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GCSE History
Exemplars for Controlled Assessment 2015-2016

Topic Area 1:
Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth century and the twentieth centuries

This document contains the WJEC set controlled assessment exemplars for topic area 1 that are available for award up to 2016. This should be used alongside the general guide to controlled assessment available on the WJEC website.

Topic Area 1:
Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth century and the twentieth centuries

Exemplar Tasks

1. The Rebecca Riots
2. Jack the Ripper’s London
3. The Depression of the 1930s
4. Quarrying in North Wales
5. Life in the 1960s

Introduction

Controlled Assessment is a compulsory unit for GCSE History.

Please note the following advice:

These exemplars are written in a consistent style to ensure comparability of demand. These exemplars can be used for entry in any year of the current specification. Centres must change their controlled assessment tasks each year Centres must submit a proposal form for each two year cycle demonstrating to WJEC that they are using different tasks in consecutive years. Centres who are not studying any British history in their examined units must select controlled assessment tasks that focus on British history. Centres cannot mix and match parts (a) and (b) from different tasks. The controlled assessment unit can only be entered at the end of the course. Candidates must complete the controlled assessment tasks selected by the centre for that particular year. Centres are allowed to write their own controlled assessment tasks. This is called contextualisation. If this choice is made, the tasks must replicate the style of the exemplars entirely and approval must be gained from a WJEC consultative moderator.

Topic area 1

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and
England in the nineteenth century and twentieth century

Task 1: The Rebecca Riots

Controlled Assessment Task part (a)There were many examples of rural protest in Wales and England in the nineteenth century. One of these was the Rebecca Riots.Select any FIVE sources from your pack.How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining why the Rebecca Riots were seen as a threat to society in the mid-nineteenth century?Controlled Assessment Task part (b)Some historians argue that the Rebecca Riots were mainly caused by poverty and poor living conditions.How valid is this interpretation of the causes of the Rebecca Riots? |

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)There were many examples of rural practices in Wales and England in the 19th century. One of these was the Rebecca Riots.Select any FIVE sources from your packHow useful and reliable are these sources in explainingwhy the Rebecca Riots were seen as a threat to society inthe mid-nineteenth century? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

How can part (a) be tackled?

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* A brief introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.
It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
A short paragraph is sufficient here.

* An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.
Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of the events of the Rebecca Riots. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:

What information does the source provide about …?
Does the source back up your knowledge about …?
Who was the author/maker?
When was the source written?
Why was it written?
Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?

It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.

SOURCE A1

[An artist's impression of an attack by the Rebecca rioters, from a newspaper, The Illustrated London News. This drawing appeared alongside a report on the Rebecca Riots written by a journalist. (1839)]

SOURCE A2

The leaders of the mob were disfigured by painting their faces in various colours, wearing horse-hair beards and women's clothes. All the doors of all the houses in the neighbourhood were locked and the inhabitants locked within, not daring to exhibit a light in their window. The mob stopped all drovers coming in the direction of Carmarthen and levied a contribution from them, stating they had destroyed all the toll gates. |

[From an article by a reporter writing in The Carmarthen Journal, a local newspaper which supported the authorities (16 December 1842)]

SOURCE A3

| [A cartoon showing Rebecca rioters attacking tollgates marked with the things they were angry about. The cartoon is from the satirical English magazine called Punch (1842)]

SOURCE A4

By 1843, Rebecca incidents had grown alarmingly across the whole of the West Wales area. The supporters of Rebecca felt strong enough to march in daylight to Carmarthen to present a petition to the Magistrates at the Guildhall. On 19th June, a crowd of 2,000 with Rebecca at the head surged into Carmarthen and were joined by many poor people of the town. They seemed to have persuaded the farmers to attack the hated workhouse and they arrived at the gates and demanded to be let in. The Master had little option but to open the gates to the yard and once inside, the rioters laid hold of the Matron, Mrs Evans, and took the keys to the workhouse from her. They then attacked the Master, broke up the contents of the workhouse and ordered the inmates outside. They were preparing to burn the workhouse when a rumour spread that soldiers were approaching. A troop of the 4th Light Dragoons had been sent from Cardiff to Carmarthen and when news reached them of the riot, they galloped to the scene as the workhouse was being attacked. The rioters panicked at the approach of the soldiers and ran away. In the stampede chase that followed around sixty rioters were seized by the troops. |

[From a web page on an internet site concerned with genealogy and family history, www.glamorganfamilyhistory.co.uk (2003)]

SOURCE A5

About 9 o'clock he heard a man calling him out of bed, and Shoni Sgubor Fawr came into the room. He had a single barrelled gun in his hand. From fear he went with him and they went together to the mountain and there they met another party headed by Dai y Cantwr in a shawl and bonnet. They proceeded towards Pontyberem and went to Mr Newman's house, (the owner of Pontyberem Iron-works) where they made a great noise and fired several shots. Shoni said that Slocombe (a clerk in the employ of Mr Newman) must leave in a week, for no Englishman should manage in Wales any more. If he did not he would be killed and his house pulled down. |

[Information provided to local magistrates about the activities of the Rebecca rioters by David Lewis of Trimsaran. Lewis was an informer used by the authorities. (26 September 1843)]

SOURCE A6

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Looking downwards my friends and I saw the flashing of sunlight on a thin line of cavalry forcing their way up the hill and through the crowds. It was the reflection of sun rays from their swords and uniforms. In an instant we three rushed to a small side door opening on the road up to the Brewery; the lock was kicked off and, crossing the road, we leapt over a hedge and were safe. Scores followed us and took to flight immediately. Mike Bowen who had dressed up as Rebecca had entered the workhouse yard, but when the horsemen were coming up the hill he clapped his ‘curls’ in his hat, got out through the small side door and made off across the fields, leaving his horse behind him.
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[Alcwyn Evans, a 15 year old who took part in the Carmarthen riots. He wrote about the Rebecca riots in the 1870s, gathering material from other eye-witnesses and written accounts. His work was not published, but three copies of his book remain in museums in Aberystwyth, Tenby and Carmarthen.]

SOURCE A7 Reverend Sir,I with one of my daughters, have recently been on a journey to Aberaeron, and have heard a great deal about you, namely that you have built a schoolroom in the upper part of the parish, and that you have been very dishonest in the erection of it, and that you promised a free school for the people, but that you have converted it into a church, and that you get £80 a year for serving it. Now, if this is true, you must give the money back, every halfpenny of it, otherwise if you do not, I with 500 or 600 of my daughters will come and visit you, and destroy your property to five times the value of it, and make you a subject of scorn and reproach throughout the whole neighbourhood. You know that I am the foe of oppression.Yours, Rebecca and her daughters |

[A letter sent to the vicar of Llangrannog in Cardiganshire who had been forcing non-conformists in the area to give money towards setting up a local church school. (June 19th 1843)]

SOURCE A8

[A poster issued by the authorities offering a reward for information following an attack by Rebecca Rioters (August 1843)]

SOURCE A9

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Probably the greater portion of your life will be spent in a foreign land and how different will be your position then to what it is here. You will be compelled to work but will receive no payment for your labours except such food as will serve to support you. You will not be in name, but in reality, slaves. To that I must sentence you. The sentence of the court is that you John Jones will be transported beyond the seas for the term of your natural life, and that you David Davies be transported for twenty years.

[Part of the sentence passed on two of the Rebecca rioters by the judge at the Carmarthen Assizes (27 December 1843)]

SOURCE A10

The Rebecca Riots spread to many parts of West and Mid Wales. The number of people involved multiplied and the violence used by the rioters also grew. At times it must have seemed like the whole population of West Wales was in revolt. The government was alarmed enough to send down to West Wales a large number of soldiers to crush the riots. Later a Commission of Enquiry was set up to find out what the causes of these serious outbreaks were. Certainly the Rebecca Riots was one of the most serious threats to authority in the whole of the nineteenth century in Wales and England. |

[David Egan, an historian writing in a text book for GCSE history students, People, Protest and Politics in nineteenth century Wales (1987)]

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)Some historians argue that the Rebecca Riots were mainly caused by poverty and poor living conditions.How valid is this interpretation of the causes of the Rebecca Riots? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (b) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* An introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.
It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.
There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.

* A discussion / explanation of the first interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* A discussion / explanation of the second interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* Summary
There should be a final answer to the set question.
There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.

It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.

It is also recommended that candidates use no more than four sources from each section to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

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SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION |

SOURCE B1

It was in the winter of 1842 that the Rebecca riots broke out and their cause was undoubtedly poverty. It was distress and semi-starvation which led the country people to march under the banners of Rebecca. The attacks on the toll-gates were almost accidental. |

[David Williams, an academic historian and university lecturer, writing in a specialist text book, The Rebecca Riots (1955)]

SOURCE B2

The main cause of the mischief is beyond doubt the poverty of the farmers. They have become thereby discontented at every tax and burden they have been called upon to pay. If to this can be added an unjust imposition [the tolls] you have the crowning climax, however trivial it may appear in itself, which has fanned this discontent into a flame. Agricultural labourers arrive at starvation point rather than apply for poor relief, knowing that if they do so they will be dragged into the Union Workhouse, where they will be placed themselves in one yard, their wives in another, their male children in a third and their daughters in a fourth. The bread which I saw in a Workhouse is made entirely of barley and is nearly black. It has a gritty and rather sour taste. |

[Thomas Campbell Foster, a journalist sent to report on the Rebecca riots, writing in an article in the London newspaper, The Times
(26 June 1843)]

SOURCE B3

[A photograph showing living conditions in Cardiganshire in the mid-nineteenth century]

SOURCE B4

The small farmer here breakfasts on oatmeal and water boiled called 'duffey' or 'flummery' or on a few mashed potatoes. He dines on potatoes and buttermilk, with sometimes a little white Welsh cheese and barley bread, and as an occasional treat he has a salt herring. Fresh meat is never seen on the Farmer's table. He sups (has supper) on mashed potatoes. His butter he never tastes, beef or mutton never form the farmer's food. Labourers live entirely on potatoes, and have seldom enough of them, having only one meal a day. |

[Thomas Campbell Foster, a journalist sent to report on the Rebecca riots, writing in an article in the London newspaper, The Times
(2 December 1843)]

SOURCE B5

Last time when I had the tithe to pay, I could only make up seven sovereigns (pounds). He (the landlord's agent) refused to take them and trust me for a week or two for the rest, till I could sell something. I have nursed sixteen children and never owed a farthing but we are worse off than ever. Yet my husband has not spent sixpence in beer these twenty years nor can I or the children go to church or chapel for want of decent clothing. We perhaps might have gone on but now this tithe comes so heavy. |

[Mary Thomas of Llanelli, the wife of an agricultural labourer, giving evidence to the Commission of Inquiry into the causes of the Rebecca riots (1844)]

SOURCE B6

When I meet the lime-men on the road covered with sweat and dust, I know they are Rebeccaites. When I see the coalmen coming to town clothed in rags, hard-worked and hard-fed, I know they are mine, they are Rebecca’s children. When I see the farmers’ wives carrying loaded baskets to market, bending under the weight I know well that these are my daughters. If I turn into a farmer’s house and see them eating only barley bread and drinking whey, surely I say, these are members of my family, these are the oppressed sons and daughters of Rebecca. |

[From a letter to the newspaper The Welshman received in September 1843. The letter was signed ‘Rebecca.’ The Welshman was a newspaper printed in Carmarthen which attacked the poverty and bad living conditions of local people.]

