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History of Html

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By furiousfoe
Words 1254
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On

HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML)
Prepared For:
Shuvra Chakraborty
Adjunct Faculty
Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
East West University.

Prepared By:
Abdul Aziz
ID: 2012-2-10-249
Course: CSE101
Section: 11

Submission Date:
March 29, 2016.

East West University

Definition of HTML
HTML – HyperText Markup Language. Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. Along with CSS, and JavaScript, HTML is a cornerstone technology used to create web pages, as well as to create user interfaces for mobile and web applications.
Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically and, before the advent of Cascading Style
Sheets (CSS), included cues for the presentation or appearance of the document (web page), making it a markup language, rather than a programming language. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with (enter here what document is about) and ends with . All the information you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the and tags.

History of HTML
Hypertext systems were envisioned as early as 1940 by Vannevar Bush and have a rich history.
But, HTML was originally developed by a man named Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN (a European
Organization for Nuclear Research). While working at CERN, he became frustrated at having to log on to different computers to find different information and thought that there must be a better way. He figured that there must be a way to hop from one set of information to another that’s on different computers. This concept of a hyper-text system (connected with the networking technology and protocols needed to pass information between computers) would go on to form the basis for the fundamental language of the world wide web -- HTML.
In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an
Internet-based hypertext system. Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser and server software in late 1990.
HTML is the official language of the World Wide Web (WWW). HTML is a product of SGML
(Standard Generalized Markup Language) which is a complex, technical specification describing markup languages, especially those used in electronic document exchange, document management, and document publishing. HTML was originally created to allow those who were not specialized in SGML to publish and exchange scientific and other technical documents. HTML especially facilitated this exchange by incorporating the ability to link documents electronically using hyperlinks. Thus the name Hypertext Markup Language.

However, it was quickly realized by those outside of the discipline of scientific documentation that HTML was relatively easy to learn, was self-contained and lent itself to a number of other applications. With the evolution of the World Wide Web, HTML began to proliferate and quickly spilled over into the mainstream.

The History of HTML at a Glance











1992: HTML 1.0, Tim Berners-Lee original proposal
1993: HTML+, some physical layout
1994: HTML 2.0, standard with best features
1995: Non-standard Netscape features
1996: Competing Netscape and Explorer features
1996: HTML 3.2, the Browser Wars end
1997: HTML 4.0, style sheets are introduced
1999: HTML 4.01, we have a winner!
2000: XHTML 1.0, an XML version of HTML 4.01
2001: XHTML 1.1, modularization




2002: XHTML 2.0, simplified and generalized
2014: HTML 5 was introduced. [Source:Wikipedia]

Latest Version of HTML
HTML 5 is the latest version of HTML. WHATWG which is an acronym of “Web Hypertext Application
Technology Working Group” has evolved in the development of HTML 5. HTML 5 can even stay backward compatible, which is the finest thing. HTML 5 mainly concentrates on web applications. A large set of tags and new attributes were built in HTML 5. In HTML 5, wide number of event handlers were introduced such as ‘on drag’ and ‘on drop’ events. HTML 5 is the next version of HTML version 4.0.1 and XHTML version
1.0. HTML 5 specifications were enhanced for addressing the problems involved in the previous versions.
Though HTML 5 specifications are not finalized, it is expected that they are supported on any browser.
HTML 5 is right now a working draft at W3C. Apart from geo location, API HTML 5 has widest support for chrome, safari4 etc. HTML web page is very easy for validation.HTML 5 is just a draft version. The current official version of HTML is HTML 4.0.1 which is a complete version available for use.

Features
HTML5 includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications. For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a potential candidate for cross-platform mobile applications, with features having been designed with low-powered devices such as smartphones and tablets taken into consideration. Many new syntactic features are included. To natively include and handle multimedia and graphical content, the new , and elements were added, and support for scalable vector graphics (SVG) content and MathML for mathematical

formulas. To enrich the semantic content of documents, new page structure elements such as
, , , , , , and , are added. New attributes are introduced, some elements and attributes have been removed, and others such as
, and have been changed, redefined or standardized. The APIs and Document
Object Model (DOM) are now fundamental parts of the HTML5 specification and HTML5 also better defines the processing for any invalid documents.
Popularity
According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top 100 Web sites were using HTML5 – the adoption led by search engines and social networks. Another report released in August 2013 has shown that 153 of the Fortune 500 U.S. companies implemented HTML5 on their corporate websites. As of 2014, HTML 5 is at least partially supported by most popular layout engines.

HTML Tag List
There are thousands of HTML tag list. Some basic HTML tags, some tags for images and tables are mentioned here.

Basic HTML
Tag

Description

Defines the document type

Defines an HTML document

Defines a title for the document

Defines the document's body

to

Defines HTML headings

Defines a paragraph

Inserts a single line break

Defines a thematic change in the content

Defines a comment

Images
Tag

Description

Defines an image

Defines a client-side image-map

Defines an area inside an image-map

Used to draw graphics, on the fly

Defines a caption for a element

Specifies self-contained content

Links
Tag

Description

Defines a hyperlink

Defines the relationship between a document and an external resource (most used to link to style sheets)

Defines navigation links

Tables
Tag

Description

Defines a table

Defines a table caption

Defines a header cell in a table

Defines a row in a table

Defines a cell in a table

Groups the header content in a table

Groups the body content in a table

Groups the footer content in a table

Specifies column properties for each column within a element

Specifies a group of one or more columns in a table for formatting.

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