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THE INFLUENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON PRODUCTION: A CASE OF ZIMBABWE PPC COLLEEN BAWN

BY
EMMANUEL MAGANGA
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE HONOURS DEGREE IN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.

MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY

MAY 2013

SUPERVISION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FORM
MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

STUDENT: EMMANUEL MAGANGA (R091941J) The undersigned certify that they have read and recommended to the Midlands State University for acceptance as a dissertation entitled: The Influence of Occupational Health and Safety on Production: A Case of Zimbabwe Pretoria Portland Cement, Colleen Bawn.

STUDENT…………………………………………………..DATE ….../……../ 2013

SUPERVISOR……………………………………………....DATE……/……../ 2013

CHAIRPERSON…………………………………………….DATE……/……../ 2013

EXTERNAL EXAMINER………………………………….DATE……/……./ 2013

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of social sciences Honors Degree in Geography and Environmental studies

DEDICATIONS
To My Parents
I dedicate this accomplishment to my parents Mr and Mrs Maganga for to have made me who I am today. May God bless you with long life so that you may be able to see all my successes’ and achievements. I love you
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank the Lord our God for all the knowledge, wisdom, support and guidance throughout my research. This project would not have been a success without the support of many people. I wish to thank my supervisor, Mr Shoko who was helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. I would also like to give special thanks also to all my graduate friends, especially Believe Tevera, Jabulani Wachi, Nyasha Gandiwa, Dennis Runyowa and Dumisani Baramiya for motivating me in my studies. Mostly, I appreciate the help I got from my area of study, Pretoria Portland Cement Colleen Bawn Factory, I am very gratefull for allowing me access their resources. I want to thank my family and church members for their prayers, love and support.

ABSTRACT
The study aimed at assessing the influence of occupational health and safety standards on production at Pretoria Portland Cement Colleen Bawn. The research focused on identifying health problems that affect workers due to the nature of their work. This was done to enable assessing the impacts of occupational health and safety standards on production. Also a study of the management’s attitude towards the health and safety of its employees was done. The researcher selected 33 workers as a sample which was further stratified into groups of 5 depending on the section or level of production. The research established that the most common hazards that affect workers are noise which affects communication, dust and lighting. The results revealed that lack of awareness and negligence cause accidents thus reducing production. It was also discovered that the company prioritises production at the expense of safety. The research revealed that there was no periodic replenishment of machinery and protective clothing and this immensely affects the attitude of employees towards their work. The study recommends a safety policy for the company which workers should have full knowledge of. It also recommends full refurbishment of lighting facilities, noisy and dusty areas. There is also need to review the renewal of Personal Protective Clothing in order to reduce risks that contribute to time loss in production which may reduce the productive capacity of the company.

ACRONYMS
PPE/C Personal Protective Equipment/ Clothing
OHS Occupational Health and Safety
LTIFR Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate
TWA Time Weighted Average

Contents CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Background of the Study 1 1.2. Statement of the problem 4 1.3. Objectives 4 1.3.1.General Objective 4 1.3.2. Specific Objectives. 4 1.5. Justification 5 1.6. Study Area 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7 Occupational health and safety 7 2.1Definition and explanation 7 2.2 Measures Taken In Occupational Health And Safety For Improved Production 8 2.3 Health Hazards In Cement Making Industries 8 2.3.1. Noise 9 2.3.2 Dust 9 2.3.3 Lighting 10 2.3.4 Ergonomics 10 2.3.5 Ventilation and Thermal Comfort 11 2.3.6 Other Hazards 11 2.4 OHS STANDARDS THAT IMPROVE PRODUCTION IN AN INDUSTRY 12 2.4.1 OHS Training 13 2.4.2 Fire Precautions 13 2.4.3 First Aid 13 2.5 Conclusion 14 CHAPTER 3: REASERCH METHODS 15 3.1 Research Design 15 3.2 Target Population 15 3.3 Sample Size And Selection 16 3.4 Research Instruments 16 3.4.1 Questionnaire 16 3.4.2 Interviews 17 3.4.3 Field Observation 17 3.4.4 Secondary Data Sources 17 3.5Data Analysis 17 CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 19 4.1 Demographic Structure 19 4.1.1 Sex 19 4.1.2 Age of respondents 20 4.1.2 Age of respondents 20 4.1.3 Education Levels of respondents 21 4.2 MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH CEMENT PRODUCTION. 22 4.2.1 Dust 22 4.2.2 Noise 23 4.2.3 Lighting, Ventilation and thermal comfort 24 4.2.4 Ergonomics 25 4.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF OHS 25 4.3.1 Production vs safety priority 25 4.3.2 Lack of Personal protective clothing 25 4.4 MANAGEMENT’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAFETY (OHS) 26 4.3.2 Lack of awareness and gross negligence by supervisors and employees 27 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 28 Recomendations 28 REFFRENCE 30 Appendix A Questionnaire……………………………………………………………………….....34 Appendix B Interview Guide………………………………………………………………………..38 Appendix C Observations…………………………………………………………………………....39

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Map of Colleen Bawn……………………………………………………………… pg 6
Figure 4.1 Gender of Respondents……………………………………………………………..pg 19
Figure 4.2 Percentage of age group respondents………………………………………………..pg 21
Figure 4.3 Percentage education levels of respondents…………………………………………pg 22
Figure 4.4 Affected people in every 5 people…………………………………………………..pg 23
Table 4.1 Compressor room noise rate…………………………………………………………..pg 24
Plate 4.1 Ergonomics at hoppers…………………………………………………………………pg 25
Figure 4.5 Production vs Safety priority…………………………………………………………pg 26
Figure 4.6 Percentage response on supervisors’ exemplarity…………………………………...pg 27

CHAPTER 1
1.1. Background of the Study

Most industries aim at maximum productivity from their workforce and equipment. There are however, a number of occupational infections and injuries affecting staff in the production departments in the manufacturing factories in Zimbabwe, leading to decreased employee productivity. As the duration of a person’s employment in an unpleasant environment increases, his/her fitness is compromised leading to reduced performance. Some of the tasks being done manually should be carried out mechanically.