SOURCE B7

In the year 1840, which was a very wet summer, nearly all the farmers had to purchase corn, either for seed or bread. This distress has not been the result of one or two or three years but a series of at least twenty. The value of the farmer’s land and property has decreased in value while the rates, taxes, tithes and rent have been increased. This made the farmers very distressed. |

[James Rogers of Carmarthen, a corn merchant, giving evidence to the Commission of Inquiry into the causes of the Rebecca riots (1844)]

SOURCE B8

Although most people connect the riots with attacks on toll-gates, there were many other causes for complaint which contributed to the violent outbreaks. The living and working conditions of the farmers of West Wales were the main source of discontent. The year before had seen prices of stock at sale falling as had harvest yields, only serving to increase local poverty. The introduction of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 had meant that the poor could only receive help (poor relief) if they entered a workhouse. The workhouse became a symbol of the awful poverty faced by many people in West Wales. |

[From an educational website on the local history of Powys aimed at secondary school students, www.history.powys.org.uk (2008)]

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SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION
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SOURCE B9

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Tollgates were only the most common objects of popular hatred and resentment: workhouses were also attacked, as were weirs that restricted fishing. Farmers perceived a range of oppressors who, collectively, denied them justice: their unsympathetic, culturally alien landlords, who failed to grant them rent reductions; local magistrates, who treated the poor ‘like dogs’ when they came before the bench; masters of workhouses wherein the poor were locked up; tithe agents, bailiffs and Anglican clergymen who levied heavy tithes on a largely chapel-going population; and toll collectors.
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[From an entry on the Rebecca riots in The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of WALES, published by University of Wales Press (2008)]

SOURCE B10

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It appears to us generally that the chief grounds of complaint were the mismanagement of funds by the turnpike trusts businesses. Also causing great distress were the mount and the payment of tolls to use the roads and in some cases the conduct and attitude of the toll collectors and the illegal demands made by them.
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[From the official report of the Commission of Inquiry set up to investigate into the causes of the Rebecca Riots. The report was presented to the government in 1844.]

SOURCE B11

The gentry held all the political power in West Wales. Ordinary people did not have the right to vote in elections at this time. Justices of the Peace (magistrates) were nearly always appointed from the ranks of the lesser gentry. The JPs had important responsibilities for law and order and for dealing with issues of poverty. Some of the magistrates in West Wales were corrupt and used their power for their own interest. |

[David Egan, an historian and lecturer, writing in a GCSE history text book, People, Protest and Politics (1987)]

SOURCE B12

A person enumerated [counted] to me a list of landowners who draw out of West Wales twenty-five thousand pounds annually, without ever seeing the spot from whence they derive [get] their wealth. This great sum is taken away not by one overgrown Lord but by several landowners of from one to five thousand pounds a year. |

[Benjamin Heath Malkin, an English historian and author who travelled extensively in South Wales, writing in his survey The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales (1807)]

SOURCE B13

NOTICEBeing informed that the people, styling themselvess Rebeccaites, were assembled on Llechryd Bridge, on Tuesday night, the 18th July, with the declared intention of destroying the SALMON WEIR, now in my occupation; and having been informed that although their nefarious and unlawful designs were, upon that occasion, frustrated by the arrival of a military Force, yet they have intimated their desire to repeat the attempt.I hereby give Notice,That upon the commission of any such aggression upon that, or any other part of my Property whatsoever, or upon the Property of any of my Neighbours in the District, I will immediately discharge every Day Labourer at present in my employment; and not restore one of them until the Aggressors shall have been apprehended and convictedABEL LEWIS GOWERCastle-Malgwyn, 24th July 1843 | | RHYBYDDHysbyswyd i mi fod y bobl a alwant en hunain Rebeccaaid, wedi ymgynnull ynghyd ar Bont Llechryd, ar nos Fawrth, y 18fed o Gor, i'r dyhen i ddistrywio yr Eog Gored, sydd yn bresennol yn fy meddiant; ac hefyd, fod en hamcan drygionus ac anghyfreithlon, yr amser hwnnw, wedi cael ei ddiddymu gan bresenoldeb y Milwr; ond etto, amlygiant eu hamcanion penderfynol i wneuthur ail ruthr. Hyn sydd i hysbysu, mai ar gyflawniad y fath ddinystr ar fy meddianniau i, neu feddiannau rhywrai o'm cymmydogion yn y Dosparth hwn, y bydd i mi dalu ymaith bob gweithiwr dyddiol sydd an awr yn fy ngwasanaeth; ac nis cymmeraf un a honynt yn ol hyd nes caiff y fath ddynion drygionus en dal a'n cospi.ABEL LEWIS GOWERCastell-Malgwyn, Gor. 24 1843 |

[A poster issued by the local landowner following an attack on the Salmon Weir on the River Teifi at Llechryd in Cardiganshire (July 1843)]

SOURCE B14

RATE OF TOLL TO BE TAKEN AT THIS GATE | | £ | s | d | For every Horse or other Beast drawing any Coach or such like Carriage | 0 | 0 | 6 | For every Horse or other Beast (except Asses) drawing any Waggon or such like | 0 | 0 | 4 | For every Ass drawing any Cart, Carriage or other vehicle | 0 | 0 | 2 | For every Horse or Mule, laden or unladen and not drawing | 0 | 0 | 11/2 | For every Ass, laden or unladen and not drawing | 0 | 0 | 1/2 | For every Horse or other animal employed in carrying lime to be used for manure | 0 | 0 | 2 | For every drove of Oxen, Cows or Cattle, the sum of Ten Pence per Score, and so in proportion for any greater or less number | | | | For every drove of Calves, Hogs, Sheep or Lambs, the sum of Five Pence per Score, and so in proportion for any greater or less number | | | |

[A poster showing the toll charges of the South Gate tollhouse in Aberystwyth in 1842. These were very high charges for poor farmers]

SOURCE B15

[An artist’s impression of life in a typical mid-nineteenth century Union workhouse. This drawing appeared in the Illustrated London News alongside an article looking at the problems of people in West Wales (1843)]

SOURCE B16

In the summer of 1839 the farmers of west Wales were very unhappy. They were disturbed by the news that Thomas Bullin was gradually taking control of all the turnpike trusts in the area. Bullin had first started his profitable toll activities in England and had now moved to southwest Wales. Bullin paid rent to the Turnpike Trust and in return was allowed to collect the tolls from people who used its roads. In the past, tollkeepers had often allowed local people to use the roads without charge. However, this was to change as the wages of Bullin's tollkeepers depended on the amount of money they collected. The farmers were particularly angry when they heard that Bullin had been granted permission to place more tollgates on the road. These new tollgates would increase the cost of bringing in the lime that they needed to fertilise their land. Extra tolls would also reduce the profits that they made when selling their produce at the local market. In the summer of 1839, the farmers decided to take action against Bullin and his new tollgates.On the night of May 13, a group of them set fire to the tollhouse at Efailwen. A few weeks later they destroyed the tollgate at Maesgwyn. In both cases, farmers wore women's clothes. Eyewitnesses claimed that the leader was a tall man who the others called Rebecca. Local magistrates were shocked by the violence that the farmers had used, and decided to order Bullin to remove the new tollgates. The Rebeccaites had won a great victory. |

[From a website containing specially written school history resources www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk (2008)]

Topic Area 1

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the Nineteenth and the Twentieth Century

Task 2: Social Conditions and Crime in Jack the Ripper's London

Controlled Assessment Task part (a)The lives of people in the East End of London were very difficult towards the end of the nineteenth century.Select any FIVE sources from your pack.How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining how difficult life was for the inhabitants of the East End?Controlled Assessment Task part (b)Some historians argue that Jack the Ripper was not caught because of police failures.How valid is this interpretation of the failure to catch Jack the Ripper? |

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)The lives of people in the East End of London were very difficult towards the end of the nineteenth centurySelect any FIVE sources from your packHow useful and reliable are these sources in explaininghow difficult life was for the inhabitants of the East End? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

How can part (a) be tackled?

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* A brief introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.
It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
A short paragraph is sufficient here.

* An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.
Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. It is recommended that the sources are integrated into supporting a narrative of life in the East End of London. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:

What information does the source provide about …?
Does the source back up your knowledge about …?
Who was the author/maker?
When was the source written?
Why was it written?
Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?

It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.

SOURCE A1

[Part of a map of the East End produced by Charles Booth in 1889 as part of a long term project studying poverty.]
(The full map shows almost all of London. It can be found at www.casebook.org/victorian_london/maps or www.umich.edu/~risotto/imagemap)

SOURCE A2

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It was a period of great social unrest and change. Queen Victoria reigned over the great British Empire, whose capital, London, was the largest and most prosperous city in the world. The streets were alive with the bustle of teeming millions of people. Horse-drawn cabs and omnibuses clattered back and forth in great numbers.
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[Stewart Evans and Keith Skinner, two of the world's leading experts on Jack the Ripper, writing in their book, Jack the Ripper and the Whitechapel Murders (2002)]

SOURCE A3

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The East End was London's poor quarter. It was also the area most identified with social problems. Life was hard for those living in its maze of tiny streets. Many of the overcrowded tenement buildings housed up to thirty families, some of whom lived directly above cess-pits. 55% of children died before they reached the age of five. Women who could not get "respectable" work prostituted themselves.
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[Donald Rumbelow, an historian, speaking in the BBC television documentary, Jack the Ripper: An Ongoing Mystery (2000)]

SOURCE A4

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The streets are desolate and deserted after nightfall. Turn down this side-street, but tuck out of view any items of jewellery. The street is oppressively dark though some shop fronts are lit. Men are lounging in doorways smoking evil-smelling pipes, women are strolling about in twos and threes, or are seated gossiping on steps leading into even darker passages. Round the corner is the notorious Wentworth Street, where it is said the police will only go in pairs. It is late at night but gutters, doorways, passages and staircases seem to be teeming with children.
[From an article about Whitechapel in The Daily News, a newspaper which campaigned for social improvement (November 1888)]

SOURCE A5

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Against the dreary workhouse were leaning, in the middle of a downpour, what he thought were seven heaps of rags, who in fact were all girls. His impression was of "dumb, wet, silent horrors." He tried to help by appealing to the Master of the workhouse, but it was full, and no help was possible. Dickens gave them each a shilling, for which he received no thanks, and walked on his way reflecting on the low levels to which humans can sometimes fall.

