus, the engagement is forbidden between the adopted person and his relatives from adoption, under the same conditions as for those applicable to his natural relatives. 4) Wardship The legal guardian, due to moral reasons, can not become engaged to the juvenile under his wardship. 5) Mental alienation, debility, or temporary absence of mental capacities The person suffering from mental alienation or debility can not become engaged, irrespective of the existence of court decision to this end. For those temporarily lacking the mental capacities (drunkenness, delirium, and hypnosis) the engagement is forbidden as long as the discernment is missing.

6. Framework conditions
As it is regulated by the principle of consent, the engagement is not subject to any formality35). Still, we consider there is no impediment for the parties to engage within a solemn ceremony (e.g. in front of the notary public) and to seal in writing the mutual promise to wed. The law does not impose any requirement as regards the gifts (e.g. engagement ring or other gifts) so their inexistence has no influence on the validity of the engagement. Also, it is not required to register the engagement in the records of any institution.

7. Proof of engagement
The engagement may be proved by evidence admitted by law, such as: interrogatory, witnesses, presumptions, documents. We consider those very facile conditions of proof could lead in practice to the difficulties on establishing the factual situation, because the real relations between the engaged parties are difficult to be appraised by outsiders (in many cases a witness may narrate the descriptions of one of the engagement parties; rarely the witnesses see directly the mutual promise).

8. Engagement effects
Law does not provide for the effects of engagement, but regulates only the material consequences of breeching the engagement. The legal act of engagement generates the legal status of engaged persons. From this a series of moral and judicial consequences result.
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See also: article 266 paragraph (3) thesis I of the new Civil Code.

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Between the two parties (man and woman) a special relation is created that must dominate their conduct in achieving the mutual promise to marry. From the point of view of Christian dogmas, the engagement represents a type of „moral or spiritual kinship”. Due to fact that the person who ends the engagement in an abusive manner or in a culpable manner determines the other person to break the engagement is sanctioned by law, we can assert that between engagement parties there are a series of rights and personal duties, similar in principle to those in a marriage. Thus, as an expression of the full equality in rights and obligations, the parties mutually decide on their future marriage. Without making a perfect similarity between the two judicial institutions, because both are grounded on the friendship and affection between a man and a woman, we believe it is not exaggerated to sustain the existence of certain mutual obligations (respect, fidelity, and moral support). Besides the rights and obligations appeared from the nature of the engagement itself, we consider that may exist some other rights, namely correlative obligations, according to the concrete content of the agreement between parties. We refer to those issues on which the parties may convene (according to the principle of free will) and that are compatible with the engagement. If in the past the engagement compulsory involved the observance of chastity vow until the wedding and even the spiritual purification of the future husband, today they may convene to live and eventually to dwell together, a situation in which the engagement may become a layer over the concubine status. If from the engagement children are born, those are considered as outside the marriage, following the respective judicial regime. The engaged persons may chose to wed, an agreement that shall produce effects from the start of the marriage. From this point of view they have the following options: legal community, separation of goods; conventional community. If they chose another marriage regime than that provided by the legal community, they must stand in front of notary public in order to sign a matrimonial covenant in the framework of a certified document. Because the engaged persons are not subject of the matrimonial regime, the goods gained in a common manner during the engagement are subject to the rules of co-propriety (common propriety on shares). It must be mentioned that a relative presumption of co-propriety for the goods held in common exists.36). For the engagement or during its length, considering the final scope of marriage, the engaged persons may make mutual gifts (donation, according to the rules of the common law) or may receive gifts from other persons. This final alternative may be a devise/legacy (legat) or a donation, and the nature of the ownership on the respective good shall be determined according to the will of owner. The engaged persons may convene to mutually provide material support to each other (the obligation to support together the expenditures of a possible common dwelling and the obligation of alimony). According to the concrete content of the parties agreement their rights and obligations shall be appraised and, in a final stage, the eventual abusive attitude of breaking the engagement or of culpable determination to break the engagement.

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See also: article 633 of the new Civil Code.

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Because the law provides that for engagement the fundamental conditions of wedding are applicable – with the abovementioned exceptions37) –, we consider that it must also be accepted the consequence of not observing those conditions, namely: nullity. Nullity of engagement is the applicable sanction for non observance of the requirements provided for by the law for its conclusion.. According to the type of nullity, absolute nullity and relative nullity may exist. The nullity of engagement is absolute in the following cases: a) the involved persons did not have the age required for engagement; we consider the juveniles less than 16 years of age, who can not engage under any circumstances. b) the engagement was between two persons of the same gender; c) the consent does not fulfill the abovementioned conditions38) (excepting the error on consent); d) the engaged person was married; e) the engaged persons are relatives in a straight connection (irrespective of level) or in a collateral connection (up to the fourth level inclusive); in the case of relatives in a collateral connection up to the fourth level inclusive, if there are solid grounds, the engagement is valid. The mentioned case appraises both natural and civil kinship. f) the engaged person is suffers of mental alienation or debility. The action for declaring the absolute nullity of the engagement is indefeasible39) and may be lodged by any interested person, including the prosecutor. Exceptionally, if the condition on the minimal age for engagement is not observed, the nullity is covered if, until the term of a definitive judicial decision, the persons involved achieved the legal age. The nullity of engagement is relative in the following cases: a) the juvenile who has at least 16 years of age engaged without the approval provided for by the law; b) the consent was affected by error, dolus or violence; c) at the date of engagement the persons was temporarily affected by a lack of discernment; d) the guardian engaged the juvenile under the wardship. The right to sue for the annulment of engagement expires after 6 month, starting from different points in time, as follows: a) in the case of lack of consent for the engagement of the minor, the term starts from the date when those requested to endorse the engagement have became aware of it; b) in the case of corrupted consent or of temporary lack of discernment, the term starts from the date when the violence stopped or, as the case may be, from the date when the interested person has became aware of the error, dolus or temporary lack of discernment; c) in the case of the tutor engaged with the minor in his tutelage, the term starts from the date when the engagement was sealed. The action for annulment has a personal character and can be instituted only by the one whose interest was harmed, respectively: the person (persons) or authority requested to endorse the engagement of the minor under 16 years of age; the fiancé whose consent was corrupted; the person temporary destitute of discernment; the minor under legal guardianship.
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See also: Supra, 5.1. See also: Supra, 5.2., pct. 3). 39 See also: article 2502 paragraph (2) point 3 of the new Civil Code.

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The right to action is not transmitted to the successors. Nevertheless, if the action was instituted by the titular, it can be continued by the successors. In the case of engagement of the minor under 16 years of age, the relative nullity is covered if the endorsement was obtained, until the judicial decision remained definitive. The final judicial decision that admits the action for determining the nullity or the action for the annulment of the engagement produces retroactive effects, since the moment when the engagement was concluded. As an effect of admitting the action, it is considered that the engagement never existed. Therefore no legal effect was produced.

10. Ceasing the engagement
In our opinion, “ceasing the engagement” can be analyzed both in lato sensu and stricto sensu. Lato sensu, ceasing the engagement also includes breaking it. The engagement ceases (strico sensu) when its purpose was achieved (conclusion of marriage) or in the situation of demise (physically determined or declared through a definitive judicial decision) of one of the fiancés. In the first case, the former fiancés become husband and wife, with rights and obligations which derive from marriage. In the second case, all the effects of the engagement cease (ex nunc), and the gifts that the fiancés received when considering, or during, the engagement, are not liable to restitution40). In this case – as the former minister of justice, Victor Iamandi, said, when presenting the draft of the Carol the 2nd Civil Code before the Parliament – „(…) the material interest of the successors to reclaim the gifts must surrender before the moral duty to cover the memory of the deceased of any insult.”. This concerns both the gifts that the fiancés gave to themselves and the gifts received from third parties. The restitution exemption aims at the successors of the deceased fiancé, as well as at the surviving fiancé.

11. Breaking the engagement
11.1. The conditions for breaking the engagement The new Romanian Civil Code does not provide for the cases in which the engagement may be broken, but regulates only for the judicial consequences of breaking the engagement. In our opinion, breaking the engagement may intervene by a unilateral or a bilateral act. Thus, as the engagement is based on the mutual agreement of the parties, nothing restrains them to agree to break it.41). We consider that the parties may decide to break the engagement even in the cases when the engagement is affected by nullity42), as long as the judicial inefficiency was not established by a court. Not accepting this solution means that the parties should be forced to needless expenses, forcing them to address to justice.
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See: Art. 268 para. (3) of the new civil code The romans applied, also in this matter, the principle: „Quae consensu contrahuntur, contrario consensu dissolvuntur” (The contracts which are formed with consent, are dissolved by contrary consent). Also, our old regulations provided that “an engagement is broken when, without grounds, the fiancés will regret”. (See: Andronachi Donici Code – Chapter 30, § 7, and Caragea Code – Part III, Chapter 15, art. 3 letter h) – quoted by D. Alexandresco – op. cit., page 462). 42 Our old regulations spoke of the fact that “the engagement is broken” in situations which refer to the nonvalidity of it, such as: the engagement was not made “by the volition and knowledge of parents and guardians”; „when they will find that they are relatives”, etc [See: Andronachi Donici Code (Chapter 30, § 7) – quoted by D. Alexandresco – op. cit., page 461).

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Breaking the engagement by only one party can be made on grounded or ungrounded reasons. In the old legislation, the following reasons were considered grounded: a long absence of one of the fiancés43); the conviction of the fiancé to a discreditable punishment; contracting a “shameful disease”; “becoming pregnant with foreign seed”; loss of wealth, etc.44) In relation to the current regulations, we consider that the validity of reasons is assessed by relating to the rights and obligations which provide concrete content to the respective engagement. Assessing the validity of reasons is made by the court, according to each case. The court will consider the interpretation of the parties’ will expressed into a written act (when the engagement is recorded by a written document which contains the rights and obligations of the parties), or the one which results from the assessment of other evidence administered before the court (when the engagement is not recorded by a written act or its provisions are not sufficiently clear with regard to the rights and obligations of the parties). Hence, we consider that, for example, the following could represent grounded reasons: the breach of the fidelity obligation; the violent attitude of one of the fiancés towards the other; the judicial decision which ascertains the disappearance; sealing an engagement with another person, etc. On the contrary, leaving the fiancé out of pure caprice, without a legitimate reason, may bring the judicial liability of the one who abusively broke the engagement. In other words, determining the validity of the reasons for breaking the engagement presents importance from the perspective of the action in compensation for due prejudice. In what regards the formal conditions for breaking the engagement, the new civil code resumes the idea based on the symmetry form principle, stating that: “Breaking the engagement is not subject to any formality and can be proven with any kind of evidence”45). Breaking the engagement has, as main effect, the cease of the rights and obligations born from the engagement act. According to law, the fiancé who breaks the engagement cannot be obliged to conclude the marriage46). The solution is natural, because the engagement is not a contract and the consent to marry must be freely expressed.47). 11.2.The effects of breaking the engagement The new civil code focuses on the patrimonial effects of breaking the engagement48), having in view two issues: a) restitution of gifts; b) engaging the liability for abusive breach49). 11.2.1.Obligation for restitution of gifts The object of the restitution is “the gifts that they received when considering the engagement, or during the engagement, in order to become married.”50
In the Roman law, the fiancé must have waited for at most three years for the other to return. Breaking the engagement operated if the union was prolonged over three years (after the Caragea Code) and over four years (after the Andronachi Donici Code). (See: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., page 460). 44 See: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pages 460 – 461. 45 See: Art. 267 para. (3) of the new civil code. 46 See: Art. 267 para. (1) of the new Civil code. In the same way, see also art. 90 para. (3) of the Swiss civil code. 47 In the way that “the consent of the future husbands must be expressed freely and unforced, because it cannot make the object of prior conventions”. (See: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – op. cit., page 188). 48 See: Art. 267 – 270 of the new civil code. 49 With regard to the regulation of this issue, the Romanian legislator inspired from the Swiss civil code (art. 91 – 93) and Italian civil code (art. 80 – 81). 50 See: Art. 268 para. (1) of the new civil code.
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Although it may be assumed that the regulation focuses, in principal, on the gifts between fiancés, the correct interpretation of the text is that the gifts received by one fiancé, or both, from third persons, should also be restituted. (ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus). Our opinion is that those gifts are “conditional gifts”, meaning that they are donations subject to a resolutive condition. The above provision must be correlated to the provisions of art. 1030 para. (1) of the new civil code, according to which: „The donations given to future husbands or only to one, under the condition of sealing the marriage, do not produce effects if marriage is not concluded.” Although the marginal denomination of this article speaks of caducity, we consider that, in reality, it is about the non-fulfillment of a condition, because the caducity assumes the intervention of a situation independent of the will of the parties involved in the legal act.51). Moreover, the obligation of restitution of those gifts is independent of the idea of guilt of one of the fiancés for breaking the engagement. We underline that, according to art. 268 para. (1) of the analyzed normative act, “the common gifts” are exempted from restitution. The concept of common gifts is found in the new civil code in several domains, such as: art. 144 para. (1) provides that the tutor cannot make donations on behalf of the minor, except for the common gifts, according to the material state of the minor; art. 146 para. (3) provides that the minor cannot make donations, except for the common gifts, according to his material state; art. 346 para. (3) provides that the common gifts are exempted from the rule according to which the joint goods of the husbands may be alienated only with the consent of both; according to art. 1091 para. (3), the succession reserve is established without having in mind the common gifts; also, art. 1150 para. (1) letter c) provides that the common gifts are not subject to the donations’ obligation report. We consider that the common gifts should be assessed in relation to the context or situation when they were offered (for example, the birthday) and, according to the provisions of art. 144 and 146 of the new civil code, should be assessed in relation with the material state of the concerned persons. Nevertheless, we consider that the common gifts must not be confused with the manual gifts, regulated at art. 1011 para. (4) of the new civil code, whose application area is more extensive. In the case of the given amounts of money, the restitution must have in view the actual value, without interest (civil fruits), because the restitution is independent to the good or bad faith of the fiancés. The interest could be due only starting with the date when the restitution of the amount is requested. If the restitution in kind is not possible, this can be made “to the extent of enrichment”52). The restitution of gifts or their equivalent in money, when the restitution in kind is not possible, will be achieved by free will, or by a judicial action before a court. In the latter case, the right to action is prescribed in a term of one year, which starts from the date when the engagement was broken.53). 11.2.2. The liability for abusively breaking the engagement The Carol II Civil Code contained a more detailed regulation of the patrimonial effects of breaking the engagement. Thus, according to art.: „The fiancé who breaks the engagement owes to
The caducity represents that cause of inefficiency which consists of depriving the valid civil judicial act of any effects, due to the intervention of an ulterior circumstance, which is independent of the volition of the author/authors of the judicial act – See: G. Boroi – Civil law. General part. Persons., Ed. All Beck, 2002, page 225. 52 See: Art. 268 para. (2) 2nd thesis of the new civil code. 53 See: Art. 270 of the new civil code.
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the other fiancé, his parents or the persons that replaced the latter, an equitable compensation for the expenses or for the obligations contracted in view of marriage, because they were according to the circumstances. Also, the one who breaks the engagement owes an equitable compensation to the other fiancé for the prejudice that he suffered when altering, in good faith, the composition of his patrimony, or his means to acquire in view of marriage.If breaking the engagement caused a moral prejudice to the other, he has a right to compensation”. Art. 138 of the same normative act stated: „The one who breaks the engagement for good reasons does not owe compensations.” The fiancé that, by his fault, determines the other to break the engagement is held by the obligations provided in the previous article.”. The engaged minor had a special situation, namely, according to art. 139: „The minor does not owe compensations if the persons entitled to consent to the marriage did not consent to the engagement”. With regard to gifts, art 140 contained the following regulation: „Breaking the engagement entitles the fiancés to request the restitution of the gifts. The gifts are restituted in kind or, if this is not possible, to the extent of the enrichment. The gifts are not restituted if the engagement was broken through death”. At present, according to art. 269 of the new civil code, liability arises in the following cases: 1) if a party “abusively breaks the engagement”; 2) if a party, “with guilt, determined the other to break the engagement”. Unlike the restitution of received gifts during the engagement, which can be achieved by free will or by means of a legal action, the compensation, being based on the idea of consideration of guilt, could be obtained only through jurisdictional means. With regard to compensations54), the problem of establishing the judicial nature of the liability appears: contractual or tort 55). In our opinion, for the arguments that we are going to present, it is about a civil contractual liability. Thus, in the case of the civil tort liability, the breached obligation is a legal obligation, with general character, which is incumbent to everyone, while with regard to the contractual liability, the breached obligation is a concrete obligation, established through a contract56). Although this is not a properly contract, the engagement is a legal act, which generates rights and obligations, including the obligation to be liable for due prejudice. Also, the essence of the engagement is that the “promise to marry” cannot be executed in kind by the coercive force of the state, and the only “legal effect” of this act is the obligation to be liable for the prejudice caused by non-fulfillment of the obligation to conclude the marriage. In the regulation of the new civil code, the breached obligation (to seal the marriage), does not represent a “conduct rule which the law or the custom imposes”, according to art. 1349 of the new civil code (tort liability). On the contrary, the provisions of art. 1350 para. (2) would apply, provisions which refer to the obligation to compensate the prejudice “when, without justification”, a person does not fulfill the obligations which he contracted.