Most areas of work in the Zimbabwe manufacturing industry are dark, dusty, hot, slippery and noisy. Protective clothing is used as upfront protection rather than the last resort. There are high levels of absenteeism and ill health due to lack of sound occupational health safety (OHS) procedures. More than five employees go on sick leave every month at rate higher than two working days in most manufacturing factories.

Muchemedzi and Charamba (2006) define occupational health as a science concerned with health in its relation to work or working environment. According to Oxenburgh et al. (2004), the health and safety of all employees is closely linked to the company’s productivity in all workplaces. In most cases, occupational health safety (OHS) is largely measured by negative outcomes such as workplace injury and illness but these measures have a shortfall, for instance, a low incidence of injury does not necessarily mean that adequate safety systems and controls are in place (Health and Safety Executives, 2006).

Koopman (2001) states that accidents bring pain and suffering to the worker and his family. When it results in permanent disability, the consequences are disastrous for both the victim and the company. The victim loses his earning capacity and ability to enjoy a normal active life, and the society and company are deprived of his/her skill and contribution to production.

The 1969 Frank Bird Accident Ratio study on causes of accidents found out that 88% of accidents are caused by unsafe acts of persons, 10% are caused by unsafe mechanical or physical conditions and the remaining 2% are unpreventable. Muchemedzi and Charamba (2006) analyzed the above statistics and established that the majority of accidents (98%) do not just happen. instead, people who perform unsafe acts and create unsafe conditions cause them and therefore accidents are preventable. A local National Social Security Association (NSSA) bulletin established that most manufacturing factories do not abide by set OHS regulations. Most accidents are so minor that they have no visible injury or damage. Taking care of these minor problems results in the reduction or elimination of the major ones.

In Zimbabwe, there is a national regulation on the safety of factories (Amended Factories and Works Act Chapter 14:08) (1976). Inspections are carried out on factories, for instance on drains, pollution and any areas that are lacking in terms of the act. During an inspection, the inspector looks out for health hazards which the employer may or may not be aware of. The Factories and Works Act (1976) was amended to include the regulation that factories should renew their licenses annually. This is done to ensure that a working environment is safe. Some factories are facing a risk with the health authorities due to dirty and degraded company environments, for example, the fans are dusty and the paint on some of the equipment is chipped.

According to Webb (1989), a central belief in most of the occupational medicine/health promotion literature is that people perform better when they are physically and emotionally able to work and want to work which in turn leads to higher productivity. More substantial links between the implementation of health and safety programmes and their beneficial impact on a business's productivity and profits are emerging both directly (such as reduced sick pay and compensation claims) and indirectly (for example, reduced absenteeism, improved corporate reputation and reduced staff agitation).

Webb (1989) also studied a workstation change and found out an increase of 100% in productivity within less than three months. These changes are mechanical and physical, for example a change of postures to reduce physical strain of work and use of appropriate machinery for some tasks. Improving the fit between humans and tools inherently means a more effective match, good design permits more output with less human effort (MacLeod, 1995). Improving the quality of the workplace environment promotes productivity and food companies need to undertake OHS practices that achieve this.

A workstation change can increase productivity; however, it is misleading to conclude that this change results in the improvement of OHS standards. New machinery can also be hazardous to health. For instance, a noisy machine may be replaced by a new machine that is more efficient but produces dust. This shows a mere shift from one hazard to another. A workstation change can cause increased efficiency and productivity leading to an ignorance of the resultant OHS implications. It is therefore misleading to conclude that a workstation change improves OHS standards in light of the increased productivity.

Some workers experience back, neck, leg or arm pain discomfort. There is now a recognition that safer and healthier workplaces translate into increased productivity, more job satisfaction and stronger bottom-line results. There are four factors that explain the link between productivity and employees’ overall health and safety (Brandt-Rauf et al., 2001). These factors are:

* The need for more innovative ways to reduce the high rates of workplace injury and illness. * The pressure to reduce the social and economic costs of injury and illness, particularly compensation costs. * The need to improve labour productivity without employees needing to work longer hours and/or taking on more work. * The need to offer good working conditions as an enticement to recruit and retain skilled workers in a tight labour market.

1.2. Statement of the problem
This research seeks to assess the impact of occupational health safety (OHS) on productivity in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the study is to explore OHS problems of different work areas and their impact on production at Colleen Bawn cement factory. For the month of February 2012, five workers from the production department in the cement making factory, were given sick leave days amounting to a total of 11 working days resulting in 330 min lost production time in clinic attendance alone. In March 2012, in another sister factory in Bulawayo (PPC Bulawayo), there were five injuries in the production department of seven employees. These resulted in 15 days of lost production time in the five employees.