[B.W. Matz, writing an article about Charles Dickens which was published in the magazine The Dickensian in 1905. Dickens often walked through Whitechapel, and used scenes from it in his books. This incident being described happened in 1855.]

SOURCE A6

[A drawing of life in the East End by French artist Gustave Dore. He produced it as an illustration for one of Charles Dickens's short stories in the 1860s]

SOURCE A7

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One of London's oldest housing associations, the Peabody Trust, has helped the Museum in Docklands unlock the mystery of what life was like in London's East End over 100 years ago.
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The Peabody Trust is one of London's largest and oldest housing associations, as well as being a charity and community regeneration agency. Founded by George Peabody in 1862, the Trust's blocks of model dwellings provided healthy accommodation at affordable rents. Tenants might previously have had no alternative to occupying a slum with no fresh air or sanitation. The Trust's oldest estate was built in Spitalfields in 1864. By 1888 it owned 5,000 dwellings, housing 20,000 people.
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Jack the Ripper victim Mary Ann Nichols had been a Peabody Trust resident. She lived on a Peabody estate with her husband before they split up and she moved to Whitechapel.

[From a press release advertising the Museum in Docklands (2008)]

SOURCE A8

[A magazine illustration of a Jewish second-hand boot seller in London in the late nineteenth century. As a result of massive persecution in Russia from 1881 onwards, an estimated three million Jews fled to the West. Approximately 100,000 settled in the UK, many of them in the East End of London, leading to some anti-Jewish feeling in the area.]

SOURCE A9

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Everything is to be bought from the stalls which line Whitechapel Road. The flame lights show toys, hatchets, crockery, carpets, oil-cloth, meat, fish, greens, second-hand boots, furniture and flowers etc. Round every stall are eager women bartering with the salesman. The poor mother must be very careful with her pennies when she needs food but her child's boots let in the wet. Other women chat and laugh because their husbands have given them a shilling or two extra this week.

[From a feature in the Daily Telegraph newspaper (1862)]

SOURCE A10

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It is certainly true that Whitechapel had its problems. There was high unemployment due to the massive influx of refugees from Eastern Europe. Prostitution was rife and alcoholism fuelled by cheap gin was common. Despite these and many other problems Whitechapel and the East End in general were also home to a large number of honest, hard-working residents, many of whom worked to ease the conditions and to integrate with the increasing Jewish community.
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It could be argued that the area had two distinct personalities, one light and one dark. During daylight hours it was a bustling community of shop owners, street traders, market sellers, factory workers and tradesmen. Yet between dusk and dawn its personality changed. The single mile stretch of the Whitechapel Road, for example, was home to no fewer than 45 pubs and gin-palaces along with opium houses and innumerable brothels.
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After the publicity caused by the 1888 murders lots of social reforms were implemented. Many houses were pulled down to make way for new buildings, street-lighting increased and better sanitation introduced. Certainly the area changed but it had already been a focus of activity for social reformers and educators trying to improve living conditions.

[From an article on the Whitechapel area in the 1880s, published on the website www.articlesbase.com/culture-articles (2010)]

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)Some historians argue that Jack the Ripper was not caught because of police failures.How valid is this interpretation of the failure to catch Jack the Ripper? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

Underneath is a suggested structure which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* An introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.
It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.
There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.

* A discussion/explanation of the first interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* A discussion/explanation of the second interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* Summary

There should be a final answer to the set question.
There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.

It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.

It is also recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources from each section (8 in total) to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B1

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The initial strategy for undoing the Ripper was quite ordinary – just increase the number of police in London's East End. While there, the constables, who throughout had no reliable description of the killer, spent considerable time in cheap lodging houses and pubs seeking any "suspicious" wretch. In the early stages they detained and questioned countless men. Later they became reluctant to check even truly suspicious persons. And so the Ripper went on killing.

[John Holliday, an historian writing in his book, Jack the Ripper, the Green River Killer and the Police (1990)]

SOURCE B2

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The police failed to control public perception of their actions, which led to the crisis quickly spinning out of control. They failed to control the flow of information and did not prove that they were acting responsibly. They failed to show that they were doing everything to catch the killer. Finally the police allowed internal disagreements and failed relationships within their ranks to cause turmoil.

[Brian Schoeneman, an American historian writing in his article,
A Crisis Management Based Analysis of the Whitechapel Murders (2002)]

SOURCE B3

[An illustration published in Punch magazine on September 22nd 1888. It was drawn by Tenniel, one of the most famous artists of the time, and was accompanied by a poem making fun of the police.]

SOURCE B4

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We do not wish to blame the police. But we do say that the organisation of the force must be radically wrong if this criminal escapes or even continues his dreadful work. Whether it is from the constant change of "beats," the introduction of recruits from the country areas, the inability of the detectives, or the lack of proper brains in their superior officers, the reputation of our police system is now at stake. Nothing suppresses crime so certainly as the certainty of detection and punishment; nothing encourages it so much as the chance of escape.
-------------------------------------------------

From an editorial in the London Evening News newspaper (5th October 1888)]

SOURCE B5

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Near the body of Catherine Eddowes a bloody and soiled piece of her apron was found. Above it was scrawled a message in chalk: "the Juwes are the men that will not be blamed for nothing". Great controversy was caused by the decision of the Metropolitan Police commissioner, Sir Charles Warren, to erase this message.
-------------------------------------------------

[Stewart Evans and Keith Skinner, two of the world's leading experts on Jack the Ripper, writing in their book, Jack the Ripper and the Whitechapel Murders (2002)]

SOURCE B6

[Another illustration by Tenniel which criticises the police, published in Punch magazine on13th October 1888]

SOURCE B7

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This new ghastly murder shows the absolute necessity for some very decided action. All these streets must be lit and our detectives improved. They are not what they should be. You promised, when the first murders took place, to consult your colleagues about it.

[A telegram (originally sent in code) from Queen Victoria to the Prime Minister on 10th November 1888]

SOURCE B8

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The Queen fears that the detective department is not as efficient as it might be. No doubt the recent murders were committed in conditions which made detection difficult. Still the Queen thinks it is a small area and a great number of detectives might be employed.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Have all the passenger boats been examined?
-------------------------------------------------

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Has investigation been made into the number of single men occupying rooms to themselves?
-------------------------------------------------

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The murderer's clothes might be saturated with blood and must be kept somewhere?
-------------------------------------------------
Is there enough surveillance at night?
-------------------------------------------------

[Handwritten draft of a letter to the Home Secretary written by Queen Victoria's Private Secretary (13th November 1888)]

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SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B9

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It is unfair to blame the police for not capturing Jack the Ripper. It is hard to recognise now how little in the way of scientific evidence the police would have been able to collect. It would be another fourteen years before the first finger-print conviction. You had no blood-groups, no DNA. In 1888 they could not even tell the difference between human and animal blood.
-------------------------------------------------

[Donald Rumbelow, an historian, speaking in the BBC television documentary, Jack the Ripper: An Ongoing Mystery (2000)]

SOURCE B10

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POLICE NOTICE TO THE OCCUPIER
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
On the morning of Friday 31st August, Saturday 8th and Sunday 30th September, 1888, women were murdered in or near Whitechapel, supposed by someone residing in the neighbourhood. Should you know of any person to whom suspicion is attached, you are earnestly requested to communicate at once with the nearest Police station.

[A leaflet appealing for help, delivered by the police to every dwelling in Whitechapel after the murders of Elizabeth Stride and Kate Eddowes. (September 1888)]

SOURCE B11

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The injuries have been made by someone who had considerable anatomical skill and knowledge. It was done by someone who knew where to find what he wanted and how to use the knife. No unskilled person could have known where to find these organs or to have recognised them. No mere slaughterer of animals could have carried out these operations.
-------------------------------------------------

[From the Coroner's Report on the death of Polly Nicholls in September 1888. This persuaded the police to concentrate on looking for a doctor or a butcher.]

SOURCE B12

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Equally burdensome was the press. Dozens of newspapermen had been sent down to the East End and all had column inches to fill. They hung about outside police stations and sat in pubs buying drinks for anyone willing to concoct wilder and wilder stories. The Star published an exclusive front-page story under a banner headline "Leather Apron" about a strange character who prowled about after midnight. The newspaper claimed to have interviewed dozens of prostitutes who all told the same story. It was soon repeated in other papers and in the beer shops and kitchens of Whitechapel. The only flaw was that there was not a scrap of evidence to suggest that "Leather Apron" ever existed. Nevertheless policemen had to be assigned to speak to the reporter and chase down the prostitutes quoted.
-------------------------------------------------

[Jeremy Gavron, an author and local historian, writing in An Acre of Barren Ground, a novel which is based on events in the history of Spitalfields (2005)]

SOURCE B13

[Police photographs of a few of the men who were suspected of being Jack the Ripper. These and many others were interviewed under suspicion of being the serial killer.]

SOURCE B14

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He was dark complexioned and was wearing a deerstalker hat. I think he was wearing a dark coat but I cannot be sure. He was a man over forty as far as I could tell. He seemed to be a little taller than the deceased. He looked to me like a foreigner, as well as I could make out.
-------------------------------------------------

[Elizabeth Long, giving evidence at the inquest into the death of Annie Chapman in September 1888. She was describing a man seen talking to Chapman before the murder.]

SOURCE B15

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The murders, so cunningly continued, are carried out with a complete ruthlessness which baffles investigators. Not a trace is left of the murderer, and there is no purpose in the crime to give the slightest clue. All the police can hope is that some accident will lead to a trace which may be followed to a successful conclusion.
-------------------------------------------------

[From an article published in The Times after the murder of Mary Kelly (November 1888)]

SOURCE B16

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I have to acquaint you that in connection with the recent murders in Whitechapel, one Inspector, 9 Sergeants and 126 constables of the Metropolitan Police have been employed in plain clothes to patrol the neighbourhood of the murders.
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[A government official replying to a request for information from the Home Secretary (December 1888)]

Topic area 1

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and
England in the nineteenth century and twentieth century

Task 3: The Depression of the 1930s

Controlled Assessment Task part (a)The 1930s was a period of Depression in much of Wales and England. This Depression had many causes.Select any FIVE sources from your pack.How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining why there was a Depression in the 1930s?Controlled Assessment Task part (b)Some historians argue that life in the 1930s was difficult and depressing.How valid is this interpretation of life in the 1930s? |

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)The 1930s was a period of Depression in much of Wales and England. The Depression had many causes.Select any FIVE sources from your packHow useful and reliable are these sources in explainingwhy there was a Depression in the 1930s? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

How can part (a) be tackled?

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* A brief introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.
It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
A short paragraph is sufficient here.