In order to grant compensations when dissolving the marriage – See: Art. 388 of the new civil code. Under the incidence of the current civil code, although the engagement is not regulated anymore, at past, the interested prejudices were granted to the abandoned fiancé, in the basis of art. 998 of the mentioned normative act, considering that the fiancé who has the guilt for breaking the engagement has committed an offence, which draws his liability (See: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – op. cit., page 188. The authors quote jurisprudence solutions in this regard). 56 See: C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Civil law. General theory of obligations, Ed. All Beck, 2002, page 146.
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It may be observed that the liability for breaking the engagement depends on the consideration of the idea of guilt. We discover, from this perspective, that the regulation of the engagement follows an opposite direction than the configuration of marriage in the new civil code. Thus in case of divorce, when the couple agrees with the divorce and there are no minor children, it is considered as formality which is fulfilled without the implication of the court, by the civil servant or the public notary, without any consideration of guilt or liability. We consider that the evolution of the legislation in conditioning the liability for breaking the engagement with the idea of guilt is not benefic, because the interpretation of guilt is a matter so sensible, that it could be subjective. Thus, it was rightfully affirmed in the American jurisprudence, that “breaking the engagement that would have led to an unhappy marriage is a moral thing and, therefore, how can we talk about guilt?”57). In the ancient law system, the abandoned fiancé had a right to compensation, without considering the guilt of the one who broke the engagement, by non-fulfilling the contractual obligation to seal the marriage, and the obligation to prove the guilt did not exist.58). The content of the judicial liability for abusively or guilty breaking the engagement is provided, as well, in art. 269: the guilty party is obliged to “compensations for the expenses made or contracted in view of marriage, as well as for any other prejudice”. The final thesis leads to the conclusion that any prejudice suffered by one of the parties, as a result of breaking the engagement in a guilty manner by the other party, can be subject to reparation. Therefore, from the interpretation of this text, it would mean also that the nonpatrimonial/moral prejudice, is included, (as it is expressly recognized, according to art. 1531 para. (3) of the new Civil Code)…….. Also, both the damnum emergens, and the lucrum cessans59 would be covered, due to the fact that the regulations regarding the execution of obligations by equivalent, from the new civil code, provided at art. 1531-1537, would apply. With regard to lucrum cessans, although art. 1532 para (2) of the new Civil Code provides that “the prejudice that would be caused by losing a chance may be repaired to the extent of its possibility to be achieved”, we consider that, in the matter of the engagement, those provisions are difficult to be applied in practice, due to the special character of the relations between fiancés (it may be imagined, however, the situation of a fiancé which can be put in the position to not be able to become a priest, due to the culpable nonfulfillment of the other fiancé’s promise to seal the marriage). In the same way as in the action for restitution, the right to action for obtaining compensations is prescribed in a one year term since the breaking of the engagement.60) With regard to the reparation of the prejudice, it is necessary to underline that art. 267 para. (2) provides: „The agreement on damages (clauza penala) stipulated for breaking the engagement is considered unwritten.”. In the doctrine, the agreement on damages (clauza penala) is considered “an accessory convention by which the parties determine, with anticipation, the equivalent of the prejudice suffered by the creditor, as a result of the non-execution, execution with delay or inadequate execution of the obligation, by his debtor”61). Thus, the meaning of the legal provision is the interdiction for the parties to agree in advance over eventual compensations for breaking the engagement. If, however, they have done it,
H. F. Wright, Note – The Action for Breach of the Marriage Promise, 10, VA. L. REV. 361, 361 (1924) See: A.R. Ionaúcu – op. cit., page 18. 59 In the way that the action in prejudice cannot be filed for “the benefit that a party would have been restrained to gain” (lucrum cessans) – See: old doctrine and jurisprudence, quoted by professor D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pages 140 – 141. 60 See: Art. 270 of the new civil code. 61 See: C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Civil law. General theory of obligations, Ed. All Beck, 2002, page 357;
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such a clause will not have legal force. By this provision, the possibility to freely express the consent for marriage is ensured.

12. Comparative law elements
12.1. The Anglo-Saxon law The Anglo-Saxon system has experienced major jurisprudence changes62), with regard to the effects of breaking the engagement, during the last two centuries. Those changes were produced due to the belief that certain abuses were made when exerting such actions, as well as to the current of opinion according to which “law and love are incompatible”. In the first phase of the Anglo-Saxon law in the United States, the holder of action was the woman who was promised to be taken into marriage and abandoned at a later stage. She could have requested compensation through the “broken promise” action.63)”. The action was known since the Victorian age of the Anglo-Saxon Law in Great Britain64). The compensations could have mean, for start, the reparation of the material prejudice. However, starting with the 20th century, the compensations included the prejudice for the unachieved benefit, which the woman would have had as a result of marriage, the prejudice for losing the chance to marry with someone else (for example, due to the loss of virginity or to the birth of a child), but also the prejudice for emotional suffering as a result of breaking the engagement. The change was produced with regard to the displacement of the center of attention from economic benefits, as a result of non-fulfillment of marriage, to the moral benefits, which are attached to the emotional suffering of the woman. Subsequently, the American courts had major difficulties in considering such compensations for moral prejudices65). Between 1930 and 1950, as a result of the frequent situations in which women made blackmail attempts over wealthy men through the “broken promise” action, several states of America66) abrogated this possibility. The main reasons that led to the abrogation were those related to invoking the equal statute of men and women. The marriage did not represent the vision of the feminist current, the essence of woman’s existence, and the action only encouraged women to look upon the economic benefits of the relation with a man and not treat him from an equal position67). The reformists68) supported the declining importance of the institution of seduction, due to the fact that loss of virginity was not considered as a fact that would ruin a woman’s life anymore; more often, those women were able to find a work place and another man to marry. Moreover – they said – the marriage was wrongly understood, because it should be a relation incapable of being evaluated in money. As long as the woman was freer to make plans in life, the marriage became more and more a relationship based on affection and less on economic aspects, as it was the case in the past. As a
R.Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2. In English “breach of promise” or “heartbalm action”, according to R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2 64 M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985, pag. 3338; G. S. Frost – Promises broken: courtship, class and gender in Victorian England, 1995, pag. 80-97 65 R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2;N.P. Feinsinger – Legislative Attack on “Heart Balm”, 33 MICH. L. REV. 979, 986-96, 1935; Lea Vander Velde – The Legal Ways of Seduction, 48 STAN. L. REV. 817 (1996). 66 Indiana was the first state that adopted this change, in 1935, according to M.B.W. Sinclair–Seduction and the Myth of the Ideal Woman, 5 LAW&INEQ. J. 33, 65&n.n.237-39 (1987). 67 H. Spiller Daggett – Legal essays on family law, 1935, pag. 39. 68 J. E. Larson – Women understand so little, they call my good nature deceit: A feminist rethinking of Seduction, 93 COLUM. L. REV. 374, 379, 397-99 (1993).
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result, the elimination, from the “broken promise” action, of the economic elements was bound to modernize this action. The only economic element which was accepted, as being in the object of the action, was the one related to the issue of engagement gifts, and those could have been regarded as a symbol of love, and not an intrinsic economic element. From a legal point of view, the action was considered as an anomaly of the common-law system, because it contained elements of a contract, due to the existence of a marriage promise, as well as elements of tort civil liability, because the existence of an agreement among the two was not requested, but only the simple declaration of the woman, which could have been supported by witnesses.69). Also, the evaluation of the moral prejudice, consisting in the emotional suffering produced by breaking the engagement, was subject to criticism with the argument that “love cannot be treated as a market transaction”70), and the relations specific to marriage and engagement cannot be expressed into money. After the 1950s, breaking the engagement could only cause an emotional suffering, and this cannot be expressed into money. Only the gifts given with anticipation between partners, in order to seal the marriage, could have represented the object of an action. Such a gift is the engagement ring71), which is, traditionally, offered when considering marriage, unlike other gifts, such as: cars, clothes, which can be given with the occasion of birthdays or other events.72). The action for restitution of those goods is based on concepts such as: the conditional gift, restitution, enrichment without just reason73), but still combines elements of a contract with those of tort civil liability, as was the case of the action „heartbalm”, in the past. The action for restitution of goods given between fiancés had three jurisprudence stages in the United States of America74). Thus, in a first stage, the fiancés were obliged to return the goods when they broke the engagement. Later on, having in view the changes in family law according to which the human relations are too complex to qualify in terms of guilt, the restitution of goods was not grounded on guilt anymore. Recently, this concept evolved to the theory of conditional gift, the condition was sealing the marriage and the gift must have been returned if the marriage does not take place. In the first stage, the ground for the return of gifts given between fiancés was the existence of a guilt: the woman should have returned the engagement ring if she had broken the engagement, but, not the same thing happened if the engagement was broken by the man. The guilt consisted of breaking the engagement, irrespective of any reasons, the guilty person being the one that announced the breaking of the engagement.75). The second stage started in 1965, when the state of New York modified the legislation, in the way that the action was admissible for the restitution of gifts given when considering marriage, if that did not take place. The action was not based on the necessity of proving guilt, but was only justified by the objective fact that the marriage was not concluded.76).
M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985, pag. 33. 38; N. P. Feinsinger – Legislative Attack on “Heart Balm”, 33 MICH. L. REV. 979, 986-96, 1935. 70 R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. 71 M. F. Brinig – Rings and Promises, 6 J.L. ECON. & ORG. 203, 206 (1990); Viviana A. Zelizer – The social meaning of money 99-101 (1994). 72 R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. 73 Heartbalm Statues and Deceit Actions, 83 MICH. L. REV., 1770, 1786-87 (1985). 74 R.Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. 75 Case Spinnell v. Quigley, 785 P. 2d 1149, 1150-51 (Wash. Ct. App. 1990), Case Stanger v. Epler, 115 A. 2d 197 (Pa. 1955) 76 Case Heiman v. Parrish, 942 P. 2d 631, 635-38 (Kan. 1997), Case Vigil v. Haber, 888 P. 2d 455, 457 (N.M. 1994); E. M. Tomko, Annotation – Rights in respect of engagement and courtship presents when marriage does not ensue, 44 A.L.R. 5th 1 68-78 (1997).
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In the third stage, according to the theory of conditional gift, the gift given under a condition, which, as a rule, must be explicit, must be returned if the condition was not fulfilled.77). In the case of the engagement ring, the condition of marriage is implicit78). The condition was interpreted either as the donor’s will to marry79), either as the marriage itself80). In the cases regarding the restitution of the engagement ring, the American courts have chosen the second interpretation. As opposed to the American law, the British legislation presumes that the engagement ring is an absolute gift of the woman, unlike other engagement gifts, which are conditional and must be returned if the engagement is broken, except for the case when the engagement was broken by the fault of the donor.81). 12.2. Italian civil code The regulation of the Italian civil code is succinct (art. 79 – 81) and starts by affirming the regulation according to which a marriage promise cannot oblige the party that does not respect it to seal the marriage. According to article 80, the fiancé can request the return of the gifts given when considering the promise to marriage, in the case when the marriage does not take place. It may be observed that, in a similar way with the regulation from the Romanian new civil code, the obligation to restitution is not limited to gifts given between fiancés. For that, the law does not exclude ab initio the restitution of the gifts given by third parties to both of the fiancés. Article 81 introduces the liability for breaking the engagement in a culpable manner, but this operates only in the case when the engagement was concluded through an authentic act or under private signature (therefore, a written document which presumes a higher certainty of the real intention of the parties in order to seal the marriage. The appearance of liability operates when a party breaks the engagement “with no grounded reason”. It may be observed that the expression “in an abusive manner”, utilized in the Romanian legislation, is not used, but the idea of justification or, even guilt, remains. The second paragraph of art. 81 underlines, similar to the regulation from the Romanian law, that the person that promises and, who “out of his guilt, gave a grounded reason to the other to break the engagement”, has similar obligations. An important element is represented by the fact that art. 81 of the Civil Code obliges the person who promised and then broke the engagement for no grounded reason to compensate the other for the prejudice caused as a result of the “expenses made and obligations contracted in view of marriage”, but, doesn’t provide for the extension of liability for any other due prejudice. As a matter of fact, the possibility of repairing the moral prejudice or of compensating the unachieved benefit is eliminated by law, the liability being limited strictly to the presented elements. The Italian law also provides that reimbursing the expenses and obligations is made within the limit in which they were made, according to the state of the parties. As a general element, we may observe the more restrictive character of the conditions of liability for breaking the engagement, in relation with the new Romanian civil code. Synthesizing, the Italian law allows the liability only when the engagement was sealed through an authentic act or under private signature and the composition of the liability is limited only to expenses and obligations assumed in view of marriage, without giving the possibility to repair another prejudice.
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38 AM. JUR. 2D Gifts, par. 81 (1996). Case Fierro v. Hoel, 465 N. W. 2d 669, 671 (Iowa Ct. App. 1990). 79 Case Coconis v. Christakis, 435 N.E. 2d 100, 102 (Ohio County Ct. 1981). 80 Case Lindth v. Surman, 702 A. 2d 560, 561 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1997). 81 S. Cretney, Statues – Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1970, 33 MOD. L. REV. 534, 536 (1970).