There were also 6 sick employees in the same factory that made up 690 min of lost production from clinic attendance. They got 10 working days off sick. Lost time actually doubled from month to month. These months are also associated with high medical bills being presented to the company for payment. For example, one manufacturing factory’s medical costs amounted to 15% of the company’s earnings. Such medical expenses are very significant figures in the accounts payments register of most manufacturing industries in Zimbabwe. It therefore, becomes imperative that studies exploring the impact of OHS on worker productivity be carried out.
1.3. OBJECTIVES
1.3.1. GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To assess the impact of occupational health safety (OHS) on production basing on the standards of safety and risk occurrence in cement making industry.
1.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES.
The specific objectives were: * To identify the kind of health problems that affect workers due to the nature of their work. * To examine the impact of standards of OHS on productivity. * To assess the attitude of management towards the OHS of employees.
1.5. Justification
This research is meant to identify loopholes which are taken for granted as they immensely affect productivity of both the worker and the firm at large. Sometimes health problems are inevitable and the responsible authorities in factories have notified the problems. Thus the research is confined to identifying possible methods to enhance self esteem in workers for upgrading worker’s productivity.

The research is meant to explore Occupational health and safety problems of different work areas and their impact on the levels of production. Since most industries aim at maximum production from their workforce and equipment, there are however, a number of occupational infections and injuries affecting staff in the production departments in the manufacturing factories in Zimbabwe, leading to decreased production. As the duration of a person’s employment in an unpleasant environment increases, his/her fitness is compromised leading to reduced performance thus affecting production.

The research is meant to analyse the adoption of the legislations and the importance of applying the Occupational Health Safety standards as corroborated by the NSSA, EMA and the government of Zimbabwe matching with the global standards.
1.6. Study Area
The research needs a constructive and conducive environment that may provide necessary information for such type of research. Thus the appropriate cement manufacturing industry will be the PRETORIA PORTLAND CEMENT (PPC) company of Zimbabwe. PPC is located in Colleen Bawn which is in Gwanda District, in Matabeleland South Province, in southwest Zimbabwe. As presented in Figure 1.1, Colleen Bawn is located about 144 kilometers, by road, southeast of Bulawayo, the nearest large city. This location is on Highway A-6, the main road between Bulawayo and Beitbridge, at the International border with the Republic of South Africa, 200 kilometers, and further southeast from Colleen Bawn. The coordinates of the town are: 21° 0' 0.00"S, 29° 12' 36.00"E (Latitude: 21.0000; Longitude: 29.2100). ‎
The town grew up around the Colleen Bawn gold mine. The prospector who pegged claim to the mine in 1895, named it after an Irish girl with whom he had been acquainted. The mine was opened in 1905 but after the Second World War, limestone became the focal mineral in the area. The limestone is mined by Pretoria Portland Cement, who operate a cement factory on the site and have been responsible for recent growth in the town. Colleen Bawn is supplied with water from Geelong Weir on the Mzingwane River, fed by releases of water from Silalabuhwa Dam, on the tributary Insiza River.
Colleen Bawn
Colleen bawnccc Figure 1.1: Map of Colleen Bawn

Country | Zimbabwe | Province | Matabeleland South | | | Districts of Zimbabwe | Gwanda District | Municipality | Colleen Bawn Rural District Council | | | | Elevation | 3,080 ft (940 m) | Population (2004 Estimate) | • Total | 2,545 |

CHAPTER 2
Literature
Occupational health and safety
2.1 Definition and explanation
Muchemedzi and Charamba define occupational health and safety as a science that is concerned with the health in its relation to work of working environment for the safety of workers and areas surrounding the environment. According to Oxernburgh et al. (2004), the health and safety of all employees is closely linked to the company’s production rate in all work places. The International Labour Organization ( ILO)/ World Health Organisation (WHO), (1950) says occupational health and safety is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical mental and social well being of workers in all occupations by preventing departures from health, controlling risks and the adaptation of work to people, and people to their jobs.

In most cases, occupational health safety (OHS) is commonly measured by negative outcomes such as workplace injuries and illness but these measures have a shortfall, for instance, a low incidence of injury does not necessarily mean that adequate safety systems and controls are in place (Health and Safety Executives, 2006). In some factories, attention is mainly on negative outcomes in terms of Occupational Health and Safety. As long as there are no serious accidents, occupational health and safety policies and practices are not carried out fully. As a result, threats to employees’ safety are not eliminated in time because accident-prone areas are not recognized and taken care of before accidents occur.

Employers and supervisors are obliged to implement all reasonable precautions to protect the health and safety of workers. Companies should hire contractors that have the technical capability to manage the occupational health and safety issues of their employees, extending the application of the hazard management activities through formal procurement agreements.

2.2 MEASURES TAKEN IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTION
According to Mtetwa, 2005, preventive and protective measures should be introduced according to the following order of priority: * Eliminating the hazard by removing the activity from the work process: this includes substitution with less hazardous chemicals, using different manufacturing processes, etc; * Controlling the hazard at its source through use of engineering controls. Examples include local exhaust ventilation, isolation rooms, machine guarding, acoustic insulating, etc; * Minimizing the hazard through design of safe work systems and administrative or institutional control measures. Examples include job rotation, training safe work procedures, lock-out and tag-out, workplace monitoring, limiting exposure or work duration, etc. * Providing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) in conjunction with training, use, and maintenance of the PPE.
According to the International Labour Organisation, Occupational Health and Safety offers different services that involve the identification and assessment of the risks from health hazards in the workplace. This involves surveillance of the factors in the working environment and working practices which may affect workers' health. It also requires a systematic approach to the analysis of occupational "accidents", and occupational diseases. Advising on planning and organisation of work and working practices, including the design of work-places, and on the evaluation, choice and maintenance of equipment and on substances used at work. In so doing, the adaptation of work to the worker is promoted.
2.3 HEALTH HAZARDS IN CEMENT MAKING INDUSTRIES
According to the risk assessment carried out in 2012 at PPC Colleen Bawn, results show that tolerance is reduced with additional stress; e.g. health problems are considered more likely if the lighting, noise, ergonomics, air quality and temperature are a problem than with any one aspect on its own. More so Individuals have a different response. What may be a mere irritant for one could have a serious effect on another.
2.3.1. Noise
It must be appreciated that generally the progress of noise-induced hearing loss is insidious in that it creeps up gradually over months and years, largely unnoticed until it reaches handicapping proportions. There is considered to be no medical treatment for occupational hearing impairment.
Loss of hearing is not the only adverse effect of noise, other detrimental effects include tinnitus (ringing in the ears), interference with speech communication and with the perception of warning signals, disruption of job performance, annoyance, extra-auditory effects and what are usually termed “additional stress factors” that impact on tolerance levels to other occupational hazards. PPE actually exacerbates some of the other detrimental effects. The legal Requirements/ Legal Noise Level Limit, for an 8 Hour Exposure is 90dB(A) as recommended in accordance with the Factories and Works Act Chapter 14:08, Revised Edition 1996 and The Rhodesia Government Notice No. 263 of 1976, Factory & Works (General) Regulations, 1976-Part II Health and Safety-Section 6 (Protection Against Noise), pages 1112-1113.