* An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.
Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of the causes of the Depression. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:

What information does the source provide about…
Does the source back up your knowledge about…
Who was the author / maker
When was the source written
Why was it written
Is there any doubt over the author / is she trustworthy?

It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.

SOURCE A1

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In the Great War Britain’s older industries, like ship building and coal mining, were working at full stretch, but little new equipment was installed. After the war world trade declined and these industries faced dangerous losses. In the mid 1920s things picked up for a time, but then in 1929 came the ‘great crash’ in the United States. Thousands of people who had invested their money in industry suddenly panicked and tried to sell their shares; prices fell sharply, a great many people went bankrupt, and business was hard hit. There followed an even worse decline in world trade; Britain, whose prosperity depended largely on trade, suffered badly. By 1930 there were 2.5 million men out of work, and unemployment did not fall below a million again until 1936. Unemployment was worst in the older industrial regions, like Central Scotland, Northern England and South Wales.
-------------------------------------------------

[From the commentary to a BBC television series produced in 1970 for secondary school students. The programme title was The Hungry Thirties]

SOURCE A2

| COAL | IRON | COTTON | Year | Total output of coal (million tonnes) | Total output ofiron (million tonnes) | Exports of cotton goods (million metres) | 1913 | 290 | 10 | 6,500 | 1929 | 260 | 8 | 3,400 | 1938 | 230 | 7 | 1,300 |

[Official statistics showing what happened to three major British industries between 1913 and 1938]

SOURCE A3

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The economic clauses of the Treaty of Versailles are malignant and dangerous. Few people bothered to object to the punishment of Germany in this way. Germany can only pay reparations in services or goods like coal and iron. When these goods arrive in the countries demanding compensation, this is going to hit local industries. There will be hard times ahead for industry.
-------------------------------------------------

[Winston Churchill, a backbench MP, speaking in Parliament about the Treaty of Versailles (1920)]

SOURCE A4

[A diagram from a school text book showing how American money was important to help Europe recover after World War I]

SOURCE A5

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Before the Great War Britain’s prosperity had depended on the sale of heavy industrial goods like coal and steel. However, at the end of the war, these older industries entered a period of decline. Rising costs and a failure to invest in new technology and machinery caused problems. There was a fall in demand for British goods and increased competition from abroad, particularly from the USA and Germany. The more expensive British goods could not compete with cheaper imports. To make matters worse, Britain’s traditional pre-war export market – countries like Australia, Canada and New Zealand – were no longer prepared to ‘buy British’. They bought American steel, German coal, Japanese ships and Indian cotton instead.
-------------------------------------------------

[Roger Turvey, an historian and school teacher, writing in a text book for GCSE history students, Wales and Britain 1906-1951 (1997)]

SOURCE A6

[An election poster for the British general election in October 1924. The poster is criticising the post-war economic policy of the British government.]

SOURCE A7

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There was a basic weakness in the Welsh economy which was not realised until long after the First World War. Wales was almost totally reliant on three main industries – coal, steel and tinplate. There was little or no diversity from this heavy industry and, though it was not to be foreseen, this was the fundamental reason why South Wales was so hard hit when the Depression of the early 1930s eventually came.
-------------------------------------------------

[An extract from a website that contains resources written by school teachers, www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk]

SOURCE A8

[A photograph of the abandoned Court Herbert Colliery in Neath. The colliery was one of many in the UK that closed after the General Strike in 1926 and never reopened.]

SOURCE A9

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The Labour government was caught up in a big economic storm. It was not easy for a government without a majority to take drastic action. If MacDonald (the Prime Minister) had been able to work with Lloyd George (the leader of the Liberals) then something might have been done, but the two men didn’t get on at all. MacDonald and his ministers had no constructive ideas and failed to take any positive action to help with the economic blizzard.
-------------------------------------------------

[Clement Attlee, a Labour MP in the government of 1929-1931, writing in his memoirs, As It Happened (1938)]

SOURCE A10

[A cartoon by David Low, published in the Evening Standard newspaper in 1930. The cartoon shows the government ministers stuck in the lifeboat and is captioned The lifeboat that stayed ashore.]

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)Some historians argue that life in the 1930s was difficult and depressing.How valid is this interpretation of life in the 1930s? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (b) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* An introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.
It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.
There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.

* A discussion / explanation of the first interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed.

* A discussion / explanation of the second interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed.

* Summary
There should be a final answer to the set question.
There should be a judgement reached as to which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.

It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.

It is also recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources from each section (8 in total) to explain how and why each interpretation has been carried out.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
SOURCES THAT SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B1

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The people who suffered grim unemployment lived in areas of declining industry, mainly in the north of England and South Wales. Here the main industries were those that had made Britain a great industrial power in the nineteenth century – coal, iron and steel, shipbuilding and textiles. Unfortunately these were the hardest hit when Britain’s share of overseas trade fell. In these ‘depressed areas’, the long queues of unemployed workers outside the labour exchange, waiting to ‘sign on’, became a regular part of life.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
The Means Test was hated by the unemployed. The Means Test certainly saved the Government several million pounds a year, but the distress it caused was out of proportion to its usefulness. Fathers were ‘knocked off the dole’ altogether in some cases because their sons and daughters had regular jobs. Nothing could be more damaging to a man’s self-respect than to have to be supported by his children.
-------------------------------------------------

[R. J. Cootes, an historian, writing in a school history text-book, The making of the Welfare State (1966)]

SOURCE B2

[A photograph of an unemployed man seeking work in Newcastle in 1932.]

SOURCE B3

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The spirit here in the Rhondda Valley does help to soften many of the hardships of unemployment. I’m glad I haven’t got a son. It must be a heartbreaking business to watch your boy grow into manhood and then see him deteriorate because there is no work for him to do. I’ve been out of work now for eight years and I’ve only managed to get eleven days work down the pit in all that time. Work used to shape my whole life, and now I’ve got to face the fact that this will not be so any more.
-------------------------------------------------

[John Evans, a 47 year old out of work coal miner from the Rhondda in South Wales, interviewed for a government survey into the effects of unemployment (1935)]

SOURCE B4

[From a government enquiry into living standards for the unemployed. This case study is from the town of Blaina in Monmouthshire in 1937.]

SOURCE B5

[A cartoon drawn by Sidney Strube and published in the Daily Express newspaper in November 1932. The cartoon was titled Thinking Aloud.]

SOURCE B6

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Once I was back living in Wales I could see much more clearly the humiliating and terrible effect of unemployment on people, particularly in the coal mining valleys where all hope seemed to be gone. Men were standing on street corners, not knowing what to do with themselves. People were really hungry. You had to take part in any activity, like the hunger march, which would make people themselves feel that they were fighting back. Also you felt it was absolutely essential to get other people to understand the huge seriousness of the situation.
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[Mrs Dora Cox, being interviewed for a BBC Wales radio interview programme in 1985. She was remembering taking part in a hunger march from Wales in 1934.]

SOURCE B7

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For women in South Wales, an area of traditional coal industry, the unemployment of their husbands and sons has resulted in even more work under strained conditions. The routine that made house-work organised has gone. The men are indoors sometimes all day and in the way most of the time. On top of this disruption is the frightening problem of making ends meet on a small budget, of feeding, clothing and housing a much less cheerful family on a much smaller income. Unemployment for their menfolk puts a terrible strain on women that is both physical and mental.
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[From the Report of the Wales Council for Social Services, a committee that reported every year on social conditions in Wales. This part of the report is dealing with the problems faced by women in areas of high unemployment (1935)]

SOURCE B8

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A very long queue of men lined this part of the street. They were without collars and in shabby suits. They were talking and spitting and smoking little bits of cigarette held between middle finger and thumb.
-------------------------------------------------
“We shall cross here”, said Miss Brodie and herded the class across the road.
-------------------------------------------------
Monica Douglas whispered, “They are idle.”
-------------------------------------------------
“In England they are called the unemployed. They are waiting to get their dole from the labour bureau” said Miss Brodie. “You must all pray for the unemployed. I will write you out a special prayer for them. Do you all know what the dole is?”
-------------------------------------------------
Eunice Gardiner had not heard of it.
-------------------------------------------------
Miss Brodie explained, “It is the weekly payment made by the state for the relief of the unemployed and their families. Sometimes they go and spend their dole on drink before they go home and their children starve. But they are our brothers. Sandy, stop staring at once !”
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[An extract from the novel, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, written by Muriel Spark and published in 1961. The novel is based on the experiences of a group of wealthy schoolgirls in Edinburgh in the mid 1930s. In this extract they are being taken on a walking tour of the city by their teacher Miss Brodie.]

-------------------------------------------------

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SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B9

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There were really two Britains in the 1930s. There was the Britain which depended for its living on the old, staple industries such as coal and shipbuilding. Most of the Welsh people belonged to that half of Britain still dependent on the heavy industries of coal, steel, iron, tinplate and slate. The other Britain was built on new industries making new products and consumer goods such as motor vehicles, electrical goods and man-made fibres. As the traditional heavy industries declined, the new light industries began to take their place. The government encouraged these new industries by offering grants and by setting up industrial estates. It was thought that those made unemployed by the old industries would find jobs in the new industries. This did not really happen, although over 400,000 people left South Wales between 1920 and 1939 for work in other parts of Britain. This was mainly in London, the Midlands and the south east of England, where the majority of the new light industries were located.
-------------------------------------------------

[Roger Turvey, an historian and school teacher, writing in a book for GCSE history students, Wales and Britain 1906-1951, (1997)]

SOURCE B10

Town or city | Unemployed | Jarrow | 67.8% | London | 8.6% | Merthyr Tydfil | 61.9% | Luton | 7.7% | Gateshead | 44.2% | Watford | 7.0% | Birmingham | 6.4% |

[Official figures showing the percentage of the workforce unemployed in some towns and cities in 1934]

SOURCE B11

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The 1930s were the best years of my life. I was working on a farm in Cambridgeshire. 1930 was a bad year, I seem to remember. We had to plough the potatoes back into the ground as nobody could afford them. But things got better and from 1936, life was splendid. Things improved on the farm with the government giving us subsidies so that we could afford fertilisers. Although I can’t remember the Jarrow march, I do recall buying a radio for the first time in 1937. This provided excellent entertainment with all the best bands having their concerts broadcast. I even got a cheap Austin Seven and often went over to Yarmouth in the summer.
-------------------------------------------------

[Ernest Macer, a retired farmer from Eastern England, recalling his life in the 1930s in an interview for a local radio station (1986)]

SOURCE B12

[A newspaper advertisement selling new houses in southern England in 1933]

SOURCE B13

[A photograph showing the mass-production of radios on an assembly line in a factory at Perivale, London in 1936.]