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12.3. Swiss civil code The regulation of engagement in Switzerland is made through articles 90-93 of the Civil Code. As the Romanian and Italian Civil Codes provide, the Swiss Civil Code underlines, in article 90, that the law does not grant a right to action in order to force to seal the marriage that the fiancé refuses. In addition to the two mentioned codes, there are certain regulated rules regarding the capacity of the persons that could seal a valid engagement, namely the minors and the convicts under judicial disability have this right only by a representative. The provision is liable to criticism, on the argument that the engagement is a personal act and it should be left at the consideration of the concerned person with full exercise capacity. The provisions of article 91 of the Swiss Civil Code regarding the restitution of gifts in the case of breaking the engagement are similar to the ones from the new Romanian Civil Code. Thus, the fiancés can request the restitution of gifts in the case of engagement dissolution, except for the case when the death of one of the fiancés happened or in the case of common gifts. If the gifts no longer exist in kind, the restitution is made to the extent of the enrichment without just cause. Although, in the Swiss Civil Code it is not underlined expressly, as in the new Romanian Civil Code, it would be interpreted that it is about the gifts given in consideration of marriage and not any gift given during the engagement. In what regards the incidence of good will, this represents a new element than in the Romanian and Italian civil codes. Article 92 of the Swiss Civil Code provides the following: „In the case when one of the fiancés, with good will, has taken decisions in view of marriage, which generated expenses or the loss of a benefit, he could demand an adequate financial participation from the other fiancé, with the condition that this would not be inequitable in relation the ensemble of circumstances”. The difference towards the Romanian regulation regarding compensation is based, in principle, on: a) the new Romanian Civil Code refers to the party that can be obliged to compensations, namely the one that abusively broke the engagement, while, the Swiss Civil Code mentions the party that can request such compensations, namely, the one that made such expenses with good will. We consider that the Romanian regulation, although liable to criticism with regard to the lack of a definition or of circumstances which qualify an attitude as being abusive, when breaking the engagement, is preferable to the Swiss one, which highlights the good will of the person which can request and not of the one which may be obliged to pay the compensations, as it would be natural when engaging the civil liability of a person; b) the new Romanian Civil Code extends the area of possibilities to request compensations for “any other prejudices” also, other than the Swiss civil code, which only focuses on engaging certain expenses or losing a benefit in relation with the proposed marriage. We consider that the Swiss regulation, as well as the Italian one, under this aspect, is more concise and less susceptible to a non-unitary interpretation, as it may be possible in the case of the Romanian legislation.

Conclusions
At first sight, despite the arguments related to tradition and certain (few) foreign legislation, it could be affirmed that the regulation of the engagement within the new Romanian Civil Code does not respond to a social need. However, we consider that an assessment from an obsolete perspective would be wrong, due to the fact that the engagement could be the antechamber of marriage. Therefore, this explains the interest of knowing who can be engaged, in what conditions, how can it be ended and, more important, the consequences of breaking the engagement. The provisions of the new Romanian Civil Code, comprised in articles 266-270 are subject to criticism at least for the following aspects: a) does not establish the legal nature of this union; b) does not impose the written form as a condition when sealing the marriage; c) grounds the concept
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of liability for prejudice based on the idea of guilt; d) leaves the categories of prejudices which could draw liability of that who abusively breaks the engagement to the consideration of the court. What it would be desired in the future regulation would be the separation of the effects of breaking the engagement of the idea of guilt or abuse. Without assuming a certain model, it can be observed that in the American system, as well as in other law systems, the evolution of jurisprudence and regulation was in view of elimination of a subjective consideration over elements so sensible as the inter-human relations and in view of a more strict probation (not with any evidence means) of a promise to marry, when this implies effects such as the draw of judicial liability. Having in view the increasing incidence of the concubinage type relations, we consider that it would have been useful to regulate a concubinage relation, after the model of certain states, such as: Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, The Netherlands, etc. Such a convention may clarify the rights and obligations of the concubines, the legal nature of the goods attained during the concubinage, etc.

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References ƒ Chelaru – Marriage and divorce. Judicial issues on civil, religious and comparative law matters – Publishing House „A92 Acteon” ƒ I. Ceterchi, and others – History of Romanian Law, volume I, Bucharest, 1980 ƒ „Pravila” (ancient term for regulation) of Matei Basarab and „Pravila” of Vasile Lupu (in force during 1652 – 1711), Code of Andronachi Donici (in force until 1817), Calimach Code and Caragea Code (in force between 1817 – 1832) ƒ D. Alexandresco – Theoretical and practical explanation of the Romanian civil law as compared to the older law and with the main foreign legislations, National Printing House, Iaúi, 1898 ƒ A.R. Ionaúcu – Romanian civil law, Vol. II, Family Law, Sibiu, 1941, page 18; C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – Treaty of Romanian Law, Vol. I (republished), All Publishing House, Bucharest 1998 ƒ Reasoning on the regulation of engagement in the Civil Code of Carol the Second, lectured by the ministry of justice, Victor Iamandi, in November 1939. ƒ Civil Code of Carol the Second, enforced by the High Royal Decree no. 3993 of 7 November 1939 and published in the Official Journal no. 259, Part I, of 8 November 1939 ƒ Law no. 202/2002 on the equality of chances and treatment between men and women, republished in the Official Journal, Part I, no. 150 of 1st March 2007 ƒ I.P. Filipescu, A.I. Filipescu – Treaty of Family Law, 8th Edition, reviewed and supplemented, „Universul Juridic” Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006 ƒ A. Bacaci, V. Dumitrache, C. Hageanu – Family law, „All Beck” Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999 ƒ E. Florian – Family law, „Limes” Publishing House, Cluj – Napoca, 2003 ƒ C. Hamangiu, N. Georgean – Commented civil code, 1st Volume, republished, All Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999 ƒ F.A. Baias, M. Avram, C. Nicolescu – Amendments to Family Code brought by Law no. 288/2007, in „Law” Review no.3/2008 ƒ G. Boroi – Civil law. General part. Persons., Ed. All Beck, 2002 ƒ C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Civil law. General theory of obligations, Ed. All Beck, 2002 ƒ H. F. Wright, Note – The Action for Breach of the Marriage Promise, 10, VA. L. REV. 361, 361 (1924) ƒ C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Civil law. General theory of obligations, Ed. All Beck, 2002 ƒ R.Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583 ƒ M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985, pag. 33-38; G. S. Frost – Promises broken: courtship, class and gender in Victorian England, 1995 ƒ R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583 ƒ Lea Vander Velde – The Legal Ways of Seduction, 48 STAN. L. REV. 817 (1996). ƒ M.B.W. Sinclair–Seduction and the Myth of the Ideal Woman, 5 LAW&INEQ. J. 33, 65&n.n.237-39 (1987) ƒ H. Spiller Daggett – Legal essays on family law, 1935 ƒ J. E. Larson – Women understand so little, they call my good nature deceit: A feminist rethinking of Seduction, 93 COLUM. L. REV. 374, 379, 397-99 (1993). ƒ M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985

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ƒ N. P. Feinsinger – Legislative Attack on “Heart Balm”, 33 MICH. L. REV. 979, 986-96, 1935 ƒ R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583 ƒ M. F. Brinig – Rings and Promises, 6 J.L. ECON. & ORG. 203, 206 (1990) ƒ Viviana A. Zelizer – The social meaning of money 99-101 (1994) ƒ R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583 ƒ Case Spinnell v. Quigley, 785 P. 2d 1149, 1150-51 (Wash. Ct. App. 1990), Case Stanger v. Epler, 115 A. 2d 197 (Pa. 1955) ƒ Case Heiman v. Parrish, 942 P. 2d 631, 635-38 (Kan. 1997) ƒ Case Vigil v. Haber, 888 P. 2d 455, 457 (N.M. 1994) ƒ E. M. Tomko, Annotation – Rights in respect of engagement and courtship presents when marriage does not ensue, 44 A.L.R. 5th 1 68-78 (1997). ƒ Case Fierro v. Hoel, 465 N. W. 2d 669, 671 (Iowa Ct. App. 1990). ƒ Case Coconis v. Christakis, 435 N.E. 2d 100, 102 (Ohio County Ct. 1981). ƒ Case Lindth v. Surman, 702 A. 2d 560, 561 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1997). ƒ S. Cretney, Statues – Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1970, 33 MOD. L. REV. 534, 536 (1970).

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UNELE CONSIDERA II PRIVIND REGLEMENTAREA LOGODNEI ÎN NOUL COD CIVIL ROMÂN1) ùI ÎN UNELE LEGISLA II STR INE
Dan LUPAùCU Raluca GÂLEA

Abstract Noul Cod civil readuce în peisajul juridic român o institu ie rarisim úi aparent vetust – logodna. Prezentul articol analizeaz evolu ia logodnei, natura juridic , condi iile de fond úi de form , con inutul acestui act juridic sui generis, precum úi aspectele sensibile referitoare la efectele juridice ale logodnei, în special ale ruperii acesteia. De asemenea, sunt prezentate elemente de drept comparat, fiind subliniat în special corela ia dintre efectele ruperii logodnei úi culpa p r ilor în alte sisteme de drept. Cuvinte cheie: logodna, promisiune de c s torie, ruperea logodnei, r spundere, daruri.

1. Introducere
Logodna are o vechime considerabil , fiind men ionat chiar în vechiul testament, unde era desemnat prin termenul ebraic „aras”, cu semnifica ia de „angajament de c s torie”2) sau „leg mânt de c s torie”. Sub aspect religios, b rbatul úi femeia logodi i erau considera i deja so úi so ie, f r a avea îns dreptul s între in rela ii sexuale pân la nunt 3). Înc lcarea acestei interdic ii era sanc ionat , dup Vasile cel Mare, cu excluderea de la împ rt úanie timp de 11 ani. Considerarea persoanelor logodite ca úi c s torite atr gea o serie de consecin e extrem de severe. De pild , preotul putea refuza s cunune o persoan care fusese mai întâi logodit bisericeúte cu o alt persoan decât aceea cu care dorea s se c s toreasc . Tot astfel, Canonul al 98-lea al Sinodului al úaselea considera c s vârúeúte adulter (úi-l osândea ca atare) pe cel care lua în c s torie femeia logodit cu altul. Logodna – simbol al uniunii dintre un b rbat úi o femeie – în urma leg mântului solemn al acestora de a se c s tori, era întâlnit úi în dreptul roman4), fiind desemnat prin termenul „sponsalia”. Potrivit tradi iei romane, inelul de logodn – d ruit cu aceast ocazie – trebuia purtat pe inelarul stâng, considerându-se c de la baza acestui deget începea „vena amoris” (vena dragostei), care ajungea la inim .
Noul Cod civil român (Legea nr. 287/2009) a fost publicat în Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 511 din 24 iulie 2009. Conf. univ. dr., Facultatea de Drept, Universitatea “Nicolae Titulescu, Bucureúti; magistrat judec tor, membru cu activitate permanent al Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii (e-mail: danlupascu@csm1909.ro). tudiul a fost elaborat în cadrul proiectului de cercetare “Uniformizarea practicii judiciare úi armonizarea cu jurispruden a CEDO, imperativ al înf ptuirii justi iei. Propuneri legislative privind asigurarea unei practice judiciare unitare” (finan at CNCSIS-UEFISCSU, proiect nr. 860/2009, cod CNCSIS ID-1094).