Noise exceeds the limits around the Mills and the Compressors. Two aspects should be appreciated with noise. Firstly risk management usually revolves around hearing protection because noise induced hearing loss is insidious and time weighted, work procedures should be reviewed on avoidance (does one have to be in the noise zone to achieve the task, if so, for how long?). Secondly noise induced hearing loss is not the only adverse effect; other detrimental effects include interference with speech communication and with the perception of warning signals, disruption of job performance and annoyance. Hearing protection itself can exacerbate these other detrimental effects so the concept of “PPE should be regarded as the last resort” is especially relevant for noise. “Restricted Access” systems may need to be improved to ensure people do not enter the noise zone unless they really have to, should only stay in the zone for as short a time as possible (review work procedures) and should wear hearing protection.

2.3.2 Dust
The Legal requirement according to the Factories and Works Act stipulates that presumptive limits are not enshrined in legislation but are used by the inspectors inpresumption that if the limit is exceeded the requirements are not being met; in other words the onus is on the employer to provide a safe and healthy working environment and the presumption is that if the limit is exceeded, the employer is not doing so. It is believed NSSA are using Presumptive Limits of 3mg/m3 Time Weighted Average (TWA) for the respirable fraction and 5mg/m3 TWA for the total inhalable.
2.3.3 Lighting
The priority is in providing a safe working environment making hazards clearly visible. Task performance can be improved by ensuring the task detail is easier to see. Lighting is considered in ergonomics where other stressor factors can cause additional adverse characteristics. Adverse characteristics of illumination can cause visual, and psychological disturbances such as visual fatigue, eye strain, sore eyes, headaches, fatigue, cumulative trauma disorders, psychological tension, anxiety and depression. According to Section 5(5) of the Factories and Works (Registration and Control of Factories) Regulations 1976 requires that the intensity of lighting shall not be less than three hundred lux at the point of operation of any process without the consent of an Inspector.
2.3.4 Ergonomics
Industrial ergonomics is the science of fitting the work environment and job activities to the capabilities, dimensions and the needs of the people. Ergonomics deals with the physical work environment, tools and technology design, workstation design, job demands and physiological and biomechanical loading on the body. Its goal is to increase the degree of fit among the employees, the environments in which they work, their tools and their job demands. When the fit is poor, stress and health problems occur. Adverse ergonomic characteristics of work can cause visual, muscular and psychological disturbances such as visual fatigue, eye strain, sore eyes, headaches, fatigue, muscle soreness, cumulative trauma disorders, back disorders, psychological tension, anxiety and depression.

According to the World Bank Group (2007), injuries due to ergonomic factors, such as repetitive motion, overexertions, and manual handling, take prolonged and repeated exposures to develop, and typically require periods of weeks to months for recovery. These OHS problems should be minimized or eliminated to maintain a productive workplace. These controls as stipulated by the World Bank (2007) may include: * Facility and workstation design with 5th to 95th percentile operational and maintenance workers in mind * Use of mechanical assists to eliminate or reduce exertions required to lift materials, hold tools and work objects, and requiring multi-person lifts if weights exceed thresholds * Selecting and designing tools that reduce force requirements and holding times, and improve postures * Providing user adjustable work stations * Incorporating rest and stretch breaks into work processes, and conducting job rotation * Implementing quality control and maintenance programs that reduce unnecessary forces and exertions * Taking into consideration additional special conditions such as left handed persons.
2.3.5 Ventilation and Thermal Comfort
The general health of the working populations may be impaired in the long term by working in ill-ventilated working areas and/or an enervating climate. Ventilation means the supply of fresh outside air to a building, its circulation within the building, and its discharge together with the various polluting substances it has picked up. Operations involving high air temperatures, radiant heat sources, high humidity, direct physical contact with hot objects, or strenuous physical activities have a high potential for inducing heat stress in employees engaged in such operations.

2.3.6 OTHER HAZARDS
Other hazards that are found in most industries include temperature heat disorders like rashes, fatigue, collapse, exhaustion and stroke. This occurs when the body's system of temperature regulation fails and body temperature rises to critical levels

According to Webb (1989), a central belief in most of the occupational medicine/health promotion literature is that people perform better when they are physically and emotionally able to work and want to work which in turn leads to higher productivity. More substantial links between the implementation of health and safety programmes and their beneficial impact on a business's productivity and profits are emerging both directly (such as reduced sick pay and compensation claims) and indirectly (for example, reduced absenteeism, improved corporate reputation and reduced staff agitation).