SOURCE B14

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I left school at 14 in 1932 when the depression was at its worst in the valleys. For weeks I reported to the local pit with my father, but as grown men with experience could not get work, there was little hope for a young boy. My mother eventually managed to nag the local coal merchant to get me a job, so I began my career picking coal from the tips. If the pickings were good I could earn £2 a week, but it was mostly less than ten shillings (50p).
-------------------------------------------------
A friend of mine had gone to work in England, as a servant in a big public school. When he came home for the holidays he would delight us with his stories about good food, his own room, regular hours, time off. I wrote off and asked if they had a job for me. I was called for an interview and taken on as a houseboy. I left Wales shortly after my sixteenth birthday and entered a very different world.
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[J. T. Dyer, recalling his life as a boy in the Rhondda in South Wales, in an interview for a local newspaper (1986)]

SOURCE B15

[A photograph of a cinema in South Wales in 1931. Many new cinemas were built in the 1930s. The film being shown was Feet First, starring the comedian Harold Lloyd.]

SOURCE B16

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The 1930s was a period when all people in Britain were able to expand their experiences and begin to live. The BBC gave people radio and then television, and by 1939 there were about 15,000 television sets in London. The number of people going on holidays increased immensely. Hotels and boarding houses, fish and chip shops, ice-cream stands, fairgrounds and dancehalls all expanded. The holiday camps flourished, the most famous being Butlins in Skegness.
-------------------------------------------------

[Josh Brooman, an historian, writing in a GCSE history text book, People in Change (1994)]

Topic Area 1

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth or twentieth Century

Task 4: Quarrying in North Wales

Controlled Assessment Task part (a)Quarrying families in North Wales developed a distinctive lifestyle in the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century.Select any FIVE sources from your pack.How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining what life was like for quarrying families in the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century?Controlled Assessment Task part (b)Some historians argue that the striking quarrymen were to blame for the Penrhyn Lockout lasting so long.How valid is this interpretation of the Penrhyn Lockout? |

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)Quarrying families in north Wales developed a distinctive lifestyle in the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth century.Select any FIVE sources from your packHow useful and reliable are these sources in explainingwhat life was like for quarrying families in the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

How can part (a) be tackled?

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* A brief introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.
It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
A short paragraph is sufficient here.

* An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.
Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. It is recommended that the sources be integrated into supporting a narrative of life in the quarrying villages of North Wales. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:

What information does the source provide about …?
Does the source back up your knowledge about …?
Who was the author/maker?
When was the source written?
Why was it written?
Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?

It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.

SOURCE A1

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The mean age at death of those registered in Blaenau Ffestiniog in 1883-93
-------------------------------------------------
as 'quarriers', that is, those employed in the dressing-sheds, where slate
-------------------------------------------------
dust was most heavy, was 48 years; the average age at death for engine-drivers
-------------------------------------------------
and plate-layers in the quarries − those least exposed to slate dust
-------------------------------------------------
− was 60 years; labourers could expect to live until they were 53 years of
-------------------------------------------------
age, while rockmen and miners could only look forward to a couple of
-------------------------------------------------
months more than the quarriers.
-------------------------------------------------

[Dr R. Jones of Blaenau Ffestiniog giving evidence to a Commission of Inquiry into the causes of death of quarrymen (1893)]

SOURCE A2

[A photograph taken in the 1930s of Gerlan, a quarrying village founded in 1864 to provide homes for Penrhyn quarry workers and their families]

SOURCE A3

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Many men travelled long distances to work in the quarries. On a Monday morning labourers from Anglesey would get up at 3.0 am and walk to the ferry at Moel y Don and cross over to Caernarfon before catching a train and arriving at Dinorwic quarry, Llanberis at 6.15. During the week these men lived in 'barracks' where conditions were bad. Often men had to sleep two to a bed and eat and keep their possessions in such a cramped area.
-------------------------------------------------

[R. Merfyn Jones, a historian and specialist on North Wales quarrying, writing in The North Wales Quarrymen 1874-1922 (1982)]

SOURCE A4

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At the time there wasn't a house worth calling a house; a house was only four walls and a thatched roof. There was a peat fire on the floor and two wooden beds. Jane knew that working in the quarry and running a small-holding was too much for Ifan. But one thing troubled Jane greatly − that was the condition of the house. The kitchen was the only comfortable room. The bedrooms, especially the back one, were damp and quite unhealthy for anyone to sleep in. The dampness ran down the walls, spoiling the paper, and water dripped on to the bed from the wooden ceiling during frosty weather. She would like to have a new part built alongside the old house so that she would at least have a good parlour and two bedrooms. There were enough stones on Ffridd Felen to build such an extension, and getting rid of the stones would improve the land. But Ifan would have to blast the stones and that would be more work for him. So what was the use of day-dreaming?
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[Kate Roberts, writing in a novel called Traed mewn Cyffion (Feet in Chains) which was set in the period 1880-1914. Kate Roberts was the daughter of a quarryman from Rhosgadfan]

SOURCE A5

Rent £2.10 Bread £2.00 Coal 60p Meat 40p Potatoes 35p Clothes 60p Butter £1.00 Milk 10p Sugar 20p Tea 22p Candles 10p Total £7.62 |

[Official statistics showing the monthly budget for a quarryman's family, consisting of two adults and five children in 1900. The average quarryman's monthly wage at the time was around £7.50]

SOURCE A6

A week's events held by one chapel in Bethesda (1900) | | | | Sunday | 9 a.m. | Prayer meeting for young members | | 10 a.m. | Sermon | | 2 p.m. | Sunday School | | 5 p.m. | Hymn singing practice | | 6 p.m. | Sermon | Monday | | Prayer meeting | Tuesday | | Chapel committee meeting | Wednesday | | Five Study Meetings | | | Literary Society | Thursday | | Four Study Classes | Friday | | Band of Hope |

[A weekly timetable of events for a chapel in Bethesda in 1900]

SOURCE A7

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Brass bands played a central role in the cultural life of the community and most villages had their own band. Assheton-Smith, the owner of the Dinorwic quarry, had presented the Llanrug Band with new uniforms and a practice room at Gilfach Ddu and bought a new set of silver instruments worth £400. The Nantlle Band after playing before the Prince and Princess of Wales at the 1894 National Eisteddfod in Caernarfon that day became the Royal Nantlle Vale Band.
-------------------------------------------------

[From an educational website maintained by Gwynedd Archives, www.llechicymru.info]

SOURCE A8

[The official census return for part of Well Street in Llanberis (1891)]

SOURCE A9

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The caban wasn't just a canteen. It was also a concert hall, a theatre and an eisteddfod pavilion! Over lunch the quarrymen entertained one another by singing hymns, fold-songs and cerdd dant, reciting poetry and passages from the Bible, and miming and acting. General knowledge quizzes and spelling competitions were very popular, and there were always loud arguments about religion and politics. Many quarrymen went regularly to Sunday School and listened to sermons in chapel. During the week they went to society meetings and the Band of Hope. There were 22 chapels within three miles of the centre of Bethesda. But there were also more than 40 pubs, and the quarryman covered in dust liked to quench his thirst with a pint of beer.
-------------------------------------------------

[Geraint Jenkins, an historian, writing in a school text book for Key Stage
3 students, Wales, Yesterday and Today (1990)]

SOURCE A10

THE DISASTEROUS ACCIDENTin a NANTLLE QUARRYAPPEAL TO THE CHARITABLE PUBLICIn a terrible accident on Monday at the Dorothea Quarry, Nantlle seven married men lost their lives in a sudden and fearful way, and have left behind7 WIDOWS AND 22 CHILDRENunprovided for.An appeal is made to the kind and sympathetic, and any contribution towards the relief of these unfortunate Women and Fatherless Children will be gladly received by this newspaper. |

[An appeal for money to support the widows and children of seven men killed in a quarrying accident. This appeared in the local newspaper, The Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald on January 3rd 1885].

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK 2 part (b)Some historians argue that the striking quarrymen were to blame for the Penrhyn Lockout lasting so long.How valid is this interpretation of the Penrhyn Lockout? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
Underneath is a suggested structure which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

An introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.
It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.
There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.

* A discussion/explanation of the first interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* A discussion/explanation of the second interpretation
There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.
There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.
There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed

* Summary
There should be a final answer to the set question.
There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.

It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.

It is also recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources from each section (8 in total) to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION |

SOURCE B1

We believe the dispute is almost entirely the work of the Independent Labour Party and the quarrymen's union and that the object is, not so much to obtain better working conditions for the men, as to obtain if possible control of a great industry in order to use it in promoting socialistic principles. We believe that Lord Penrhyn has been grossly and most unfairly and unfeelingly misrepresented. The I.L.P. and the union are at the bottom of the whole business and are using the quarrymen. |

[From an article in the regional newspaper, The Cambrian News. on 19th April 1901. The newspaper supported the owner of the Penrhyn quarries, Lord Penrhyn.]

SOURCE B2

SirPenrhyn Quarry DisputeIn compliance with your request I have the honour to report further that the troops mentioned in my letter of the January 1st arrived yesterday, the infantry at Bethesda at about 4 a.m. and the cavalry at Bangor about 3 p.m.On the afternoon of the January 2nd a large crowd met the workmen who were returning to work by one of the exits from the quarry and behaved in a very disorderly and threatening manner. They made a rush, which the police were unable to stop, for the workmen, who had to escape as best they could and assaulting one or two of them, but not seriously.The object of the strikers, so far as I can judge at present, seems to be to thoroughly frighten and break as many windows as possible of the workmen. Should any of the workmen, too, fall into the hands of the crowds meeting them as they return to work, they would undoubtedly come off badly...I have the honour to be, SirYour obedient servant,A. A. Ruck, |

[A letter from the Chief Constable of Caernarfonshire to the Home Office, reporting on the situation at the quarry (January 3rd 1902)]

SOURCE B3

WHAT THE UNION WANTS1. The right freely to elect spokesmen from the ranks of the men in the quarry to discuss grievances with the management from time to time.2. The right of the men during the dinner hour to discuss matters among themselves in the quarry.3. The reinstatement of certain victimised leaders.4. The establishment of a minimum wage.5. The punishment of unjustifiable conduct on the part of the foremen and officials towards the men.6. The introduction, experimentally, of a system of co-operative piece-work in place of work hitherto done under contract.7. The humanising of the harsh rules of discipline, and the reduction of the punishments for breaches of them.8. The reintroduction of the annual holiday on May 1st.9. More democratic control of the Quarry Sick Club. |

[W. J. Parry, one of the leaders of the NWQU, writing in his book, The Penrhyn Lock-out, Statement and Appeal (1901)]

SOURCE B4

THE LIBERTY AND PROPERTY DEFENCE LEAGUE7, Victoria Street,WestminsterWe, the undersigned, believing in the free conduct of trading concerns, and in the independence of employers and employed alike against the interference of Government and control by organised trade unions of workmen, would respectfully express to you our deep sense of the courage and consistency you have shown in the maintenance of these sound principles in the conduct of your business at the Bethesda Slate Quarries. (Signed) Lord Wimborne Earl Fortescue Lord Aldenham Sir William Lewis Sir George Livesey Sir Frederick Bramwell The Hon. Percy Wyndham J. Buckingham Pope Sir Benjamin Browne (and others) |

[From a letter sent to Lord Penrhyn by members of the Liberty and Property Defence League (21st May 1903). This organisation was an anti-socialist group, supported by the 'industrial barons.']