Magistrat judec tor, Director Direc ia Afaceri Europene, Rela ii Interna ionale úi Programe, Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii (e-mail: galearaluca@gmail.com). 2 În limba englez , logodna este definit prin termenul „engagement” (angajament). 3 A se vedea: Moldova creútin . Realitatea din perspectiva Bibliei – www.moldovacrestina.net. 4 A se vedea: I. Chelaru – C s toria úi divor ul. Aspecte juridice civile, religioase úi de drept comparat – Editura „A92 Acteon”, pag. 27.
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La noi, exista obiceiul ca p rin ii b iatului (viitorii socri mari) s mearg „în pe it” la p rin ii fetei (viitorii socri mici). Cele dou familii stabileau, de comun acord, detaliile nun ii (dat , loc, invita i, etc.), precum úi zestrea. Alteori, fata era pe it de la p rin ii ei doar de c tre viitorul so . În anumite zone geografice se obiúnuia úi aducerea unui gaj (de regul , o sum de bani, numit „cap r ” sau „arvun ”), care se restituia în cazul ruperii logodnei5). Logodna se încheia prin punerea pe degetul inelar de la mâna dreapt a fetei a inelului de logodn 6). Ulterior, pentru a primi binecuvântarea divin , cei doi parteneri mergeau la biseric , unde se oficia „slujba de logodn ”, cu cel pu in o lun înaintea încheierii c s toriei7). Cu aceast ocazie se puneau verighetele de logodn (de regul , din argint), care, pân la taina cununiei, erau purtate de c tre viitorii so i pe mâna dreapt . Implicarea bisericii f cea ca acea logodn s fie considerat „în regul úi cu t rie”. Acest obicei se p streaz oarecum úi ast zi, slujba de cununie fiind precedat , în aceeaúi zi, de slujba de logodn . Tiparul tradi ional al cererii în c s torie a suferit muta ii profunde, inversându-se, în anumite situa ii, pân úi rolurile, în sensul c b rbatul este cel cerut în c s torie. Sub aspect spiritual, logodna este aproape la fel de important ca úi c s toria, pentru c semnific declararea reciproc a sentimentelor úi leg mântul de a încheia c s toria, la care se adaug , eventual, binecuvântarea rela iei de c tre p rin i úi preot. Ea prezint îns importan din punct de vedere juridic numai în m sura în care legea o recunoaúte ca atare. Vechile noastre legiuiri8), ca úi vechiul drept francez9), reglementau logodna, socotit un contract, care genera obliga ia de a face, úi anume: încheierea c s toriei. Neexecutarea acestei obliga ii atr gea condamnarea logodnicului, care s-a desistat f r motive, la plata de desp gubiri fa de cel lalt10). Cu toate acestea, clauza penal nu era admis . Începând cu secolul al XVII-lea, sub puternica influen a doctrinei juridice úi a jurispruden ei, în ideea asigur rii deplinei libert i a consim mântului p r ilor la c s torie, s-a stabilit c logodna nu are validitate juridic în domeniul contractual11), admi ându-se îns în practic posibilitatea unei responsabilit i delictuale în cazul ruperii culpabile a logodnei. Faptul c , în lipsa unei consacr ri legislative, instan ele recunoúteau „tân rului am git în speran ele lui prin ruperea pe nedrept a logodnei, dreptul de a cere restituirea darurilor úi o desp gubire echitabil ”12) a suscitat critici vehemente13) úi a determinat unele state s -úi reconsidere pozi ia în privin a logodnei.
A se vedea: I. Ceterchi, ú.a. – Istoria dreptului românesc, vol. I, Bucureúti, 1980, pag. 505. Potrivit unei opinii, obiceiul ca b iatul s d ruiasc fetei un inel de logodn exist din anul 1447, când împ ratul Maximilian I de Habsburg (1459 – 1519) i-a d ruit iubitei sale – Maria de Burgundia – un inel cu diamant. 7 A se vedea: www.grace.ro. 8 Pravila lui Matei Basarab úi Pravila lui Vasile Lupu (în vigoare în perioada 1652 – 1711), Codul Andronachi Donici (în vigoare pân la 1817), Codul Calimach úi Codul Caragea (în vigoare între 1817 – 1832), etc. 9 A se vedea: D. Alexandresco – Explica iune teoretic úi practic a dreptului civil român în compara iune cu legile vechi úi cu principalele legisla iuni str ine, Tipografia Na ional , Iaúi, 1898, pag. 140. 10 A se vedea: A.R. Ionaúcu – Curs de drept civil român, Vol. II, Dreptul familiei, Sibiu, 1941, pag. 18; C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – Tratat de drept civil român, Vol. I (reeditare), Editura All, Bucureúti, 1998, pag. 188. 11 Pentru solu iile Codului civil italian úi Codului civil austriac din acea vreme, a se vedea: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 140. 12 A se vedea: Motivarea cu privire la reglementarea logodnei în Codul civil Carol al II-lea, sus inut de ministrul justi iei, Victor Iamandi, în noiembrie 1939. 13 Profesorul francez Josserand socotea acest sistem jurispruden ial defectuos úi contradictoriu: „din dou una, sau promisiunea de c s torie este f r valoare obligatorie úi atunci nu se în elege cum neexecutarea sa ar putea
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În acest context, logodna a fost reglementat úi în Codul civil Carol al II-lea din 194014), care îns nu a mai intrat în vigoare. La acea vreme logodna era legiferat úi în Transilvania (unde se aplica Legea XXXI din 1894), precum úi în Bucovina (unde era incident Codul general austriac).

2. Sediul materiei
Noul Cod civil român reglementeaz logodna în Cartea a II-a (Despre familie), Titlul II (C s toria), Capitolul I (Logodna), art. 266 – 270. ùi alte legisla ii reglementeaz aceast institu ie, fiind întâlnit , de exemplu, în Elve ia, Italia, precum úi în sistemul anglo – saxon.

3. No iune úi natura juridic
Sub imperiul unor reglement ri mai vechi, logodna a fost definit în literatura de specialitate ca fiind „învoiala reciproc între dou persoane de a se c s tori”15) sau „promisiunea reciproc a dou persoane de a se c s tori în viitor”16). În esen , ambele defini ii surprind aceleaúi elemente, respectiv: manifestarea voin ei, constând în promisiunea reciproc ; caracterul bilateral al în elegerii; obiectul acordului de voin e: încheierea c s toriei în viitor. Noul Cod civil utilizeaz urm toarea formul de redactare: „Logodna este promisiunea reciproc de a încheia c s toria”17). Acelaúi act normativ defineúte c s toria ca fiind „(…) uniunea liber consim it între un b rbat úi o femeie, încheiat în condi iile legii”18). Comparând cele dou texte de lege se poate observa c , în vreme ce în cazul logodnei se subliniaz , în mod exclusiv, acordul de voin , la c s torie accentul cade pe starea juridic subsecvent exprim rii consim mântului. Este oare justificat aceast diferen iere? În opinia noastr r spunsul negativ se impune, întrucât ambele institu ii izvor sc dintr-un act juridic, dar genereaz o stare juridic , un statut reglementat de lege, ce nu poate fi ignorat. Prin urmare, termenul „logodn ” are o dubl accep ie: de act juridic úi de stare juridic . Actul juridic al logodnei este în elegerea prealabil a viitorilor so i, care urmeaz a fi des vârúit prin încheierea c s toriei. Faptul c legiuitorul opereaz cu termenii „promisiune reciproc ” ne poate conduce spre ideea de conven ie, mai precis de „antecontract”. Mai mult, din aceast perspectiv prezint relevan úi caracterul bilateral al în elegerii. Toate acestea pot oare legitima concluzia c ne afl m în prezen a unui contract?

fi uneori generatoare de responsabilitate; sau autorul rupturii poate fi declarat responsabil de prejudiciul cauzat, úi atunci înseamn c el era angajat, prin promisiunea sa, cel pu in într-o oarecare m sur ” [Josserand – Le problème juridique de la rupture des fiançailles, Chronique D.H., 1927, pag. 21. (citat de A.R. Ionaúcu – op. cit., pag. 18 – 19)]. 14 A se vedea: Codul civil Carol al II-lea, promulgat cu înaltul Decret regal nr. 3993 din 7 noiembrie 1939 úi publicat în Monitorul Oficial nr. 259, Partea I, din 8 noiembrie 1939 (Titlul V, Capitolul I, art. 135 – 156). 15 A se vedea: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – op. cit., pag. 188. 16 A se vedea: A. R. Ionaúcu – op. cit., pag. 17. 17 A se vedea: art. 266 alin. (1). 18 A se vedea: art. 259 alin. (1).

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În opinia noastr nu, întrucât între actul logodnei úi contract exist numeroase deosebiri, cu privire la: calitatea p r ilor; formarea consim mântului; viciile de consim mânt; capacitatea p r ilor; scopul urm rit; modul de determinare a efectelor juridice; posibilitatea afect rii de modalit i; cazurile de nulitate úi regimul nulit ii, etc. În realitate, este vorba despre un act juridic de drept al familiei sau, în al i termeni, un act juridic sui generis, care atrage un anume statut legal pentru persoanele logodite. Observ m c defini ia legal a c s toriei se potriveúte perfect úi în cazul logodnei, care, în esen , este tot o „uniune” (în accep iunea de asociere, leg tur între dou persoane pentru un scop comun) liber consim it între un b rbat úi o femeie, încheiat în condi iile legii. Ceea ce le diferen iaz îns este, în principal, scopul urm rit: prin încheierea logodnei se „preg teúte” încheierea c s toriei, care, la rândul ei, vizeaz întemeierea unei familii. Cu alte cuvinte, logodna este doar un proiect de c s torie. Se impune sublinierea c încheierea c s toriei nu este condi ionat de încheierea logodnei, dup cum logodna nu se transform automat în c s torie. Conchizând pe aceste aspecte, definim logodna ca fiind starea juridic facultativ , premerg toare c s toriei, izvorât din promisiunea reciproc intervenit , în condi iile legii, între un b rbat úi o femeie de a încheia c s toria. Suntem, aúadar, în prezen a unei veritabile institu ii civile, care se întemeiaz pe acordul de voin al viitorilor so i, materializat într-un act juridic.

4. Caractere juridice19)
Institu ia logodnei prezint urm toarele caractere juridice: 1) Logodna este uniune între dou persoane Actul logodnei presupune o asociere (leg tur ) între cele dou persoane pentru realizarea unui scop comun: încheierea c s toriei. 2) Logodna se încheie între un b rbat úi o femeie Fiind o stare juridic premerg toare c s toriei, logodna împrumut aceast tr s tur esen ial , fiind interzis logodna între persoane de acelaúi sex. Pe de alt parte, dup cum c s toria este dominat de principiul monogamiei, ca o consecin a caracterului exclusiv al sentimentului de dragoste, tot astfel cei logodi i nu pot încheia o alt logodn , cât vreme cea anterioar nu a încetat (lato sensu). 3) Logodna este liber consim it Astfel, nimic nu împiedic persoanele respective de a-úi promite reciproc încheierea c s toriei. 4) Logodna este consensual Potrivit art. 266 alin. (3) teza I din noul Cod civil: „Încheierea logodnei nu este supus niciunei formalit i (…)”. Prin urmare, nu este necesar interven ia vreunei autorit i pentru constatarea încheierii logodnei, p r ile având libertatea deplin de a alege modalitatea concret de exprimare a consim mântului. Spre deosebire de c s torie, unde îns úi legea fundamental prevede posibilitatea celebr rii religioase, îns numai dup încheierea c s toriei civile20), la logodn nu exist o asemenea reglementare. Totuúi, în mod tradi ional, logodna este o institu ie civil , care, ulterior, poate fi celebrat úi religios.
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Cu privire la caracterele juridice ale c s toriei, de lege lata, a se vedea: I.P. Filipescu, A.I. Filipescu – op. cit., pag. 26. 20 A se vedea: art. 48 alin. (2) teza a II-a din Constitu ie, republicat .

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5) Logodna se încheie pân la c s torie Potrivit legiuirilor noastre vechi, logodna trebuia s fie urmat în termen de doi ani pân la patru ani de c s torie. Actuala reglementare nu mai stabileúte niciun termen în acest sens. Din aceast perspectiv , p r ile pot s convin , cu ocazia logodirii, asupra datei încheierii c s toriei (în condi iile legii), dup cum au libertatea s nu stabileasc nimic în acest sens. Indiferent de variant , durata logodnei nu poate dep úi momentul încheierii c s toriei. 6) Logodna se întemeiaz pe egalitatea în drepturi úi obliga ii a persoanelor logodite Egalitatea dintre b rbat úi femeie exist în toate domeniile vie ii sociale21). În privin a logodnei, aceast egalitate se refer atât la condi iile încheierii, cât úi la rela iile dintre cei logodi i. 7) Logodna se încheie în scopul c s toriei Promisiunea reciproc pe care úi-o fac p r ile vizeaz încheierea c s toriei, al c rui scop este întemeierea unei familii. Cu alte cuvinte, prin încheierea logodnei nu se creeaz o familie, ci doar o eventual premis a naúterii sale.