The 1969 Frank Bird Accident Ratio study on causes of accidents found out that 88% of accidents are caused by unsafe acts of persons, 10% are caused by unsafe mechanical or physical conditions and the remaining 2% are unpreventable. Muchemedzi and Charamba (2006) analysed the above statistics and established that the majority of accidents (98%) do not just happen. instead, people who perform unsafe acts and create unsafe conditions cause them and therefore accidents are preventable. A local National Social Security Association (NSSA) bulletin established that most factories do not abide by set OHS regulations. Most accidents are so minor that they have no visible injury or damage. Taking care of these minor problems results in a reduction or elimination of the major ones thus increasing production.

As presented in the first chapter of this research a workstation change can increase productivity; however, it is misleading to conclude that this change results in the improvement of OHS standards. New machinery can also be hazardous to health. For instance, a noisy machine may be replaced by a new machine that is more efficient but produces dust. This shows a mere shift from one hazard to another. A workstation change can cause increased efficiency and production leading to an ignorance of the resultant OHS implications. It is therefore misleading to conclude that a workstation change improves OHS standards in light of the increased productivity.

2.4 OHS STANDARDS THAT IMPROVE PRODUCTION IN AN INDUSTRY

The Health and Safety Executive (2006) explains that genuine productivity gains can be realized by those businesses that invest in high performance health and safety practices. However, the Health and Safety Executive (2006) also recognizes that there need to be a positive attitude by many organizations if they are to move on from simply attaining minimum legal compliance toward implementing the best practice of OHS. For those organizations that make the transition, the rewards are well worth the effort

2.4.1 OHS Training
Provisions should be made to provide OHS orientation training to all new employees to ensure they are apprised of the basic site rules of work at / on the site and of personal protection and preventing injury to fellow employees. Training should consist of basic hazard awareness, sites specific hazards, safe work practices, and emergency procedures for fire, evacuation, and natural disaster, as appropriate. Any site specific hazard or color coding in use should be thoroughly reviewed as part of orientation training.

2.4.2 Fire Precautions
The workplace should be designed to prevent the start of fires through the implementation of fire codes applicable to industrial settings. Other essential measures include:
· Equipping facilities with fire detectors, alarm systems, and fire-fighting equipment. The equipment should be maintained in good working order and be readily accessible. It should be adequate for the dimensions and use of the premises, equipment installed, physical and chemical properties of substances present, and the maximum number of people present.
· Provision of manual firefighting equipment that is easily accessible and simple to use
· Fire and emergency alarm systems that are both audible and visible
The IFC Life and Fire Safety Guideline should apply to buildings accessible to the public.

2.4.3 First Aid The employer should ensure that qualified first-aid can be provided at all times. Appropriately equipped first-aid stations should be easily accessible throughout the place of work. Eye-wash stations and/or emergency showers should be provided close to all workstations where immediate flushing with water is the recommended first-aid response. Where the scale of work or the type of activity being carried out so requires, dedicated and appropriately equipped first aid room(s) should be provided. First aid stations and rooms should be equipped with gloves, gowns, and masks for protection against direct contact with blood and other body fluids. Remote sites should have written emergency procedures in place for dealing with cases of trauma or serious illness up to the point at which patient care can be transferred to an appropriate medical facility. (World Bank Group, 2007).

Other means or methods for improved appraisal of OHS include Medical surveillance, medical screening. This involves medical checkups that must be undertaken over a given period of time depending on the working environment. Moreso the most vital and important method is conducting occupational health and safety meetings/talks every day before undertaking any chores at one’s workplace.

According to McCunney (2001), the health risks and failure of employees to participate in fitness and health promotion programmes are associated with higher rates of employee absenteeism. McCunney’s contribution can only be valid if the fitness programmes are in place. There is need for the employer’s participation in ensuring that OHS programmes and policies are existent. If these OHS programmes are in place, it is more likely that the worker participates in order to preserve his/her life. Towers (2003) explains that it is important to empower, educate and persuade workers to exercise their powers in the protection of their OHS. Employees are left to form their own OHS committees which are not taken seriously by the management.

2.5 CONCLUSION
However it is difficult to demonstrate conclusively the extent to which business prosperity benefits from good health and safety or on the contrary, to say that prosperous businesses have good health and safety because they are able to afford it (Health and Safety Executive, 2006). However, based on available evidence, the Occupational Health and Safety Reports argue that there is clearly a vicious circle in that a healthy and happy workforce is more productive leading to increased investment in health and safety to reduce accidents, which in turn leads to further production gains.

CHAPTER 3: REASERCH METHODS

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
In this study qualitative research design allowed the researcher to gain insight, explore the depth; richness and complexity inherent in the phenomenon. In this case study the researcher used the qualitative research design to get the views of the supervisors and other employees in their departments about the accidents and incidents they encounter and their frequency of occurrence and how it affects the production rate. Qualitative research method was used to increase the credibility and validity of the result. More so the researcher the researcher used questionnaires, interviews, observations and secondary data sources. The quantitative research design was also used to test relationships, describe cause and effect relations between occupational health and safety and production.
Basically the researcher got more information by the use of questionnaires and observations to come up with the statistics concerning the upkeep of occupational health and safety standards, how it affects production.