SOURCE B5

Dear Lord Wimborne,I have received your letter of the 21st May addressed to Lord Penrhyn.Without hesitation, I say the large employers of England owe Lord Penrhyn a debt of gratitude for the stand he has made against the striking quarrymen's union. For their own and their children's future welfare I wish the working men of the United Kingdom would think and act more for themselves and ignore the agitators and some of our M.P.s who try to rouse up ill feeling and strife on the part of working men towards their employers. |

[Part of a letter from the manager of the Dinorwic quarry to the Chairman of the Liberty and Property Defence League (22nd May1903) [This is a reply to the letter featured in Source B4]

SOURCE B6

D.R. Daniel (the union organiser) urged the men not to talk to the blacklegs. To be sure of identification and so that maximum pressure could be brought to bear, cards were issued to all strikers' homes bearing the slogan Nid oes bradwr yn y tŷ hwn ('There is no traitor in this house'). Most of the cards were to hang in Bethesda windows for over two years. To make identification even easier, the radical Welsh papers Y Werin and Yr Eco Cymraeg published lists of blacklegs with their addresses. Traitors were not often called blacklegs, the common name for them was cynffonnau, which means 'tails'. |

[R. Merfyn Jones, a historian and specialist on North Wales quarrying, writing in The North Wales Quarrymen 1874-1922 (1982)]

SOURCE B7

The humble petition of the workmen now employed at the Penrhyn Slate Quarries, Bethesda showing: That we have been working at the Penrhyn Slate Quarries since the eleventh day of June last, and that since that date a large force of police has been brought into the neighbourhood for our protection. That the protection is not sufficient, because we are molested and intimidated by the men who are still on strike, and their supporters. That we and members of our families are not allowed to walk the streets to the shops without being followed and molested. That there are many instances where we or members of our families, women and children, have been molested in the public streets and forced by large and disorderly crowds to return to our homes escorted by the crowd, hooting and shouting, and using violence toward us. That assaults have been committed in the public streets, stones thrown through our windows and at our houses, both in the day-time and at night. That on several Saturday nights now, large crowds have been congregating in the village of Bethesda for the purpose of watching and molesting us and our wives and children when visiting the shops. That actual violence has been committed upon these occasions, and the houses and shops, where we happened to be, have been surrounded and watched by these crowds for several hours. That these crowds are most threatening and disorderly, and are beyond the control of the force of police now stationed here. That the police are obstructed and resisted in the execution of their duty, and they are unable to prevent the crowds from molesting us and assaulting us. |

[The non-striking workers of Penrhyn Quarry sent this letter along with a petition to the Home Secretary complaining of the behaviour of the striking quarrymen (July 1901)]

SOURCE B8

|

[This song sheet was handed out by the striking quarrymen during the strike. It mocks the men that returned to work and breaking the strike]

* See appendix at the end for an English translation.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B9

|

[The official badge of the North Wales Quarrymen's Union which was formed in 1874. From the start the owners and managers of the quarries tried to destroy the Union]

SOURCE B10

Lord Penrhyn was as stubborn as a mule. He said that he expected all his workers to be loyal and obedient to him. He refused to budge an inch. Quarry officials, helped by clergymen, tried to persuade the quarrymen to return to work. On 11th June 1901, Lord Penrhyn rode on horseback to the quarry and gave each worker a gold sovereign. Those who were still on strike called it Punt y Gynffon ('The Traitor's Pound'). |

[Geraint H. Jenkins, an historian, writing in a general history of Wales, Wales: Yesterday and Today (1990)]

SOURCE B11

There were many reasons why the quarrymen should see advantages in combining together in some sort of organisation to negotiate wages and conditions of work. The owners, particularly people like Lord Penrhyn, did not want the men united. The skilled quarrymen, with their interest in the language and culture around them were wholly Welsh. Owners like the Penrhyn family had much in common with the English aristocracy – in education, lifestyle and language. The quarrymen supported the Liberal party; the owners supported the Tory party. The quarrymen, like most of the workers in Wales, attended chapels. The important quarry owners... supported the Church of England. All these differences were at the centre of political struggles in Wales especially in the last thirty years of the 19th century. But, at the bottom of everything, there was one fact which could not be disputed. Lord Penrhyn was one of the wealthiest men in Wales. |

[Gareth Elwyn Jones, an historian writing in a GCSE history text book, People, Protest and Politics: Case Studies in Twentieth Century Wales (1987)]

SOURCE B12

|

[Penrhyn Castle, the home of Lord Penrhyn, built between 1820-40 at an estimated cost of £150,000 (the equivalent of £49.5 million in today's money).]

SOURCE B13

We must not lower our banner now. It must be a fight to the death with this tyrant. He will stop at anything to gain his end. He gave each of the men who returned to work a golden sovereign. Who but Lord Penrhyn would have done this? His friends say that he is a good sportsman, but evidently he can strike below the belt. |

[W. J. Parry the NWQU leader quoted in the Welsh language newspaper, Y Clorian in March 1903. Lord Penrhyn was so angry when he read this he took Parry to court and won £500 in damages and £1,985 in legal costs]

SOURCE B14

|

[A notice issued by E. A. Young, the manager of the Penrhyn quarry (6th November 1900). After the 14 day suspension Young refused to allow 800 men to return to work because of their membership of the Union]

SOURCE B15

[A photograph of members of the Penrhyn Strike Committee which led the quarrymen in their dispute (1901)]

SOURCE B16

According to information I have received from the Police, the non-striking workmen themselves, by their conduct, are responsible for causing disturbances. I should like to point out that nearly all the more serious disturbances are caused by the appearance in the streets of Bethesda of these workmen or their families at times when large numbers of striking quarrymen are about. |

[A letter by the Chief Constable of Caernarfonshire, A. A. Ruck to Lord Penrhyn asking that non-striking workmen and their families keep away from certain places (21st December 1901)]

Appendix

THE TRAITOR'S POUND

Heard you then the dreadful story
Dire treason and conspiracy
Worse far worse than any other
Is the effect of blackleg brother.

Chorus - As we watch with heavy heart
As we watch with heavy heart
For a single golden sovereign
Blacklegs sell themselves at mart

Useless mentioning any people
It's the blacklegs cause the trouble
If you want to know the story,
Ask around, - details are gory.

Chorus

Where's the dog who wags these tails
Behind his castle wall he quails,
Only turntails late and early
Can be seen about the gallery.

Chorus

O how valuable is one's character
Without price, above all other,
Men to bribe the world darent' design.
Blacklegs fall for just sovereign.

Chorus

Be you true, o my brothers,
Act the man before your masters,
Ages long, a whole eternity,
Won't free your from responsibility

Chorus

Workers, bear you all your crosses
You'll be blessed by a thousand ages,
No more blacklegs on the mountain
Hewing rock and causing pain

Last chorus

What a sight there'll be to see
What a sight there'll be to see
Big strong men, all true and brave,
And all traitors in the grave.

Topic Area 1

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Task 5: Life in the 1960s

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Controlled Assessment Task part (a)
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
The lives of young people changed greatly in the 1960s.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Select any FIVE sources from your pack.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining how the lives of young people changed in the 1960s?
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Controlled Assessment Task part (b)
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Some historians argue that the 1960s was really a period of continuity with the past.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
How valid is this interpretation of the 1960s?
-------------------------------------------------

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)The lives of young people changed greatly in the 1960s.Select any FIVE sources from your packHow useful and reliable are these sources in explaininghow the lives of young people changed in the 1960s? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

How can part (a) be tackled?

Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

* A brief introduction
This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.
It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.
A short paragraph is sufficient here.

* An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.
Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. It is recommended that the sources are integrated into supporting a narrative of how the lives of young people changed in the 1960s. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.

When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:

What information does the source provide about …?
Does the source back up your knowledge about …?
Who was the author/maker?
When was the source written?
Why was it written?
Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?

It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.

SOURCE A1

Forget the Mods and Rockers. Forget the lunatic fringe of unwashed pill-takers, scruffy beatniks and hairy layabouts. The truth is that they are outnumbered ten to one by the normal decent young people of Britain. They don’t take drugs. They don’t get drunk. But they do live tremendously exciting lives at a breathless pace that completely baffles their mothers and fathers. Whatever activity they engage in, from dancing until dawn to ten pin bowling, they plunge into it with a tremendous and dynamic zest. |

[Arthur Helliwell, a journalist writing in the Sunday People newspaper (September 1966)]

SOURCE A2

[Posters for 1960s pop concerts which were popular with young people]

SOURCE A3

CALL THEM SPENDAGERS!There are some five and a half million teenagers in Britain, spending an annual total of £1000 million and buying over 50 million records a year. Overall spending by teenagers has increased by more than twelve times in the last eight years. |

[From a report in the Daily Mirror newspaper, published in October 1963]

SOURCE A4

This is the time for a breakthrough to an exciting and wonderful period in our history in which all can and must take part. Our young men and women, especially, have in their hands the power to change the world. We want the youth of Britain to storm the new frontiers of knowledge, to bring back to Britain that surging and adventurous self-confidence and sturdy self-respect. |

[Part of an election speech made by Labour Party leader Harold Wilson in Birmingham Town Hall in January 1964. Labour won the General Election a few months later]

SOURCE A5

Carnaby Street is crowded with slender young men in black tight trousers that fit on the hips like ski pants, their tulip-like girlfriends on their arms, peering into the garishly lit windows at the burgundy coloured suede jackets with slanted, pleated pockets – very hot stuff with the Mods right now. |

[John Crosby, a journalist, writing in an article in the Weekend Telegraph newspaper (April 1965)]

SOURCE A6

[The front cover of an edition of Time, an American magazine that was entirely devoted to “Swinging London” (April 15th 1966)]

SOURCE A7

1967 was a pivotal year for the world in terms of pop music. Negatively, the Labour government passed the Marine Offences Act which removed the ability of pirate stations like Radio Caroline to broadcast. But the BBC was pressured into creating a station that catered for youth, - which became Radio 1. This coincided with the release of albums that shaped the direction of popular music. These included Jimi Hendrix's ‘Are You Experienced?’ as well as ‘Piper at the Gates of Dawn’ by Pink Floyd and ‘Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ by the Beatles. |

[From a university thesis about aspects of music in the 1960s, written by a student in 2007]

SOURCE A8

Mum and Dad, I know that you don’t agree with the way the kids today look and act but we feel so liberated. I’ve settled into a squat in a groovy area of London and there are no rules. You get up when you want, eat what you want, smoke what you want and if nobody gets hurt I can’t see what the problem is. Let’s face it: your generation were materialistic, but my generation has seen through all that. |

[Part of a teenager’s letter home to her parents (1967)]

SOURCE A9

Percentage of British 17-30 year olds in Higher Education1960 5%1962 6%1964 7%1966 10%1968 11%1970 14% |

[From official government statistics published in 1972]

SOURCE A10

A girl of sixteen in 1970 was far more likely to remain in education than a similar girl in 1956. She was more likely to be able to pursue her own intellectual and cultural interests for as long as she liked, to marry when and whom she wanted, to have children when and if she wanted, and, above all, to choose whether she remained at home as a housewife or pursued her own career. |

[Dominic Sandbrook, an historian specialising in the history of the 1960s, writing in his book, White Heat: A History of Britain in the Swinging Sixties (2006)]

CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)Some historians argue that the 1960s was really a period of continuity with the past.How valid is this interpretation of the 1960s? |

Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task

Underneath is a suggested structure which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.