5. Condi ii de fond
5.1. Preciz ri prealabile Potrivit art. 266 alin. (2) din noul Cod civil: „Dispozi iile privind condi iile de fond pentru încheierea c s toriei sunt aplicabile în mod corespunz tor, cu excep ia avizului medical úi a autoriz rii organului administrativ competent”. Excep ia la care face referire dispozi ia reprodus mai sus are în vedere, pe de o parte, logodna minorului de cel pu in 16 ani, iar, pe de alt parte, logodna între rudele în linie colateral de gradul al patrulea. În ambele situa ii, spre deosebire de c s torie, nu este nevoie de „aviz medical” úi nici de „autorizare”. Numai c , în mod greúit, se vorbeúte de „autorizarea organului administrativ competent”, când, în realitate, autorizarea se d c tre „instan a de tutel ”, care, în opinia noastr , nu are natur administrativ , ci judiciar . Din cele ce preced conchidem c se pot logodi numai persoanele care îndeplinesc condi iile necesare încheierii c s toriei. Condi iile de fond pot îmbr ca forma pozitiv – în sensul c trebuie s existe pentru a se putea încheia logodna – sau forma negativ – în sensul c nu trebuie s existe pentru a se putea încheia logodna. Acestea din urm pot fi definite drept „impedimente la logodn ”. 5.2. Condi ii de fond pozitive pentru încheierea logodnei 1) Vârsta necesar pentru logodn Ca regul , logodna se poate încheia numai dac persoanele respective au împlinit vârsta de 18 ani. Prin urmare, prezint relevan majoratul civil úi nu dobândirea capacit ii22) depline de exerci iu. Cu titlu de excep ie, minorul care a împlinit vârsta de 16 ani se poate logodi cu încuviin area p rin ilor (din c s torie, din afara c s toriei sau adoptivi) sau, dup caz, a tutorelui, numai dac exist „motive temeinice”, pe care legea nu le defineúte23).
A se vedea: Legea nr. 202/2002 privind egalitatea de úanse úi de tratament între femei úi b rba i, republicat în Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 150 din 1 martie 2007. 22 Pentru capacitatea de a încheia logodna, a se vedea úi art. 90 alin. (2) din Codul civil elve ian. 23 Aceeaúi situa ie se întâlneúte în cazul c s toriei minorului. De lege lata, cu privire la con inutul sintagmei „motive temeinice”, în doctrin s-a considerat c sunt asemenea motive: graviditatea, naúterea, boala grav ,
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În caz de divergen între p rin i cu privire la încuviin area logodnei, hot r úte instan a de , având în vedere interesul superior al copilului. Dac unul dintre p rin i este decedat (moarte constatat fizic ori declarat judec toreúte) sau se afl în imposibilitate de a-úi manifesta voin a (interdic ie judec toreasc , stare de com , declararea judec toreasc a dispari iei, aliena ia sau debilitatea mintal , ú.a.) este suficient încuviin area celuilalt p rinte. De asemenea, în cazul scind rii ocrotirii p rinteúti (divor , constatarea nulit ii sau anularea c s toriei, etc.) este suficient încuviin area p rintelui care exercit autoritatea p rinteasc . În situa ia în care nu exist nici p rin i, nici tutore, este necesar încuviin area persoanei sau, dup caz, autorit ii care a fost abilitat s exercite drepturile p rinteúti. Încuviin area logodnei este o component a ocrotirii p rinteúti, fiind, în esen , un act juridic unilateral, revocabil pân în momentul încheierii logodnei25). La fel ca úi în cazul c s toriei minorului26), atât refuzul abuziv de încuviin are a logodnei, cât úi revocarea abuziv a încuviin rii pot fi cenzurate la instan a de judecat , urmându-se calea procedurii necontencioase. Legea nu impune vreo condi ie de form pentru încuviin are, situa ie în care opin m c aceasta poate fi dat verbal sau în scris. Nu exist vreo limit de vârst maxim 27) pentru logodn ori vreo condi ie privind diferen a de vârst 28) dintre logodnici. 2) Diferen a de sex Ca úi în cazul c s toriei29), logodna poate fi încheiat numai între un b rbat úi o femeie. Deúi nu era necesar o prevedere expres în acest sens – având în vedere trimiterea general pe care o face art. 266 alin. (2) la condi iile de fond ale c s toriei – totuúi legiuitorul a vrut s înl ture orice dubiu30). concubinajul, etc. (A se vedea, spre exemplu: I.P. Filipescu, A.I. Filipescu – Tratat de dreptul familiei, Edi ia a VIII-a, rev zut úi completat , Editura „Universul Juridic”, Bucureúti, 2006, pag. 12; A. Bacaci, V. Dumitrache, C. Hageanu – Dreptul familiei, Editura „All Beck”, Bucureúti, 1999, pag. 18 – 19; E. Florian – Dreptul familiei, Editura „Limes”, Cluj – Napoca, 2003, pag. 26 – 27. 24 Potrivit Codului civil din 1864, astfel cum a fost modificat în 1906, în cazul b iatului úi fetei sub 21 de ani care doreau s se c s toreasc era necesar consim mântul p rin ilor, iar în caz de neîn elegeri între p rin i, consim mântul tat lui era de ajuns (art. 131). Dac ambii p rin i erau mor i sau în neputin de a-úi manifesta voin a „atunci bunul úi buna despre tat úi în lipsa lor, bunul úi buna despre mam in locul acestora”, iar în lips de buni, era necesar consim mântul tutorelui (art. 133). A se vedea: C. Hamangiu, N. Georgean – Codul civil adnotat, Vol. I, reeditare, Editura All Beck, Bucureúti, 1999, pag. 175 – 176. 25 În acelaúi sens, cu privire la analiza condi iilor necesare pentru acordarea dispensei de vârst pentru încheierea c s toriei minorului, a se vedea: F.A. Baias, M. Avram, C. Nicolescu – Modific rile aduse Codului familiei prin Legea nr. 288/2007, în Revista „Dreptul” nr.3/2008, pag. 9 – 41. 26 A se vedea: F.A. Baias, M. Avram, C. Nicolescu – op. cit., pag. 18 27 În sensul c , în Rusia arist c s toria era prohibit peste 80 de ani, a se vedea: A.R. Ionaúcu – op. cit., pag. 25. 28 Referitor la vârsta celor ce se c s toresc, Îndreptarea legii (Pravila cea mare din timpul lui Matei Basarab) prevedea urm toarele: „(…) s nu fie b rbat de 50 de ani úi muiarea de 12 sau de 15 ani sau muiarea de 50 de ani úi b rbatul de 20 (…) s nu fie b rbat b trân úi muiare tân r sau muiare b trân úi b rbat tân r (…) fiindc acest lucru nu iaúte numai cum se cade, ci înc e ruúinos, dosad , imputare úi batjocur ” (Glava 198) – A se vedea: I. Chelaru – op. cit., pag. 25 – 26. 29 C s toria între persoane de acelaúi sex este recunoscut în urm toarele state: Olanda, Belgia, Marea Britanie, Canada, Spania, Norvegia, Suedia, Portugalia, Africa de Sud, Nepal úi SUA (doar Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Vermont úi Carolina de Nord). Dezbateri publice, cu sus inerea partidelor politice aflate la putere, în vederea recunoaúterii acestei uniuni se reg sesc în state precum: Islanda, Slovenia, Luxemburg, Argentina úi Venezuela. 30 A se vedea: art. 266 alin. (5) din noul Cod civil.

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Sexul fiec rei persoane este men ionat în actul de naútere úi, respectiv, certificatul de naútere. În cazul persoanelor cu anumite probleme medicale (sex incert, modific ri în planul sexualiz rii, tulbur ri psihologice de sexualizare) se poate promova ac iune în justi ie pentru stabilirea exact a sexului sau, dup caz, pentru schimbarea sexului31). 3) Consim mântul la logodn Consim mântul la logodn reprezint manifestarea de voin a celor dou persoane în vederea încheierii logodnei. Acest acord de voin nu se confund cu simpla cerere în c s torie, dup cum este diferit de consim mântul la c s torie. Consim mântul la logodn trebuie s îndeplineasc urm toarele condi ii: a) s provin de la o persoan cu discern mânt, adic de la o persoan care are atât capacitate intelectiv , cât úi capacitate volitiv ; Aúa fiind, lipsa discern mântului (cazul alienatului mintal, debilului mintal úi persoanei lipsit vremelnic de facult ile mintale: ebrietate, delir, hipnoz , etc.) atrage úi lipsa consim mântului. b) s fie exprimat personal de c tre cei ce vor s se logodeasc , fiind exclus încheierea logodnei prin reprezentare32); c) s fie liber, în sensul c nu exist nicio piedic în alegerea viitorului logodnic (limit ri de cast , rasiale, religioase, juridice, ú.a.). În sens juridic, consim mântul este liber dac nu exist vicii de consim mânt; Sunt vicii de consim mânt eroarea (care poart numai asupra identit ii fizice a celuilalt logodnic), dolul úi violen a. d) s fie deplin, adic neafectat de modalit i (termen, condi ie, sarcin ); e) s fie exprimat neîndoielnic. 5.3. Condi ii de fond negative pentru încheierea logodnei (impedimente la logodn ) Sunt acele împrejur ri care împiedic încheierea logodnei, úi anume: 1) Starea civil de persoan c s torit sau persoan logodit Cum bigamia este o condi ie de fond negativ pentru încheierea c s toriei33), aplicabil în mod corespunz tor úi în cazul logodnei34), rezult c persoana c s torit nu se poate logodi cu o alt persoan . Tot astfel, dat fiind specificul proiectului de c s torie úi fundamentul acestuia, apreciem c persoanele logodite nu pot încheia o nou logodn . 2) Rudenia Este necesar s se disting între rudenia în linie dreapt (direct ) – caz în care logodna este interzis indiferent de grad – úi rudenia în linie colateral – caz în care logodna este interzis doar pân la al patrulea grad inclusiv. Pentru motive temeinice – la fel ca úi în cazul logodnei minorului – rudele în linie colateral de gradul al patrulea (adic verii primari) se pot logodi. 3) Adop ia
La nivelul statelor europene nu exist o abordare comun în privin a transsexualismului, fenomen care nu este încurajat. În acelaúi timp, dup Hot rârea din 11 iulie 2002, pronun at în Cauza Christine Goodwin versus Regatul Unit, tendin a dominant este de recunoaútere a noii identit i sexuale. 32 În dreptul roman, pe itorul sau mijlocitorul de c s torii (proxeneta sau conciliator nuptiarum) avea dreptul la o plat (Proxenetica jure licito petuntur). La noi aceast conven ie era considerat ca fiind contrar bunelor moravuri, fiind lovit de nulitate, astfel c pe itorul sau starostele nu primeau vreo plat . (A se vedea: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 142). 33 Potrivit art. 273 din noul Cod civil: „Este interzis încheierea unei noi c s torii de c tre persoana care este c s torit ”. 34 A se vedea: art. 266 alin. (2) din noul Cod civil.
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Potrivit art. 451 din noul Cod civil: „Adop ia este opera iunea juridic prin care se creeaz leg tura de filia ie între adoptator úi adoptat, precum úi leg turi de rudenie între adoptat úi rudele adoptatorului”. Drept urmare, logodna este oprit între adoptat úi rudele sale din adop ie, în aceleaúi condi ii ca úi între rudele fireúti. 4) Tutela Tutorele, din ra iuni de ordin moral, nu se poate logodi cu persoana minor aflat sub tutela sa. 5) Aliena ia mintal , debilitatea mintal ori lipsa temporar a facult ilor mintale Alienatul sau debilul mintal nu se pot logodi, indiferent dac se afl sau nu sub interdic ie judec toreasc . În cazul celor lipsi i vremelnic de facult ile mintale (stare de ebrietate, hipnoz , delir, etc.) este oprit logodna doar cât timp nu au discern mânt.

6. Condi ii de form
Dominat de principiul consensualismului, logodna nu este supus niciunei formalit i35). Cu toate astea, consider m c nimic nu împiedic p r ile s încheie logodna într-un cadru solemn (de ex.: în fa a notarului public), consemnând în scris promisiunea reciproc de a se c s tori. Legea nu impune vreo cerin privitoare la daruri (ex.: inelul de logodn ori alte daruri), astfel c inexisten a acestora nu influen eaz validitatea logodnei. De asemenea, nu se cere ca logodna s fie înregistrat în eviden ele vreunei institu ii.

7. Dovada logodnei
Logodna poate fi dovedit cu orice mijloace de prob admise de lege, cum ar fi: interogatoriu, martori, prezum ii, înscrisuri, etc. Apreciem c aceste condi ii deosebit de facile privind proba ar putea s conduc în practic la dificult i de stabilire a situa iei de fapt, în condi iile în care rela iile reale dintre logodnici sunt dificil de apreciat în mod obiectiv de c tre ter i (în numeroase ocazii, un martor poate declara ceea ce unul dintre logodnici i-a relatat; în rare situa ii martorii asist direct la formularea promisiunii reciproce).

8. Efectele logodnei
Legea nu arat care sunt efectele logodnei, ci se limiteaz doar s reglementeze consecin ele predominat patrimoniale ale ruperii logodnei. Actul juridic al logodnei genereaz starea juridic de persoane logodite. De aici decurg o serie de consecin e morale, dar úi juridice. Între cei doi (b rbat úi femeie) se creeaz o rela ie special , care trebuie s le domine conduita în realizarea promisiunii reciproce de a se c s tori. Din punct de vedere al dogmelor creútineúti, logodna reprezint o form de „înrudire moral sau spiritual ”. Din împrejurarea c este sanc ionat juridiceúte persoana care rupe logodna în mod abuziv sau, în mod culpabil, îl determin pe cel lalt s rup logodna putem afirma c între logodnici exist o serie de drepturi úi îndatoriri personale, asem n toare, în principiu, celor din c s torie.

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A se vedea: Art. 266 alin. (3) teza I din noul Cod civil.

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Astfel, ca expresie a deplinei egalit i în drepturi úi obliga ii, logodnicii hot r sc de comun acord în tot ceea ce priveúte proiectata lor c s torie. F r a pune semnul egalit ii între cele dou institu ii juridice, dat fiind faptul c ambele au la baz prietenia úi afec iunea dintre un b rbat úi o femeie, credem c nu este exagerat a se sus ine existen a unor obliga ii reciproce (respect, fidelitate úi sprijin moral). În afara drepturilor úi obliga iilor care decurg din îns úi natura logodnei, suntem de p rere c pot s existe úi alte drepturi úi, respectiv, obliga ii corelative, în raport de con inutul concret al în elegerii dintre p r i. Avem în vedere acele aspecte asupra c rora cei doi pot conveni (în virtutea principiului autonomiei de voin ) úi care sunt compatibile cu logodna. Dac în trecut logodna presupunea în mod obligatoriu respectarea unui leg mânt de castitate pân la cununie úi chiar purificarea spiritual a viitorilor so i, ast zi ei pot conveni s locuiasc úi, eventual, s se gospod reasc împreun , situa ie în care logodna se poate suprapune pe starea de concubinaj. Dac din rela ia celor logodi i s-au n scut copii, aceútia sunt din afara c s toriei, urmând regimul juridic respectiv. Logodnicii pot s aleag regimul matrimonial, în elegere care va produce efecte din momentul încheierii c s toriei. Din acest punct de vedere au urm toarele alternative: comunitatea legal ; separa ia de bunuri; comunitatea conven ional . Dac aleg un alt regim matrimonial decât cel al comunit ii legale, trebuie s se prezinte la notarul public pentru încheierea unei conven ii matrimoniale, care îmbrac forma unui înscris autentificat. Întrucât logodnicii nu sunt supuúi regimului matrimonial, bunurile dobândite împreun pe perioada logodnei sunt supuse regulilor copropriet ii (proprietatea comun pe cote – p r i). De men ionat c exist chiar o prezum ie relativ de coproprietate, în cazul bunurilor st pânite în comun36). În considerarea logodnei sau pe durata acesteia, în vederea c s toriei, logodnicii pot s -úi fac daruri (dona ie, dup regulile dreptului comun) ori s primeasc daruri de la ter i. Aceast din urm variant poate îmbr ca forma legatului sau dona iei, iar natura propriet ii asupra bunului respectiv se va stabili în raport de voin a dispun torului. Logodnicii pot conveni s -úi acorde reciproc sprijin material (obliga ia de a suporta împreun cheltuielile eventualului menaj în comun úi obliga ia de între inere). În raport de con inutul concret al învoielii dintre p r i se apreciaz drepturile úi obliga iile acestora úi, în ultim instan , eventuala atitudine abuziv de rupere a logodnei sau de determinare culpabil la ruperea logodnei.

9. Nulitatea logodnei
Întrucât legea prevede c în cazul logodnei sunt aplicabile – cu excep iile men ionate mai sus37) – condi iile de fond pentru încheierea c s toriei, consider m c trebuie s se accepte úi consecin a nerespect rii acestora, úi anume: nulitatea. Nulitatea logodnei este sanc iunea aplicabil în cazul nerespect rii cerin elor prev zute de lege pentru încheierea acesteia. În raport de caracterul nulit ii, aceasta se împarte în nulitate absolut úi nulitate relativ . Logodna este lovit de nulitate absolut în urm toarele cazuri: a) persoanele respective nu aveau vârsta necesar pentru logodn ; Avem în vedere minorii sub 16 ani, care nu se pot logodi în nicio situa ie.
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A se vedea: Art. 633 din noul Cod civil. A se vedea: Supra, 5.1.