3.2 TARGET POPULATION
Bryman (2008) defines a population as any (group) individuals that have one or more characteristics in common and that are of interest to the researcher. PPC Colleen Bawn has 291 permanent employees, 29 apprentices and 9 attachment students in the production section. The targeted population is in the quarry and crushing mill, coal mill, and the primary and tertiary plant because these are the most viable departments as far as production is concerned and these areas are the most prone to accidents and incidents. Employees mainly targeted were production supervisors, occupational health and safety personnel/risk assessment personnel, production employees and industrial clinic nurses. Employees in other departments are important as they may provide other issues that relate to industrial safety that could be omitted by the target groups, and their inclusion will make this study prolific by getting their perceptions about occupational health and safety. The study then involves the office departments where engineers, foremen, the occupational health and safety/ risk assessment department and then lastly the industrial clinic are located.
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION
Sampling is the selection of a subset of individuals from a population to estimate the characteristics of the whole population (Bryman, 2008). A sample size can be defined as a limited number taken from a larger group (target population) for examining and analysis on the assumption that the sample can be used as representative of the entire target population. According to David, (1997) a sample population is a correct representation of the population hence it was appropriate and was employed. Thus in this case 10% of the 329 employees were sampled.
The sampling frame was then exposed to stratified sampling method. The stratified random sampling technique was used because there was need to select only those units who were able to provide answers to the questions and ensure complete worker representation. The sampling frame was first divided into 5 groups (strata) of elements with similar desired characteristics. The respondents or sample for the research were randomly selected from the groups of production supervisors, health and safety committee members, workers in the maintenance department and industrial clinic nurse.
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
3.4.1 QUESTIONNAIRE
In this case questionnaires were used because they are straight forward and more objective. 33 questionnaires were distributed with the help of production supervisors. The number of questionnaires targeted the 10% of 329 employees as it is the targeted population. 2 questionnaires were given to the clinic nurses, safety department and production supervisors respectively. The remaining 27 were distributed to the drilling, blasting, processing, coal mill, crushing mill evenly. The supervisors helped in the distribution of the questionnaires since they could quickly locate the respondents in their various workstations. The respondents also took the exercise seriously because of the involvement of fellow workmates. The questionnaire will gather both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher will seek permission from the Human Resources Department before the day of the research so that there will not be any disturbances on the day of administering the questionnaires.
3.4.2 INTERVIEWS
Interviews were also conducted with the human resources officer, safety officer, production supervisor, and the sister in charge of the clinic. This was done to acquire some information that could have been omitted in the questionnaires and also to get information on the attitude of the management towards issues concerning Occupational Health and Safety thus increasing the validity and reliability of data.

3.4.3 FIELD OBSERVATION
Observations on OHS infrastructures were carried out with the help of the quality controllers because they are knowledgeable in the field of production operations. The health and safety officer also helped in coming up with an objective observation guide since he could provide areas of concern in terms of accidents and incidents.

3.4.4 SECONDARY DATA SOURCES.
The researcher visited the Human Resources department Archives offices to obtained annual risk assessment and annual progress reports. This provided background information Occupational Health and Safety issues on the company. These reports also revealed some of the efforts initiated by the company in controlling the rate at which accidents.
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS
This part involves the analysis of data collected that was collected be to provide some answers to the research questions. The data collected was coded, categorized, arranged and summarized so as to derive some meaning out of it. Data collected through questionnaires and all qualitative data collected through interviews and unpublished sources was coded and categorized. Codes or coding categories are means of sorting data you have collected so that the material bearing on a given topic can physically be separated from other data, Cerritos College (1956). The researcher analysed the responses and identified the major patterns and trends then wrote a summary of what was be obtained. Quantitative data collected on occupational health safety including risk assessments was analysed and presented in terms of graphs, tables and pie charts coupled with detailed descriptions in areas which needed more clarification. Direct quotations were noted where necessary considering the fact that some of the information was qualitative.
CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE
4.1.1 Gender
Questionnaires and interview data were analysed to asses occupational health and safety issues associated with production at PPC. In the study sample, 90% were male and 10% were female as shown on figure 4.1. The dominance of males seems to confirm claims by some researchers like Weeks, (1991) that industries require a lot of physical strength and therefore man are dominant in the industry. According to Economic Commission for Africa (2007) in Zimbabwe, women represent only about 10% of the 30,000 formal industrial and mining work force. For example in Ghana, the number of women who are involved in industrial activities is only 10%, but they represent more than 50% of those working in minor activities like cleaning.
.

. Figure 4.1: Gender of respondents
4.1.2 Age of respondents
It was noted that most workers (36%) are between 21 and 30 years followed by those between 31 and 40 years (26%). The least number of respondents was that above 51 years (6%). It was also noted that there are few employees above 51 years because people working in small scale mines retire at early ages due to the laborious nature of the job.
4.1.2 Age of respondents Figure 4.2 presents that most workers (40%) are between 29 and 39 followed by those between 40 to 49 years (27%) followed by (18%) 50 to 60 years followed by 15% 18 to 28 years. The least number of respondents was that above 61 years (0%). It was also noted that there are few employees above 61 years because most industries nowadays comprise of the youthful age due to the laborious nature of work. In terms of safety and health issues this tells us that there is minimal use of child labour as it was noted that there are few respondents below the age of 20 that is only 19%, according to the labour act chapter 28.1 of 2002 section 11 Employment of young persons (1) Subject to subsection (3), no employer shall employ any person in any Occupation, otherwise than as an apprentice who is under the age of fifteen years. The fact that there are less old people also means that there are fewer chances of injuries resulting from poor concentration and poor sight caused by ageing. Figure 4.2 shows the percentage number of respondents falling under each age group.