● An introduction This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is. It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic. There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context. There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment. ● A discussion/explanation of the first interpretation There should be a clear statement of this interpretation. There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views. There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed. ● A discussion/explanation of the second interpretation There should be a clear statement of this interpretation. There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views. There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed.

● Summary There should be a final answer to the set question. There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation. It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.

It is also recommended that candidates use no more than 4 sources from each section (8 in total) to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.

SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION |

SOURCE B1

Many of the most notable developments in British life in the 1960s, from the expansion of the suburbs to changing role of women, built on the previous decades. There had been controversies about birth control, discussions of teenage affluence and arguments about American pop music in the 1920s and 1930s. Even the so-called revolution in sexual attitudes of the 1960s reflected trends that had been long under way. |

[Dominic Sandbrook, an historian specialising in the history of the 1960s, writing in his book, Never Had It So Good: A History of Britain from Suez to the Beatles (2005)]

SOURCE B2

The pop charts of the 1960s show some musical change but also a lot of continuity. For example, the Top 20 for the last week in June 1962 contained songs by 3 groups and 17 solo artists (including two entries each by Elvis Presley and Cliff Richard). 16 of the songs were what could be termed “ballads”. The chart just over three years later contained releases by 7 groups and 13 solo artists (including Elvis Presley, Cliff Richard and two from comedian Ken Dodd). Fifteen of the songs were ballads. Early July 1968’s Top 20 saw 8 groups and 12 soloists (including Elvis Presley and comedian Des O’Connor, but almost uniquely for the 1960s, missing Cliff Richard!) |

[An internet analysis of 1960s pop music based on pop charts compiled by the NME (New Musical Express) magazine]

SOURCE B3

Very little seems to happen here. The only angry noises which have so far emerged from Ludlow in the sixties arose from a suggestion that the cobblestones might be covered in tarmac. There is this feeling that nothing ever changes here. There are people who seem not only to be living in the past but who are fairly wallowing in it. |

[Geoffrey Moorhouse, a journalist and historian, writing in his book, Britain in the Sixties: The Other England (1964)]

SOURCE B4

[An advert for a food mixer published in an American women’s magazine in the 1960s]

SOURCE B5

There they sit or sprawl, among the garbage of a weekend’s picnicking, listening to a continuous blast of amplified pop. But are the flower children layabouts and drug-taking louts? I have to admit that I could not find any who were not in jobs or at university. Some admitted to having smoked marijuana or taken LSD but very few said they used them now. Hardly any drank alcohol or smoked cigarettes. Many are kindly, earnest and intelligent just like their parents. |

[From a newspaper article written by a journalist after meeting some hippies at a pop concert and published in the Daily Telegraph newspaper (September 1966)]

SOURCE B6

Along with the Kinks, the Beatles seem at their happiest when celebrating the past. Even Sergeant Pepper himself, we are told, began to play “twenty years ago today”. Much of Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band evokes fading memories of circuses, music halls and terraced streets. |

[George Melly, a famous jazz musician, artist and social commentator, writing in his book, Revolt into Style (1969)]

SOURCE B7

Shouldn’t one talk of the Cautious Sixties rather than the Swinging Sixties? You get the very strong impression that that if the 1960s meant anything to people it was because it got them a better chance to live a not-too-poor, not-too-insecure life. Despite the way the 1960s has been portrayed, this has not become a wildly changed country. People are not that keen on being disturbed. |

[From an article published in the New Society magazine in November 1969. It is referring to a detailed survey of over 1000 adults. The survey was carried out to test people’s attitudes to the changes of the 1960s.]

SOURCE B8

[Album covers for the film musicals South Pacific and The Sound of Music. During the 60s, South Pacific was number one in the album chart for 43 weeks while The Sound of Music was number one for 69 weeks]

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION
-------------------------------------------------

SOURCE B9

-------------------------------------------------
The generation which grew up after the Second World War did not understand the virtues of self-denial and self-control which had shaped the old outlook of previous generations. What erupted in the 1960s was a new outlook of pursuing enjoyment for its own sake.

[Brian Masters, an historian specialising in social history, writing in his book, The Swinging Sixties (1985)]

SOURCE B10

-------------------------------------------------
Today’s adolescents are taller and heavier than those of previous generations and they mature earlier. A large majority reach puberty well before the age of 15. This has implications for behaviour, including sexual behaviour.

[From an official report by the Ministry of Education called The Youth Service in England and Wales (1960)]

SOURCE B11

-------------------------------------------------
I got tickets for the Hammersmith Odeon. They were just a phenomenon on the stage. We had a banner that said ‘JOHN’ and it had an enormous heart on it – the whole theatre was full of banners. Everyone was on their feet and the screaming began, I screamed my head off. It was impossible to hear them.

[From an interview with a woman who remembers going to a Beatles concert in 1963 when she was 14. The interview took place in 1992]

SOURCE B12

[A photograph taken for a fashion magazine at Ascot Races in1965]

SOURCE B13

-------------------------------------------------
Come mothers and fathers throughout the land
-------------------------------------------------
Don’t criticise what you can’t understand
-------------------------------------------------
Your sons and your daughters are beyond your command
-------------------------------------------------
Your old road is rapidly ageing
-------------------------------------------------
Please get out of the new one if you can’t lend a hand
-------------------------------------------------
For the times they are a-changing

[Part of the song lyrics for The Times They are a-Changing written by Bob Dylan in 1964. It became an anthem for many young people around the world who wanted social and political reform].

SOURCE B14

[The cover of the Beatles album Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967)]

-------------------------------------------------
This record used methods of production, sound effects and song topics that were all revolutionary for the time. Since the 1960s it has become one of the biggest selling albums of all time.

[From an entry in Wikipedia (2012)]

SOURCE B15

-------------------------------------------------
There is increasing evidence that the stability of the traditional British way of life is threatened. Venereal disease is increasing. Termination of pregnancy is increasing. Drug addiction is increasing. Smoking is increasing. Gambling is increasing. All are examples of anti-social behaviour. This tide of immorality and insatiable appetite for all that is worthless must be resisted.

[Dr S E Ellison, a London GP, writing in a letter to The Times newspaper in October 1969. Ellison went on to be a founder member of The Responsible Society, a group working to resist many of the changes of the 60s].

SOURCE B16

-------------------------------------------------
During Harold Wilson’s Labour government of 1964 to 1970 there were many significant changes. Unemployment and inflation remained low, while economic growth was quite good. Living standards generally improved, while spending on health, education, research, transport, social security and housing went up by an annual average of more than 6 per cent. Compared with the 1970s and 1980s the figures are pretty impressive. The mid-sixties are justifiably seen as the golden age of the Welfare State. When Wilson left office in 1970, homosexuality was no longer a criminal offence, unhappy marriages could easily be dissolved, effective contraception was widely available, women could legally end unwanted pregnancies, racial discrimination was illegal and the state could no longer execute criminals.

[Dominic Sandbrook, an historian specialising in the history of the 1960s, writing in his book, White Heat: A History of Britain in the Swinging Sixties (2006)]

GCSE History Teachers Guide - Additional Exemplars for Controlled Assessment Topic Area 1 /MLJ 16 July 2013

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...their role in the household • Average earnings for women almost doubled from 1938 – 1945 • Over 500,000 women served in the auxiliary branches of the armed forces • Women employed in industry, commerce and the armed forces rose by 50% to 2 ¼ million by 1943 • Overall, 1 ¼ million men and women volunteered in the war by July 1940 • The National Service Act (December 1941) conscripted unmarried women into the Force’s Auxiliary Corps • However, despite the war giving women more money, greater status and independence, it did not bring around equal pay • After WW1 most women gave up their wartime jobs, however after WW2 a much higher percentage of women kept their jobs • Moreover, sexual relationships flourished / increased over the war period Social levelling and breaking down of class barriers • One of the main aspects of WW2 was social mobility • Conscription was introduced in September 1940 (men aged 18 to 41) • By mid 1941, the army, navy and air force had 3 million members • Over a million of these were volunteers • By 1944, the size of the armed forces had risen to 4.5 million • This was in addition to the 500,000 members of the female services • It wasn’t just UK troops, with 1.5 million overseas troops stationed in Britain • The war widened people’s social horizons however there was also an increase in petty crime, broken marriages and ethnic violence • Unemployment, still over 1 million in 1939, fell by 50% during......

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Us History Ww2

...Aaron Glenn Western expansion The Readings on the west agree with Turner’s thesis in the sense that American moved west and started farming in rural areas. By moving out to the west, the American’s started to use the wilderness to their advantage which is considered a key role in Americanization. HOW DID THEY DO THIS? They started to get away from their European characteristics and became the Americans that Turner described. Turner’s thesis differed mostly because foreigners started coming to the west to mine. Foreigners coming to the west is the total opposite of Americanization. BUT DID THESE FOREIGNERS ADOPT AMERICAN VALUES? ANY OTHER DIFFERENCES? The Americans put a tax on the Chinese miners which is not exactly Turner’s idea. The western expansion reflects the ideas of the Industrial Revolution and the Gilded age by creating new technology for mining. It helped the people in the west be more efficient in finding minerals. Like some inventions in the Gilded age the new mining technology were dangerous to the land in the west. They were also very expensive which created corporate control. That created more railroad networks which made mining a national and international business. mining started to become dangerous to the workers who died when caves fell in. The workers started to create unions to give them a voice in the mining. The technology created events which followed very similar paths to the Gilded age and the Industrial revolution. YOUR SECOND PARAGRAPH IS...