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b) logodna s-a încheiat între dou persoane de acelaúi sex; c) consim mântul nu îndeplineúte condi iile analizate mai sus38) (cu excep ia vicierii consim mântului); d) persoana logodit era c s torit ; e) persoanele între care s-a încheiat logodna sunt rude în linie dreapt (indiferent de grad) sau rude în linie colateral (pân la gradul patru inclusiv); În cazul rudelor în linie colateral de gradul patru inclusiv, dac exist motive temeinice, logodna este valabil . Cazul prezentat are în vedere deopotriv rudenia fireasc úi rudenia civil . f) persoana logodit este alienat mintal sau debil mintal. Ac iunea în constatarea nulit ii absolute a logodnei este imprescriptibil 39) úi poate fi introdus de orice persoan interesat , inclusiv de c tre procuror. În mod excep ional, în cazul nerespect rii condi iei privind vârsta necesar pentru logodn , nulitatea se acoper dac , pân la r mânerea definitiv a hot rârii judec toreúti, persoanele în cauz au devenit majore. Logodna este lovit de nulitate relativ în urm toarele cazuri: a) minorul care a împlinit 16 ani s-a logodit f r s aib încuviin area prev zut de lege; b) consim mântul a fost viciat prin eroare, dol sau violen ; c) la data încheierii logodnei persoana era lipsit vremelnic de discern mânt; d) tutorele s-a logodit cu persoana minor aflat sub tutela sa. Ac iunea în anularea logodnei se prescrie în termen de 6 luni, care curge de la date diferite, dup cum urmeaz : a) în cazul lipsei încuviin rii pentru logodna minorului, termenul curge de la data la care cei chema i s încuviin eze logodna au luat cunoútin de aceasta; b) în cazul vicierii consim mântului ori a lipsei vremelnice a discern mântului, termenul curge de la data încet rii violen ei sau, dup caz, de la data la care cel interesat a cunoscut eroarea, dolul sau lipsa vremelnic a discern mântului; c) în cazul tutorelui logodit cu persoana minor aflat sub tutela sa, termenul curge de la data încheierii logodnei. Ac iunea în anulare are caracter personal, putând fi intentat doar de c tre cel al c rui interes a fost v t mat, respectiv: persoana (persoanele) sau autoritatea chemate s încuviin eze logodna minorului sub 16 ani; logodnicul al c rui consim mânt a fost viciat; persoana lipsit vremelnic de discern mânt; minorul aflat sub tutel . Dreptul la ac iune nu se transmite moútenitorilor. Cu toate acestea, dac ac iunea a fost pornit de c tre titularul s u, ea poate fi continuat de moútenitori. În cazul logodnei minorului care a împlinit 16 ani, nulitatea relativ se acoper dac , pân la r mânerea definitiv a hot rârii judec toreúti, s-a ob inut încuviin area. Hot rârea judec toreasc definitiv de admitere a ac iunii în constatarea nulit ii sau în anularea logodnei produce efecte retroactiv, din momentul încheierii logodnei. Ca efect al admiterii ac iunii se consider c acea logodn nu a existat, astfel c nu a produs nicio consecin juridic .

10. Încetarea logodnei
În opinia noastr , se poate vorbi despre „încetarea logodnei” atât în sens larg, cât úi în sens restrâns.
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A se vedea: Supra, 5.2., pct. 3). A se vedea: Art. 2502 alin. (2) pct. 3 din noul Cod civil.

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Lato sensu, încetarea logodnei include úi ruperea acesteia. Logodna înceteaz (strico sensu) în cazul realiz rii scopului s u (încheierea c s toriei) ori în situa ia mor ii (constatat fizic ori declarat prin hot râre judec toreasc definitiv ) a unuia dintre logodnici. În primul caz, foútii logodnici devin so i, cu drepturile úi obliga iile ce deriv din c s torie. În cazul secund, înceteaz toate efectele logodnei (ex nunc), iar darurile pe care logodnicii le-au primit în considerarea logodnei sau, pe durata acesteia, în vederea c s toriei nu sunt supuse obliga iei de restituire40). În acest caz – dup cum bine spunea fostul ministru al justi iei, Victor Iamandi, cu ocazia sus inerii în Parlament al proiectului Codului civil Carol al IIlea – „(…) interesul material al moútenitorilor de a primi înapoi darurile trebuie s cedeze în fa a datoriei morale de a feri de orice jignire memoria celui disp rut”. Este vorba atât de darurile pe care logodnicii úi le-au f cut între ei, cât úi cele primite de la ter i. Dispensa de restituire vizeaz atât moútenitorii logodnicului mort, cât úi logodnicul supravie uitor.

11. Ruperea logodnei
11.1. Condi iile ruperii logodnei Noul Cod civil român nu prevede cazurile în care se poate rupe logodna, ci reglementeaz doar consecin ele juridice ale ruperii logodnei. În opinia noastr , ruperea logodnei poate interveni printr-un act bilateral sau printr-un act unilateral. Astfel, cum logodna are la baz acordul de voin al p r ilor, nimic nu le împiedic pe acestea s convin ruperea logodnei41). Apreciem c p r ile pot decide ruperea logodnei chiar úi în cazurile în care logodna ar fi lovit de nulitate42), atâta timp cât nu s-a constatat judec toreúte ineficien a juridic . A nu accepta aceast solu ie înseamn a supune p r ile la cheltuieli inutile, for ându-le s se adreseze justi iei. Ruperea logodnei doar de c tre una dintre p r i se poate face din motive întemeiate sau din motive neîntemeiate. În legisla ia veche erau considerate drept motive întemeiate: absen a îndelungat a unuia dintre logodnici43); condamnarea logodnicului la o pedeaps infamant ; contractarea unei „boli ruúinoase”; „îngreunarea de c tre s mân str in ”; pierderea averii, ú.a.44) În raport de reglementarea actual , consider m c temeinicia motivelor se apreciaz prin raportare la drepturile úi obliga iile care dau con inut concret logodnei respective. Aprecierea temeiniciei motivelor se va face de c tre instan a de judecat de la caz la caz. Se va avea în vedere interpretarea voin ei p r ilor exprimat fie în mod expres într-un act scris (atunci când logodna este consemnat într-un înscris care cuprinde drepturile úi obliga iile p r ilor), fie cea rezultat prin
A se vedea: Art. 268 alin. (3) din noul Cod civil. Romanii aplicau úi în aceast materie principiul: „Quae consensu contrahuntur, contrario consensu dissolvuntur” (Contractele care se formeaz prin consim mânt, se dizolv prin consim mânt contrar). ùi vechile noastre legiuiri prevedeau c „se stric logodna când, f r pricin , logodnicii se vor c i”. (A se vedea: Codul Andronachi Donici – Capitolul 30, § 7, úi Codul Caragea – Partea a III-a, Capitolul 15, art. 3 lit. h) – citate de D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 462). 42 Vechile noastre legiuiri f ceau vorbire de faptul c „se stric logodna” în situa ii care ineau de nevalabilitatea acesteia, cum ar fi: logodna nu s-a f cut „prin voin a úi útirea p rin ilor úi a epitropilor”; „când se va afla pricin de rudenie”, ú.a. [A se vedea: Codul Andronachi Donici (Capitolul 30, § 7) – citate de D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 461). 43 În dreptul roman logodnicul trebuia s aútepte cel mult trei ani întoarcerea celuilalt. Desfacerea logodnei opera dac s-a prelungit cununia peste trei ani (dup Codul Caragea) úi peste patru ani (dup Codul Andronachi Donici). (A se vedea: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 460). 44 A se vedea: D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 460 – 461.
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aprecierea altor probe care sunt administrate în fa a instan ei (atunci când logodna nu este consemnat într-un înscris sau prevederile acestuia nu sunt suficient de clare din punctul de vedere al consemn rii drepturilor úi obliga iilor p r ilor). Aúa fiind, apreciem c ar putea constitui motiv temeinic, de exemplu: înc lcarea obliga iei de fidelitate; atitudinea violent a unuia dintre logodnici fa de cel lalt; declararea judec toreasc a dispari iei; încheierea unei logodne cu o alt persoan , etc. Dimpotriv , p r sirea logodnicului din pur capriciu, f r un motiv legitim poate antrena r spunderea juridic a celui care a rupt abuziv logodna. Cu alte cuvinte, stabilirea temeiniciei motivelor ruperii logodnei prezint importan din perspectiva ac iunii în desp gubiri pentru prejudiciile cauzate. În ceea ce priveúte condi iile de form ale ruperii logodnei, noul Cod civil reia ideea bazat pe principiul simetriei de form , dispunând c : „Ruperea logodnei nu este supus niciunei formalit i úi poate fi dovedit cu orice mijloc de prob ”45). Ruperea logodnei are drept consecin principal încetarea drepturilor úi obliga iilor n scute din actul logodnei. Potrivit legii, logodnicul care rupe logodna nu poate fi obligat s încheie c s toria46). Solu ia este fireasc , întrucât logodna nu este un contract, iar consim mântul la c s torie trebuie s fie exprimat în mod liber47). 11.2.Efectele ruperii logodnei Noul Cod civil se ocup de efectele patrimoniale ale ruperii logodnei48), având în vedere dou chestiuni, úi anume: a) restituirea darurilor; b) angajarea r spunderii pentru ruperea abuziv 49). 11.2.1.Obliga ia de restituire a darurilor Restituirea are ca obiect „darurile pe care logodnicii le-au primit în considerarea logodnei sau, pe durata acesteia, în vederea c s toriei”50. Deúi s-ar putea presupune c reglementarea vizeaz , în principal, darurile f cute între logodnici, interpretarea corect a textului este c trebuie restituite inclusiv darurile primite de unul sau de ambii logodnici de la ter i (ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus). Suntem de p rere c aceste daruri sunt „daruri condi ionale”, adic dona ii supuse unei condi ii rezolutorii. Dispozi ia de mai sus trebuie corelat cu prevederile art. 1030 alin. (1) din noul Cod civil, potrivit c rora: „Dona iile f cute viitorilor so i sau unuia dintre ei, sub condi ia încheierii c s toriei, nu produc efecte în cazul în care c s toria nu se încheie”. Deúi denumirea marginal a acestui articol face vorbire de caducitate, apreciem c , în realitate, este vorba despre neîndeplinirea unei condi ii, deoarece caducitatea presupune interven ia unei împrejur ri independente de voin a

A se vedea: Art. 267 alin. (3) din noul Cod civil. A se vedea: Art. 267 alin. (1) din noul Cod civil. În acelaúi sens, a se vedea úi art. 90 alin. (3) din Codul civil elve ian. 47 În sensul c , „consim mântul viitorilor so i trebuie exprimat în mod liber úi nesilit, întrucât nu poate face obiectul unor conven ii anterioare”. (A se vedea: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – op. cit., pag. 188). 48 A se vedea: Art. 267 – 270 din noul Cod civil. 49 Cu privire la reglementarea acestei chestiuni legiuitorul român s-a inspirat din Codul civil elve ian (art. 91 – 93) úi Codul civil italian (art. 80 – 81). 50 A se vedea: Art. 268 alin. (1) din noul Cod civil.
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p r ilor actului juridic51). În plus, obliga ia de restituire a acestor daruri este independent de ideea de culp a unuia dintre logodnici pentru ruperea logodnei. Preciz m c , în conformitate art. 268 alin. (1) din actul normativ analizat, sunt exceptate de la restituire „darurile obiúnuite”. No iunea de daruri obiúnuite se reg seúte în noul Cod civil în mai multe domenii, cum ar fi: art. 144 alin. (1) prevede c tutorele nu poate face dona ii în numele minorului, cu excep ia darurilor obiúnuite, potrivite cu starea material a minorului; art. 146 alin. (3) dispune c minorul nu poate face dona ii, cu excep ia darurilor obiúnuite, potrivite cu starea sa material ; art. 346 alin. (3) prevede c darurile obiúnuite sunt exceptate de la regula potrivit c reia bunurile comune ale so ilor pot fi înstr inate numai cu acordul ambilor so i; potrivit art. 1091 alin. (3), rezerva succesoral se stabileúte f r a ine seama de darurile obiúnuite; de asemenea, art. 1150 alin. (1) lit. c), prevede c darurile obiúnuite nu sunt supuse obliga iei de raport a dona iilor. Apreciem c darurile obiúnuite trebuie apreciate în raport cu contextul sau situa ia oferirii acestora (de exemplu, ziua de naútere) úi, aúa cum prev d art. 144 úi 146 din noul Cod civil, trebuie apreciate în raport cu starea material a persoanelor în cauz . Totuúi, consider m c darurile obiúnuite nu trebuie confundate cu darurile manuale, reglementate la art. 1011 alin. (4) din noul Cod civil, a c ror sfer de aplicare este mai larg . În cazul sumelor de bani d ruite, restituirea va avea în vedere valoarea actualizat , f r dobânzi (fructe civile), deoarece restituirea este independent de buna sau reaua credin a logodnicilor. Dobânda ar putea fi datorat numai începând de la data la care se solicit restituirea sumei respective. Dac restituirea în natur nu mai este posibil , aceasta se face „în m sura îmbog irii”52). Restituirea darurilor sau a echivalentului în bani atunci când restituirea în natur nu mai este posibil se va putea realiza fie de bun -voie, fie prin intermediul unei ac iuni în justi ie. În acest din urm caz, dreptul la ac iune se prescrie în termen de un an, care începe s curg de la data ruperii logodnei53). 11.2.2. R spunderea pentru ruperea abuziv a logodnei Codul civil Carol al II-lea con inea o reglementare mai detaliat a consecin elor patrimoniale ale ruperii logodnei. Astfel, potrivit art. 137: „Logodnicul care rupe logodna datoreúte celuilalt logodnic, p rin ilor acestuia sau persoanelor care au înlocuit pe aceútia din urm , o desp gubire echitabil pentru cheltuielile f cute sau obliga iunile contractate în vederea c s toriei, întrucât au fost potrivite cu împrejur rile. De asemenea, cel care rupe logodna datoreúte o desp gubire echitabil celuilalt logodnic pentru prejudiciul ce a încercat modificând cu bun credin , în vederea c s toriei, fie alc tuirea patrimoniului s u, fie mijloacele sale de a dobândi. Dac ruperea logodnei a pricinuit celuilalt logodnic un prejudiciu moral, el are drept la desp gubiri”. Art. 138 din acelaúi act normativ dispunea: „Cel care rupe logodna pentru un motiv întemeiat nu datoreúte desp gubiri. Logodnicul care prin vina sa determin pe cel lalt s rup logodna, este inut de obliga iunile prev zute de articolul precedent”.