Fig 4.2: Percentage of age groups of respondents
4.1.3 Education Levels of respondents
The research examined the educational levels of the respondents from the three selected small scale mines. It was noted that 24.24% of the respondents had primary school education, 39.39% had secondary school education, 30.30% had at least a diploma and 2 have degrees better as shown on figure 4.3. This tells us that most employees in which the research was conducted are literate. The fact that most employees are literate shows that it is easy for them to get trained on safety issues. This is presented in the graph below:

Fig 4.3: Percantage education levels of respondents

4.2 MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH CEMENT PRODUCTION.
It was established that employees at different workstations faced different types of hazards that they are aware of in their work places in the line of production. All respondents from the coal mill, blasting section, processing plant, blasting and crushing mill (100%) indicated that they are aware of the occupational hazards at their work places. Employees listed several hazards associated with the production level and as a result some hazards proved to be dominant in two if not all sections and some of these hazards were continuously repeated. The hazards that were mentioned are dust, heat, noise, ergonomics, thermal ventilation, vibration, and lighting. Other hazards that are found in most industries include temperature heat disorders like rashes, fatigue, collapse, exhaustion and stroke. These hazards tally with those which were mentioned by Webb (1989). Production is reduced when ever these hazards affect workers.
4.2.1 Dust
Dust personal exposure was assessed on Time Weighted Average (TWA) gravimetric samples taken in the breathing zone of the worker (or bluff body) this was acquired through the interviews. In the coal mill, klinker tunnel, and crushing plant, workers are exposed to dust through the processes of off loading and loading. From the data secured from the OHS department as presented in figure 4.4, there is a probability that 2 in every 5 people are affected by coal dust particulates when entering the Klinker tunnel. When offloading and loading there is a probability that 5 in every 5 people are affected by dust on delivery points and stockpiles. More so in the Crushing plant 3 in every 5 people are affected by dust on the conveyer belt and also crushing operators are affected on this section. It must be appreciated that dust has a cumulative risk; in other words the risk is higher for those exposed continuously. The dust causes pneumoconiosis which a lung disease caused by the inhalation of certain types of dust.

Fig 4.4: Dust affected victims in production The clinic nurse revealed that most workers in the above mentioned areas constantly visit the clinic with complaints of flues, eye problems, coughs and chest problems. This is due to the constant inhaling of dust particulates over a prolonged time of exposure to the dust environment they work in. Thus production time is lost when people visit the clinic for aid. This reduces the productive capacity of the worker gradually affecting the production rate of the company.

4.2.2 Noise
In all sub-sections of the production section visited the problem of noise was noted. The reason for this noise is because of the use of heavy machinery and working in confined spaces. Noise sources in the sections came from drilling, crushing, blasting and noise produced during the processing of klinker in the main plant (kiln). Thus mainly workers confined in those environments are exposed to excessive noise and undergo occupational hearing loss. However others may not be affected because noise induced hearing loss is a time weighted probability and the legal requirement is also time weighted those continuously exposed to noise. It was established in the research that 3 in every 12 people under go hearing problems. PPE, although important, is not an acceptable means of control and should only be considered a last resort. The workers stated that PPE is not effective in addressing other adverse effects of noise such as interference with speech communication, with the perception of warning signals, the disruption of job performance and annoyance. World Health Organization (2002) also pointed out that there are high levels of noise in industries, the reason being that there is use of heavy machinery like drill rigs which produce in large amounts of produce per section of each production level.

The Legal requirement <90dB(A) and the corporate requirement <85dB(A) in heavy industries. In an assessment carried out at PPC Colleen Bawn in December 2012 a sample of noise pollution was undertaken in the compressor room and it revealed the information in Table 4.1:

Place | dB(A) | Main entrance | 89,7-89.9 | Inside | 97,2 | Side entrance | 91,5-92.25 |
Table 4.1: Compressor room noise rate (Dec 2012)
Upon observations it was discovered that there is no constant measurement of noise in most sections of the production because most companies do not have equipment to determine noise intensity. However, noise can be evidenced when workers have to shout in order to communicate, this can be used to determine the levels of noise in the area being studied. Impulse noise is produced when shouting and the nurse regarded it as one of the most dangerous type of noise as it causes headaches and hearing loss.
4.2.3 Lighting, Ventilation and thermal comfort
In terms of lighting it was observed that in areas like clinker tnnels there were difficulties in viewing in some areas and also there were some areas that had bright lighting. Poor /bright lighting can cause problems in eyesight as it was revealed that most workers visit the clinic with problems on their eyesight. Thus again there is lost time in production due to people who constantly visit the clinic.
4.2.4 Ergonomics
Most workers articulated that they face problems with their working environment. In the coal mill where there is delivery, offloading and loading, of the sample carried out it revealed that in every 5 people there are complaints of rashes, back aches, muscle sprains and twisting of muscles. This is due to either prolonged bending periods when shoveling coal from train trocks, or when blowing areas where there is constant clogging of coal as evident in the Plate 1.

Plate 1: Ergonomics at hoppers
4.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF OHS
It was revealed that occupational injuries and illnesses caused by the hazards mentioned above contribute negatively to the production rate of the company. This is a result of different issues like availability of PPE, negligence, lack of awareness and some factors like production vs safety priority, training, lack of experience and attendance.
4.3.1 Production vs safety priority
Most industries consider production first before safety and this is one main cause of accidents and incidents that cause injuries and illnesses. 47 % of the respondents indicated that safety is prioritised before production but the remaining 53% indicated that production is prioritised first before safety this is shown on the chart on figure 4.5. It was also noted that workers are at times forced to work at a relatively faster pace so as to meet the targets and this leads to occupational injuries. It was also established that industries focus more on production than safety because safety pumps out money and production brings in money. This goes in line with a view by Miller and Galbraith (1995) who says most organisations focus mainly on production at the cost of workers’ health and safety and the physical environment.