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Consequences of Ww2

...Liberalism and The consequences of World War II Ayomide A Adaranijo History 3100; Diplomatic History Dr. Oreste Foppiani Although the term liberalism, in the political sense, became very popular in the early 1970’s, actions that would qualify as liberalism had begun to take place since, at the latest, after the Second World War, and probably before that time. The aftermath of the Second World War was the beginning of wide spread international cooperation, and the period immediately after the war signified the beginning of international organizations and the beginning of political and economic cooperation amongst the most powerful countries at the time. Because of the effects of the war, most countries had no other choice but to cooperate with each other in order to recover from the economic downturn after World War II. This period after the war marked the beginning of a series of actions that would eventually lead to the globalized and interdependent political economy that we have today. At the end of the Second World War, most of the former super powers (Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany) were in ruins. The only two true winners of the war were the United States and the Soviet Union. However, the United States was the only country to come out of World War 2 with a stable and efficient economy as well as an intact army and the capacity to produce nuclear weapons (this was very crucial at that time). With most of the world’s economy in jeopardy, the leaders of......

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History of Americ Ww2

...History: 102; The main causes of the Great Depression Name: Tutor’s Name: Institution: Due Date of Submission The Great Depression was the nastiest economic slump in U.S. history, and that spread over to the industrial world (John 1960). It began in late 1929 and continued for about a decade. Many factors led to the depression, but the main cause was the blend of unequal distribution of wealth in the 1920s and the widespread stock market speculation in the latter part the decade (Roberts 1984). The misdistribution of wealth in the 1920's created an imbalance of wealth that further created an unstable economy (Mark 1992). The extreme stock speculation kept the stock market falsely high that eventually lead to rashes in a large market. These extensive market crashes, coupled with the misdistribution of wealth, led to the capsizing of the American economy (Judith1996). On wealth misdistribution, the rich controlled much of the wealth in the U.S leaving the poor with little to share among themselves (Mark 1992). A major reason the enormous and rising gap between the rich and the working-class was the increased manufacturing output throughout the depression era (Frank 1986). From 1923-1929, the regular output per American worker increased 32% in manufacturing and time usual wages for manufacturing works increased only by 8% (John 1960). Hence, the increase of wages was only at a rate one fourth per increase in productivity. Moreover, with dropping production costs there......

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The Empire of Japan During Ww2

...The Empire of Japan during WW2 The Empire of Japan during World War two seen great victories and expanding territories it also seen dramatic defeat. “At the height of its power in 1942, the Empire of Japan ruled over a land area spanning 2,857,000 square miles, making it one of the largest maritime empires in history (Colin, 1998).” It was the first and only nation to endure the atomic bomb twice. During this paper we will look at the rise and fall of the Japanese Empire. What kind of Government ran this nation? Was their economy a strong or weak economy at the start of the war and how did the war affect it? How did their military operate? The Empire of Japan’s government was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. To better understand the dynamics of the Government during WW2 you have to travel back to the Meiji Restoration in 1868. “The Meiji Restoration was the political revolution that brought about the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate (a feudal military government which existed between 1603 and 1868) and returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under the emperor Meiji (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009).” Although, at the start of the Second World War the emperor did not have complete control of the government. The Emperor was the supreme ruler and head of state but the prime minister was the actual head of government. The Emperor was worshipped like a god similar to the Pharos of Egypt during ancient times. “Emperor Hirohito was the emperor......

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Ww2 History

...Bibliography Gold, H. (1966). Unit 731 Testimony. In H. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (p. 256). Boston: Tuttle Company. This is a hard cover book that covers the Japanese experiments on humans. It has firsthand accounts and will be useful with my research Kristof, N. (1195, 03 17). Unmasking Horror -- A special report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/17/world/unmasking-horror-a-special-report-japan-confronting-gruesome-war-atrocity.html I picked this article because it’s by the New York Times. This article removes the premises that unit 731 was something that the allies made up. It’s a very reliable source. Library, J. V. (2015, 09 11). Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from Jewish Virtual Library: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/naziexp.html This website has many articles about the war and the holocaust. It will add to the strength of the books and help my argument. Spitz, V. (2005). Doctors from hell. In V. Spitz, Doctors from hell (p. 318). Boulder CO: Sentient Publications. This book goes over the evidence of what the Nazi did. It covers what medical procedures where done. It also talks about the trials of these doctors after the war. Wilkerson, I. (1989, 05 21). New York Times. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/21/us/nazi-scientists-and-ethics-of-today.html I am using this article because it is the New York Times. They are respected and will add......

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Japan in Ww2

...zaibatsu, which were more interested in the economic opportunities provided by the military's policies than in submitting loyally to a patriotic mission. The emperor is often criticized for not taking more forceful actions in order to restrain his government, especially in light of his own known preference for peace, but Japanese emperors after the Meiji Restoration had "reigned but not ruled." Many argue that a more forceful emperor could very well have controlled the army and navy. The doubts are strengthened in light of the difficulty the emperor had in forcing the military to accept surrender after the atomic bombings. The emperor's decision at that point to bring agreement among his advisers was an extraordinary event in Japanese history. Economic Issues While the United States was still struggling to bring itself out of the Great Depression during the late 1930s, and would do so partly because of the war, Japan had emerged from its own period of depression, which had begun in 1926, by the mid-1930s. Many of the young soldiers mobilized into the Japanese army by the early 1930s came from the rural areas, where the effects of the depression were devastating and poverty was widespread. Their commitment to the military effort to expand Japanese territory to achieve economic security can be understood partly in these terms. The depression ended in the mid-1930s in Japan partly because of government deficits used to expand greatly both heavy industry and the......

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Role of Women in Ww2

...Role of Women in WW2 The role of women changed dramatically during and after World War 2 (WW2). Initially women would do the housework and look after the children. During the war, women did not only have to take care of the house, they slowly started becoming popular in the working industry. After the war, women were able to have more power and were considered more than just a pretty face. Topic sentence: Before the war, women had very little freedom, power and job opportunities. Explanation: Women were the leaders of the house. They would cook, clean, wash and wipe whilst looking after children. Some of them had feminine jobs, like tailoring, where they would work and try to earn money in order to support their husbands or if their husbands were unable to work. Before the war, it was generally thought that a MAN was the main bread winner and provider for their families. Ladies were very limited with their social interactions as well. They were occasional allowed get-togethers along-side their husbands. Evidence: Women were devoted to their husbands and if you weren’t married then you were supposed to be devoted to their father. Meaning that you were born to cook, clean, wash, wipe and bear children. Link: But with so many men away at war, this idealistic view began to change. Women were allowed to work and were expected to be an active member of the workforce. Topic sentence: The rise of women and their path to change during WW2. Explanation: When all the men where......

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The Science of Ww2

...Liberty University INNOVATIONS DURING WORLD WAR II Arlene A. Tabron Modern American Military History HIUS 380 Professor Ritchie 21 September 2015 INNOVATIONS DURING WORLD WAR II Demise, devastation and agony. These are the words regularly connected with the idea of war. What the vast majority don’t understand is that war additionally achieves the absolute most life adjusting innovations. During World War II, various creations changed the war’s course and the future of the world. The most critical s and feelings of were RADAR/SONAR, computerized hardware, elastic, and the nuclear bomb. The primary driver of World War II were nationalistic strains, uncertain issue and feelings of hatred coming about because of World War I. The events that prompted the war’s episode are for the most part comprehended to be the 1939 attack of Poland by Germany and Soviet Russia and the 1937 intrusion of the Republic of China by the Empire of Japan. These Military Hostilities were the after effect of choices made by dictator administering Nazi elite in Germany and by the administration of the Kwantung Army in Japan World War II began after these forceful activities were met with authority presentation of war as well as equipped resistance. (1) The reason the United States entered the Second World War was a direct result of the surprise attack on their Naval Base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu at 7:55 am on December 7, 1941. The Empire of Japan submitted a shock assault upon the......

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History Before 1945 Ww2

...Kyle Gentry 02/03/16 Essay Question 1) Introduction - Some Historians have stated that World War II could have been avoided, considering the events prior to Germanys invasion of Poland I disagree with this statement. I strongly believe that Hitler wanted war and to spread communism and the events prior to Poland only made it more apparent another war was inevitable. The reasons why I support my position are The Treaty of Versailles, The Appeasement Policy, and the failure of The League of Nations. 2) Body - First I will argue that the Treaty of Versailles was a indirect cause of the second world war. Although the treaty seamed fair from ally standpoint at the time the punishments handed down on the German country were undesirable, as the losing side they were forced to sign, neither Germany nor Russia were invited to the hearings. Though the Treaty did not start a war I believed it played a big role in Germanys downfall and economic disaster in which landed Adolf Hitler in power. Some say the treaty was a way to get revenge on Germany, it placed all the blame of the war, made them sacrifice land, and forced them to pay the war wages. This in turn led to a hate for the government and officials for signing this treaty and the country left vulnerable economically and loyally, and looking for a leader. So basically the treaty left a bad taste in the Germans citizens mouth, left them demoralized and they couldn’t do anything about it. Adolf Hitler who......

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Ww2 and the Homefront

...Civil Rights Movement was still a decade away, but World War II had sparked an unavoidable change. World War II enacted perpetual change, especially on the Homefront of the United States. Despite all the death and damage, the battle was necessary for this nation to evolve into what it is today. The economy was elevated by the war after the Great Depression and shaped it into an industrialized world power. A desire for equality was also sparked for women and black Americans as they were given great responsibility during the war. All in all, World War II was a prominent part of history and the United States would not be the same without it. Works Cited Winkler, Allan. "The World War II Home Front." The World War II Home Front. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, 8 Mar. 2016. Web. 16 Mar. 2016. Tassava, Christopher. "The American Economy during World War II." EHnet. Economic History Association, 10 Feb. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2016. Strom, Sharon, and Linda Wood. "Women and World War II." What Did You Do in the War, Grandma?:. Brown University, 19 Sept. 2015. Web. 16 Mar. 2016....

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Post Ww2 Aircraft Manufacturing Problems

...Aviation Manufacturing Challenges Post World War II Jason Weber Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Aviation Manufacturing Challenges Post World War II I. Summary The American aviation industry was in an uncertain era post World War II (WW2). Aircraft manufacturers were suffering large loses as the demand for planes dropped sharply and the market was flooded. This created more supply than demand. Manufactures expected government sales to decline and braced for it. They hinged their hopes on the need for commercial aviation transportation which never came to fruition (Bright, 1978). The resurgence for the industry came in the form of the jet engine. The Navy, being conservative and resistant to change, did not see the need for the jet engine. Unlike the Air Force, the Navy had not encountered jet engine aircraft in combat yet. The Air Force in pursuit of superior air power and national security, was the greatest catalysts in aircraft advancements post WW2 (Converse, 2012). As advancements in the jet engine evolved, aircraft were flying faster and further. The need for stronger structural parts meant the need for new manufacturing techniques (Bright, 1978). II. Problem The problem is that airframe manufacturing was lagging behind the needs set forth by the evolving jet engine. The industry used hand crafting techniques that according to Bright (1978), “In the all-metal piston-engine era, the aircraft industry called itself the "tin benders" (Production: The......

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