Caducitatea reprezint acea cauz de ineficacitate ce const în lipsirea actului juridic civil valabil încheiat de orice efecte datorit intervenirii unei împrejur ri ulterioare încheierii sale úi care este independent de voin a autorului/autorilor actului juridic – A se vedea: G. Boroi – Drept civil. Partea general . Persoanele, Ed. All Beck, 2002, pag. 225. 52 A se vedea: Art. 268 alin. (2) teza a II-a din noul Cod civil. 53 A se vedea: Art. 270 din noul Cod civil.

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O situa ie special o avea minorul logodit, în sensul c , potrivit art. 139: „Minorul nu datoreúte desp gubiri dac persoanele care ar fi fost în drept s consimt la c s torie nu au consim it la logodn ”. Cu privire la daruri, art. 140 con inea urm toarea reglementare: „Ruperea logodnei îndrept eúte pe logodnici s cear restituirea darurilor ce úi-au f cut. Darurile sunt restituite în natur , sau dac aceasta nu este cu putin , în m sura îmbog irii. Darurile nu se restituie dac logodna a fost rupt prin moarte”. În prezent, potrivit articolului 269 din noul Cod civil, angajarea r spunderii se produce, în urm toarele cazuri: 1) dac o parte „rupe logodna în mod abuziv”; 2) dac o parte „în mod culpabil, l-a determinat pe cel lalt s rup logodna”. Spre deosebire de restituirea darurilor primite în timpul logodnei, care se poate realiza fie de bun voie, fie prin ac iune în justi ie, desp gubirile, fiind bazate pe ideea de apreciere a culpei, vor putea fi ob inute doar pe cale judec toreasc . În leg tur cu desp gubirile54), apare problema stabilirii naturii juridice a r spunderii: contractual sau delictual 55). În opinia noastr , pentru argumentele ce le vom prezenta în continuare, este vorba despre o r spundere civil contractual . Astfel, în cazul r spunderii civile delictuale, obliga ia înc lcat este o obliga ie legal , cu caracter general, care revine tuturor, în timp ce în cazul r spunderii contractuale, obliga ia înc lcat reprezint o obliga ie concret , stabilit printr-un contract56). Deúi nu este un contract propriu-zis, logodna este un act juridic, care genereaz drepturi úi obliga ii, inclusiv obliga ia de a r spunde pentru prejudiciile cauzate. De asemenea, esen a logodnei este aceea c „promisiunea de c s torie” nu poate fi executat în natur prin for a coercitiv a statului, singurul „efect legal” al actului juridic fiind obliga ia de a r spunde pentru prejudiciul cauzat prin neexecutarea obliga iei de a încheia c s toria. În reglementarea noului Cod civil, obliga ia înc lcat (de a încheia c s toria) nu reprezint o „regul de conduit pe care legea sau obiceiul locului o impune”, conform art. 1349 din noul Cod civil (r spunderea delictual ). Dimpotriv , ar fi aplicabile prevederile art. 1350 alin. (2), care se refer la obliga ia de reparare a prejudiciului „atunci când, f r justificare”, o persoan nu îúi îndeplineúte obliga iile pe care le-a contractat. Se observ c angajarea r spunderii pentru ruperea logodnei depinde de aprecierea ideii de culp . Constat m, din aceast perspectiv , c reglementarea logodnei urmeaz o direc ie opus configur rii c s toriei în noul Cod civil, în condi iile în care divor ul, în situa ia când so ii sunt de acord cu divor ul úi nu au copii minorii, este privit ca o formalitate care se îndeplineúte inclusiv f r implicarea instan ei, de c tre ofi erul de stare civil sau notarul public, f când abstrac ie de ideea unei culpe. Socotim c evolu ia legisla iei în sensul condi ion rii r spunderii pentru ruperea logodnei de ideea de culp nu este benefic , întrucât aprecierea culpei într-o chestiune atât de sensibil poate fi subiectiv . În acest sens, pe bun dreptate s-a afirmat în jurispruden a american c „ruperea logodnei care ar fi dus la o c s torie nefericit era un lucru moral úi, prin urmare, cum ar putea s fie vorba de culp ?”57). În sistemul dreptului vechi logodnicul p r sit avea drept la desp gubire, f r a se ine cont de culpa celui care a rupt logodna, prin faptul neîndeplinirii f r motiv a obliga iunii contractuale de încheiere a c s toriei, neexistând nici obliga ia de a dovedi culpa58).
Pentru acordarea de desp gubiri în cazul desfacerii c s toriei – a se vedea: Art. 388 din noul Cod civil. Sub inciden a Codului civil în vigoare, cu toate c logodna nu mai era legiferat , în trecut daunele interese erau acordate logodnicului p r sit pe temeiul art. 998 din actul normativ men ionat, considerându-se c logodnicul din a c rui culp s-a rupt logodna a comis un delict, care îi angajeaz responsabilitatea. (A se vedea: C. Hamangiu, I. Rosetti – B l nescu, Al. B icoianu – op. cit., pag. 188. Autorii citeaz unele solu ii jurispruden iale în acest sens). 56 A se vedea: C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Drept civil. Teoria general a obliga iilor, Ed. All Beck, 2002, pag. 146. 57 H. F. Wright, Note – The Action for Breach of the Marriage Promise, 10, VA. L. REV. 361, 361 (1924) 58 A se vedea: A.R. Ionaúcu – op. cit., pag. 18.
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Con inutul r spunderii juridice pentru ruperea abuziv sau culpabil a logodnei este precizat, de asemenea, de art. 269: partea în culp este obligat la „desp gubiri pentru cheltuielile f cute sau contractate în vederea c s toriei, precum úi pentru orice alte prejudicii”. Teza final duce la concluzia c orice prejudiciu suferit de una dintre p r i, ca urmare a ruperii logodnei în mod culpabil de c tre cealalt parte, poate face obiectul repara iei. Astfel, din interpretarea acestui text ar rezulta c inclusiv prejudiciul nepatrimonial (aúa cum se recunoaúte expres conform articolului 1531 alin. (3) din noul Cod civil). De asemenea, s-ar acoperi atât damnum emergens, cât úi lucrum cessans59), fiind aplicabile regulile din noul Cod civil referitoare la executarea obliga iilor prin echivalent, prev zute de art. 1531-1537. În ceea ce priveúte lucrum cessans, deúi articolul 1532 alin. (2) din noul Cod civil prevede c „prejudiciul ce ar fi cauzat prin pierderea unei úanse poate fi reparat în m sura probabilit ii sale de realizare”, apreciem c în materia logodnei aceste dispozi ii sunt dificil de aplicat în practic , datorit caracterului special al rela iilor dintre logodnici (se poate imagina, totuúi, de pild situa ia unui logodnic care poate fi pus în situa ia de a nu mai fi numit preot datorit neîndeplinirii culpabile a promisiunii celuilalt logodnic de încheiere a c s toriei). La fel ca la ac iunea în restituire, dreptul la ac iunea pentru ob inerea de desp gubiri se prescrie în termen de un an de la ruperea logodnei60). În ceea ce priveúte repararea prejudiciului, este necesar s preciz m c art. 267 alineatul (2) prevede: „Clauza penal stipulat pentru ruperea logodnei este considerat nescris ”. În doctrin , clauza penal este considerat drept o „conven ie accesorie prin care p r ile determin anticipat echivalentul prejudiciului suferit de creditor ca urmare a neexecut rii, execut rii cu întârziere sau necorespunz toare a obliga iei de c tre debitorul s u”61). Aúa fiind, semnifica ia dispozi iei legale de mai sus este instituirea interdic iei p r ilor de a conveni anticipat asupra eventualelor desp gubiri pentru ruperea logodnei. Dac totuúi au f cut-o, o atare cauz nu va avea eficien juridic . Prin aceast prevedere se asigur posibilitatea exprim rii libere a consim mântului la c s torie.

12. Elemente de drept comparat
12.1. Dreptul anglo-saxon Sistemul anglo-saxon a cunoscut în decursul ultimelor dou secole schimb ri majore62) de jurispruden în ceea ce priveúte efectele desfacerii logodnei. Aceste schimb ri s-au produs datorit convingerii c s-au f cut abuzuri în exercitarea unor astfel de ac iuni, precum úi datorit curentului de opinie potrivit c ruia „dragostea úi legea sunt incompatibile”. Într-o prim faz a dreptului anglo-saxon în Statele Unite al Americii, titularul ac iunii era femeia c reia i se promisese a fi luat în c s torie, iar ulterior era p r sit . Aceasta putea cere desp gubiri prin intermediul ac iunii „de înc lcare a promisiunii63)”. Ac iunea era cunoscut înc din epoca victorian a dreptului anglo-saxon din Marea Britanie64). Desp gubirile puteau consta la
În sensul c , ac iunea în daune nu poate fi intentat „pentru câútigul ce o parte ar fi fost împiedicat de a realiza” (lucrum cessans) – A se vedea: doctrina úi jurispruden a veche, citate de profesorul D. Alexandresco – op. cit., pag. 140 – 141. 60 A se vedea: Art. 270 din noul Cod civil. 61 A se vedea: C. St tescu, C. Bârsan – Drept civil. Teoria general a obliga iilor, Ed. All Beck, 2002, pag. 357; 62 R.Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2. 63 În engleza “breach of promise” sau “heartbalm action”, conform R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2 64 M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985, pag. 3338; G. S. Frost – Promises broken: courtship, class and gender in Victorian England, 1995, pag. 80-97
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început în repararea prejudiciului material. Începând îns cu secolul al XX-lea, desp gubirile includeau prejudiciul pentru beneficiul nerealizat pe care femeia l-ar fi avut ca urmare a încheierii c s toriei, prejudiciul pentru pierderea úansei de a se c s tori cu altcineva (de exemplu, datorit pierderii virginit ii sau naúterii unui copil), dar úi prejudiciul pentru suferin a emo ional produs ca urmare a ruperii logodnei. Schimbarea s-a produs în ceea ce priveúte mutarea centrului de aten ie de la beneficiile economice ca urmare a neîncheierii c s toriei la cele de ordin moral ce in de suferin a emo ional a femeii. Ulterior acestei schimb ri, instan ele americane au întâmpinat greut i în aprecierea unor astfel de desp gubiri pentru prejudicii morale65). Între 1930 úi 1950, ca urmare a deselor situa ii în care femeile ajungeau s úantajeze b rba ii înst ri i prin intermediul ac iunii „de înc lcare a promisiunii”, numeroase state ale Americii66) au abrogat aceasta posibilitate. Principalele motive care au dus la abrogare au fost cele legate de invocarea statutului egal al femeii cu cel al b rbatului. C s toria nu mai reprezenta, în viziunea curentului feminist, esen a existen ei femeii, iar ac iunea în discu ie nu f cea decât s încurajeze femeile s priveasc doar beneficiile economice ale rela iei cu un b rbat, úi nu s -l trateze de pe o pozi ie de egalitate67). Reformiútii68) sus ineau importan a în declin a institu iei seduc iei, deoarece pierderea virginit ii nu mai era privit ca un fapt ce putea ruina via a femeii; tot mai des aceste femei erau capabile s úi g seasc un loc de munc úi un alt b rbat cu care s se c s toreasc . Mai mult – sus ineau aceútia – c s toria era greúit în eleas , deoarece ar fi trebuit s fie o rela ie incapabil de m surare în bani. Din moment ce femeia era din ce în ce mai liber s -úi fac planuri în via , c s toria devenea din ce în ce mai mult o rela ie bazat pe afec iune úi mai pu in pe aspecte economice, cum era cazul în trecut. În consecin , eliminarea din cadrul ac iunii „de înc lcare a promisiunii” a elementelor economice era de natur s modernizeze abordarea acestei ac iuni. Singurul element economic care era acceptat ca r mas în obiectul ac iunii era legat de problema darurilor de logodn , iar acestea puteau fi privite ca simbol al dragostei úi nu ca element economic intrinsec. Din punct de vedere juridic, ac iunea era considerat o anomalie a sistemului de commonlaw, deoarece con inea atât elemente de contract, datorit existen ei unei promisiuni de c s torie, cât úi de r spundere civil delictual , deoarece nu se cerea dovedirea existen ei unei în elegeri între cei doi în privin a c s toriei, ci doar simpla declara ie a femeii, care putea fi sus inut de martori69). De asemenea, evaluarea prejudiciului moral, constând în suferin a emo ional produs de ruperea logodnei, era criticabil pe argumentul c „dragostea nu poate fi tratat ca o tranzac ie pe pia ”70), iar rela iile specifice c s toriei úi logodnei nu pot fi exprimate în bani. Dup anii 1950, ruperea logodnei putea cauza doar suferin emo ional , iar aceasta nu putea fi exprimat în bani. Doar cadourile date cu anticipa ie între parteneri, în vederea încheierii c s toriei, puteau fi obiectul unei ac iuni. Un astfel de cadou este inelul de logodn 71), care este în mod tradi ional oferit doar în considerarea c s toriei, spre deosebire de alte daruri, cum ar fi:
R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.2;N.P. Feinsinger – Legislative Attack on “Heart Balm”, 33 MICH. L. REV. 979, 986-96, 1935; Lea Vander Velde – The Legal Ways of Seduction, 48 STAN. L. REV. 817 (1996). 66 Indiana a fost primul stat care a adoptat aceasta schimbare in 1935, conform M.B.W. Sinclair–Seduction and the Myth of the Ideal Woman, 5 LAW&INEQ. J. 33, 65&n.n.237-39 (1987). 67 H. Spiller Daggett – Legal essays on family law, 1935, pag. 39. 68 J. E. Larson – Women understand so little, they call my good nature deceit: A feminist rethinking of Seduction, 93 COLUM. L. REV. 374, 379, 397-99 (1993). 69 M. Grossberg – Governing the hearth: Law and the family in nineteenth century America, 1985, pag. 33. 38; N. P. Feinsinger – Legislative Attack on “Heart Balm”, 33 MICH. L. REV. 979, 986-96, 1935. 70 R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. 71 M. F. Brinig – Rings and Promises, 6 J.L. ECON. & ORG. 203, 206 (1990); Viviana A. Zelizer – The social meaning of money 99-101 (1994).
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maúini, haine, care pot fi date úi cu ocazia zilei de naútere sau a altor evenimente72). Ac iunea pentru restituirea acestor bunuri se bazeaz pe no iuni precum: darul condi ional, restituire, îmbog ire f r just temei73), dar combin în continuare elemente de contract cu cele de r spundere delictual , astfel cum era cazul ac iunii „heartbalm” în trecut. Ac iunea în restituirea bunurilor date între logodnici a cunoscut la rândul ei trei etape jurispruden iale în Statele Unite ale Americii74). Astfel, într-o prim etap , logodnicii erau obliga i s -úi restituie bunurile atunci când rupeau logodna. Ulterior, având în vedere schimb rile din dreptul familiei potrivit c rora rela iile umane sunt prea complexe pentru a le califica în termeni de culp , restituirea bunurilor nu se mai fundamenta pe culp . Recent, aceast concep ie a evoluat c tre teoria darului condi ional, iar condi ia era încheierea c s toriei, darul trebuind a fi restituit dac c s toria nu mai avea loc. În prima etap , fundamentul restituirii cadourilor oferite între logodnici era existen a unei culpe: logodnica trebuia s restituie inelul de logodn dac rupea logodna, dar nu acelaúi lucru se întâmpla dac logodna era rupt de logodnic. Culpa consta în ruperea logodnei, indiferent de motivul care determina aceasta s se întâmple, persoana considerat vinovat fiind cea care anun a ruperea logodnei75). A doua etap a debutat în anul 1965, când statul New York a modificat legisla ia, în sensul c ac iunea era admisibil pentru restituirea cadourilor f cute în considerarea încheierii c s toriei, dac aceasta nu mai avea loc. Ac iunea nu era bazat pe necesitatea dovedirii unei culpe, ci era justificat doar pe faptul obiectiv al neîncheierii c s toriei76). În a treia etap , conform teoriei darului condi ional, cadoul dat sub o condi ie, care de regul trebuie s fie explicit , trebuie restituit dac condi ia nu se realizeaz 77). In cazul inelului de logodn , condi ia c s toriei este implicit 78). Condi ia a fost interpretat fie ca dorin a donorului de a se c s tori79), fie c s toria îns úi80). În cauzele privind restituirea inelului de logodn instan ele americane au ales a doua interpretare. Spre deosebire de dreptul american, legisla ia britanic prezum c inelul de logodn este un dar absolut al femeii, spre deosebire de alte daruri de logodn , care sunt condi ionale úi trebuie returnate dac logodna este rupt , mai pu in atunci când este rupt din culpa celui care a f cut darul81). 12.2. Codul civil italian Reglementarea în Codul civil italian este succint (art. 79 – 81) úi debuteaz prin afirmarea regulii în conformitate cu care încheierea unei promisiuni de c s torie nu poate obliga partea care nu o respect la încheierea c s toriei.

R. Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. Heartbalm Statues and Deceit Actions, 83 MICH. L. REV., 1770, 1786-87 (1985). 74 R.Tushnet – Rules of Engagement, Yale Law Journal, June, 1998, 107 Yale L.J. 2583, pag.4. 75 Cauza Spinnell v. Quigley, 785 P. 2d 1149, 1150-51 (Wash. Ct. App. 1990), Cauza Stanger v. Epler, 115 A. 2d 197 (Pa. 1955) 76 Cauza Heiman v. Parrish, 942 P. 2d 631, 635-38 (Kan. 1997), Cauza Vigil v. Haber, 888 P. 2d 455, 457 (N.M. 1994); E. M. Tomko, Annotation – Rights in respect of engagement and courtship presents when marriage does not ensue, 44 A.L.R. 5th 1 68-78 (1997). 77 38 AM. JUR. 2D Gifts, par. 81 (1996). 78 Cauza Fierro v. Hoel, 465 N. W. 2d 669, 671 (Iowa Ct. App. 1990). 79 Cauza Coconis v. Christakis, 435 N.E. 2d 100, 102 (Ohio County Ct. 1981). 80 Cauza Lindth v. Surman, 702 A. 2d 560, 561 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1997). 81 S. Cretney, Statues – Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1970, 33 MOD. L. REV. 534, 536 (1970).
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LESIJ NR. XVII, VOL. 1/2010

194

Lex ET Scientia. Juridical Series

În conformitate cu articolul 80, logodnicul poate cere restituirea darurilor f cute în considerarea promisiunii de c s torie, în cazul în care c s toria nu mai are loc. Se observ c , în mod similar cu reglementarea din noul Cod civil român, obliga ia de restituire nu este limitat la darurile f cute între logodnici, legea neexcluzând ab initio restituirea darurilor f cute de ter i ambilor logodnici. Articolul 81 introduce r spunderea pentru ruperea în mod culpabil a logodnei, îns aceasta func ioneaz numai în cazul în care logodna a fost încheiat prin act autentic sau sub semn tur privat (deci, prin act scris, care presupune dovedirea cu mai mare certitudine a inten iei reale a p r ilor de a se angaja în vederea încheierii c s toriei). Angajarea r spunderii opereaz când o parte rupe logodna „f r un motiv întemeiat”. Se observ c nu se utilizeaz expresia „în mod abuziv”, folosit în legisla ia român , îns r mâne ideea de justificare sau chiar de culp . Alineatul al doilea al art. 81 precizeaz , asem n tor cu reglementarea din dreptul român, c obliga ii similare are promitentul, care „din propria sa culp , a dat celuilalt un motiv întemeiat s rup logodna”. Un element important este reprezentat de faptul c art. 81 din Codul civil italian oblig promitentul care a rupt logodna f r un motiv întemeiat s desp gubeasc pe cel lalt pentru pagubele cauzate de „cheltuielile f cute úi obliga iile contractate în vederea c s toriei”, îns nu se prevede extinderea r spunderii la orice alt prejudiciu cauzat. Practic, se elimin prin lege posibilitatea repar rii prejudiciului moral sau a compens rii beneficiului nerealizat, r spunderea limitându-se strict la elementele men ionate. Legea italian prevede, de asemenea, c rambursarea cheltuielilor úi a obliga iilor se realizeaz în limita în care acestea au fost f cute, potrivit st rii p r ilor. Ca element general, se observ caracterul mai restrictiv al condi iilor angaj rii r spunderii pentru ruperea logodnei, în raport cu noul Cod civil român. Sintetizând, legea italian permite angajarea r spunderii numai în condi iile în care logodna s-a încheiat prin act autentic sau sub semn tur privat úi con inutul r spunderii este limitat la cheltuielile úi obliga iile asumate în vederea c s toriei, f r a da posibilitatea repar rii altui prejudiciu. 12.3. Codul civil elve ian Reglementarea logodnei în Elve ia se face prin articolele 90-93 din Codul civil. Astfel cum prev d úi codurile civile român úi italian, Codul civil elve ian precizeaz , în articolul 90, c legea nu acord drept de ac iune pentru a constrânge la încheierea c s toriei pe logodnicul care refuz . În plus fa de cele dou coduri men ionate, sunt reglementate unele reguli privind capacitatea persoanelor care pot încheia o logodn valabil , úi anume minorii úi interziúii au acest drept doar prin reprezentant. Dispozi ia este criticabil , pe argumentul c logodna este un act personal úi ar trebui l sat la aprecierea deplin a persoanei cu capacitate deplin de exerci iu. Dispozi iile articolului 91 din Codul civil elve ian referitoare la restituirea darurilor în caz de rupere a logodnei sunt similare cu cele din noul Cod civil român. Astfel, logodnicii pot cere restituirea darurilor în caz de rupere a logodnei, mai pu in în cazul în care a intervenit moartea unuia dintre logodnici sau în cazul darurilor obiúnuite. Dac aceste daruri nu mai exist în natur , restituirea se face în m sura îmbog irii f r just temei. Deúi Codul civil elve ian nu precizeaz în mod expres, astfel cum o face noul Cod civil român, s-ar putea interpreta c este vorba despre darurile f cute în vederea c s toriei, úi nu orice dar f cut în timpul logodnei. În ceea ce priveúte inciden a bunei-credin e, aceasta este un element de noutate fa de codurile civile român úi italian. Articolul 92 din Codul civil elve ian prevede urm toarele: „În cazul în care unul dintre logodnici a luat decizii în vederea c s toriei, de bun -credin fiind, care au ocazionat cheltuieli sau pierderea unui câútig, acesta poate pretinde celuilalt logodnic o participare financiar adecvat , cu condi ia ca aceasta s nu fie inechitabil în raport cu ansamblul circumstan elor.” Deosebirea fa de reglementarea român privind acordarea desp gubirilor
LESIJ NR. XVII, VOL. 1/2010

Dan Lupascu, Raluca Gâlea

195

const în principal în: a) noul Cod civil român se refer la partea care poate fi obligat la desp gubiri, úi anume cea care a rupt în mod abuziv logodna, în timp ce Codul civil elve ian men ioneaz partea care poate cere astfel de desp gubiri, úi anume cea care a angajat, cu bun credin , astfel de cheltuieli. Apreciem c reglementarea român , deúi criticabil în ceea ce priveúte lipsa unei defini ii sau a circumstan elor care calific o atitudine drept abuziv în cazul ruperii logodnei, este totuúi preferabil celei elve iene, care circumstan iaz buna-credin a persoanei care poate cere úi nu a celei care poate fi obligat la plata desp gubirilor, aúa cum ar fi firesc în cazul angaj rii r spunderii civile a unei persoane; b) noul Cod civil român extinde sfera posibilit ii de a solicita desp gubiri úi pentru „orice alte prejudicii”, fa de Codul civil elve ian care se rezum doar la angajarea unor cheltuieli sau pierderea unui câútig în leg tur cu încheierea c s toriei. Consider m c reglementarea elve ian , ca úi cea italian , sub acest aspect, sunt mai concise úi mai pu in susceptibile de interpretare neunitar , aúa cum ar putea fi cazul legisla iei române.

Concluzii
La prima vedere, în pofida argumentelor legate de tradi ie úi de unele (pu ine) legisla ii str ine, s-ar putea afirma c reglementarea logodnei în noul Cod civil român nu r spunde unei necesit i sociale resim ite. Credem îns c o apreciere din perspectiv vetust ar fi greúit , pentru c logodna poate fi anticamera c s toriei. Iat deci interesul juridic de a úti cine se poate logodi, în ce condi ii, cum se pune cap t logodnei úi, mai ales, care sunt consecin ele ruperii logodnei. Dispozi iile noului Cod civil român cuprinse în articolele 266-270 sunt criticabile pe cel pu in urm toarele aspecte: a) nu stabilesc natura juridic a acestei uniuni; b) nu impun forma scris drept condi ie la încheierea logodnei; c) fundamenteaz ideea r spunderii pentru prejudicii pe ideea de culp ; d) las la aprecierea instan ei categoriile de prejudicii ce pot antrena r spunderea celui care în mod abuziv rupe logodna. Ceea ce ar fi de dorit în viitoarea reglementare ar fi separarea efectelor ruperii logodnei de ideea de culp sau abuz. F r a prelua un anumit model, se poate observa c atât în sistemul american, cât úi în alte sisteme de drept, evolu ia jurispruden ei úi a reglement rii a fost în sensul elimin rii unei aprecieri subiective asupra unor elemente atât de sensibile cum sunt rela iile interumane úi în sensul prob rii mai stricte (nu cu orice mijloc de prob ) a unei promisiuni de c s torie, atunci când de aceasta depind efecte precum angajarea r spunderii juridice. Având în vedere inciden a tot mai mare a rela iilor de tipul concubinajului, socotim c ar fi fost util úi reglementarea unei conven ii de concubinaj, dup modelul unor state, precum: Islanda, Danemarca, Suedia, Marea Britanie, Olanda, etc. O astfel de conven ie putea clarifica drepturile úi obliga iile concubinilor, raporturile cu minorii rezulta i din concubinaj, regimul bunurilor dobândite în timpul concubinajului, ú.a.

LESIJ NR. XVII, VOL. 1/2010

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...Hungary From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Hungary (disambiguation). Hungary Magyarország | | | Flag | Coat of arms | | Anthem:  Himnusz Hymn | Location of  Hungary  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend] | Capital and largest city | Budapest 47°26′N 19°15′E | Official languages | Hungarian | Ethnic groups (2001[1]) | * 92% Hungarians * 2% Roma * 6% others | Demonym | Hungarian | Government | Parliamentary republic |  -  | President | János Áder |  -  | Prime Minister | Viktor Orbán |  -  | Speaker of the National Assembly | László Kövér | Legislature | National Assembly | Foundation |  -  | Foundation | 895  |  -  | Christian kingdom | 1000  |  -  | Secession from Austria-Hungary | 1918  |  -  | Current republic | 23 October 1989  | Area |  -  | Total | 93,030 km2 (109th) 35,919 sq mi  |  -  | Water (%) | 0.74% | Population |  -  | June 2012 estimate | 9,942,000[2] (84th) |  -  | Oct 2011 census | 9,982,000[3] |  -  | Density | 107.2/km2 (94th) 279.0/sq mi | GDP (PPP) | 2011 estimate |  -  | Total | $195.640 billion[4] |  -  | Per capita | $19,891[4] | GDP (nominal) | 2011 estimate |  -  | Total | $140.303 billion[4] |  -  | Per capita | $13,045[4] | Gini (2008) | 24.96 (low / 3rd) | HDI (2011) |  0.816[5] (very high / 38th) | ......

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Arguments for and Against Euthanasia in Terms of Teleological and Deontological Theories

...ABSTRACT The most important general and theoretical horizons regarding bioethics refer to the foundation of ethical theories. We can talk about two main general categories in which we can place the ethical theories: teleological and deontological. From the first category we enumerate the Aristotelian perspective or the one developed by J. St. Mill, while the Kantian perspective is exemplary for deontological ethics. According to the teleological perspective, a form of human behavior is described as moral or non-moral according to the goals explicitly set. The mere achievement of these goals is a necessary and sufficient condition to qualify as moral people’s actions or deeds without taking into account the “intermediate stages” of the actions performed to achieve those goals. Deontology, as a general horizon of articulating the ethical theories, believes on the contrary that in every moment of our existence, every action or deed that we accomplish can be described as moral or non-moral according to the ethical principles underlying our behavior. The very important consequences arising from the two general theoretical horizons concern two different perspectives on “human nature”, or what we call the essence of the human being. Starting from this horizon we will have the consequentialist and deontological dimensions related to euthanasia. The bioethical dimension in which we will discuss the issue of euthanasia involves both dimensions or horizons. The arguments......

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