Figure 4.5: Production vs safety priority
4.3.2 Lack of Personal protective clothing
It was found out from observations and interviews that protective clothing is used as forefront protection of workers from hazards. Protection of the worker is on the workers themselves and not on the sources of the hazards. During the study it was discovered that the company offers adequate PPE for its workers twice a year bt it will be in packages of 3. However with the proper standardized equipment negligence by employees decreases the level of standards of the company. Some of its workers do not utilize the clothing but instead keep them at their houses. This type of behavior affects the industry as there can be possibilities of injuries due to either worn out clothing or even one’s negligence of not even attempting to utilize the resources provided to them. In the coal mill 70% of the personal protective clothing was worn out due to extensive heat in the area and also due to the corrosiveness of coal itself. Workers are exposed to many risks due to lack of adequate protective clothing and this endangers their lives and they frequent the clinic due to work related illnesses like flu and chest pains. This reduces the time that they are at work and production declines. Lack of protective clothing reduces employee morale resulting in low productivity because workers become less willing to work. Lack of protective clothing and equipment also exposes workers’ health to OHS hazards and diseases, thereby reducing their efficiency and productivity thus affecting the company’s production capacity.

4.4. MANAGEMENT’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAFETY (OHS)

From the interviews, questionnaires and observations it is evident that the company is trying to maintain OHS standards, however Management gave an excuse to not fully attending to OHS issues by blaming financial constraints yet production is at its maximum. The workers are aware of this and they resultantly breed resentment towards the management. This reduces employee morale and workers’ willingness to work, thereby reducing productivity.
Occupational health and safety standards require that there should be training and awareness of safety issues which are reluctantly being ignored by management. More so activities like accident and investigation reports should be carried out 90% of the production workers claim that there has been reduction in investigations of accidents and injuries.
Lastly 100% of the workers blamed the management for the recurrence if accidents and injuries in the production section claiming the some of the machines are laborious and straining. The study discovered that rusty and old machines are used in most factories. These are dangerous because they may stop running abruptly and cause the machine operator unnecessary injury or death. The machines also let out large amounts of dust and loud noises. Old machines produce more occupational health safety (OHS) hazards that are more difficult to control than new ones.
4.4.1 Lack of awareness and gross negligence by supervisors and employees

Fig 4.6: % response on supervisors’ exemplarity.

From the questionnaires conducted another reason which leads to the increase in the occupational injuries an illness is that the supervisors in the mines are not exemplary when it comes to the health and safety issues. However as presented in figure 4.6, 80% of the respondents indicated that their supervisors are exemplary when it comes to safety issues and 20% of the respondents indicated that their supervisors not are exemplary. Although according to the observations the supervisors can even get in the mine without adequate PPE even if it is there. The supervisors also noted that the employees get injured or ill due to their own negligence, it was pointed out that at times employees prefers to work without overalls claiming that its hot.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS
The results of the study revealed that bad occupational health safety (OHS) practices in manufacturing industries decrease the workers’ performance, thus leading to the decline of production. A worker who is suffering from an occupational illness is slower and weaker, thereby, missing targets set for production. The general attitude of management towards OHS is largely negative since little attention is paid to training on occupational health safety (OHS). The study also identified the prominent and dominant hazards that reduce the production capacity despite the efforts made by management to improve the occupational health and safety standards in their production sector. In the study, it was discovered that most hindrances in maximum production come from the rate of lost time after effects of accidents, injuries, sicknesses, visits to the clinic, time off and sick leave. All these are a result of hazards like dust, lack of proper PPE, noise pollution, poor lighting, ergonomics, negligence and forced presenteesm when one is actually not feeling well. At the end of the research it was identified that sometimes production is reduced by workers who go to work drunk. This behavior affects the level of production as one will not be in a proper productivity state. It was established that work-related injuries among young workers are caused by various factors which range from lack of training, risk behavior by the employees, lack of experience, lack of health and safety training, alcoholic drink consumption lack of knowledge., substandard maintenance of tools and equipment, poor communication, poor housekeeping, use of explosives, inadequate personal protective equipment, lack of training and lack of experience. The study also noted that the consequences of occupational injuries have an impact on performance, medical costs, social services and production.

RECOMMENDATIONS
From the above conclusion, the following recommendations have been suggested in order to improve the occupational health and safety standards so as to improve production at PPC Colleen Bawn cement factory * The government through the ministry of mines should embark on education of workers with regard to the hazards involved in their working environments, it must also offer Safety training initially and periodically to manufacturing industries in order to make the workers alert at all the time and to adopt safe working methods instinctively. * There is need for the company to present its Safety health policy and its employees should internalise it so that workers are aware of actions to do in terms of their safety. * The company should review its “Restricted Access” and work procedures and systems. e.g. people should not unnecessarily enter noise zones to avoid unnecessary health problems. * Adequate lighting should be made in order to make hazards easier to see. Evenly distributed inadequate lighting is better than bright and dark zones because it takes time to adjust. A review of the routes to work should include a review of the lighting. * There should be everyday Safety Health and Environment talks before start of work and these should be monitored by the Safety health and environment personel who has full knowledge of issues of concern. * There should be regular medical checkups/ examinations to check the health of employees and identify problems affecting them so as to identify the most reccuring health problems and measures to reduce them * Upgrading of machinery is necessary so as to suit the worker to machine reliability; generally the working environment should suit the worker. * Management should provide proper PPE to its employees and on time to avoid injuries. * Management should be in a position to treat its employees equally as this was one complaint revealed by employees.

REFFERENCES

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Brandt-Rauf S (2001). Health and Work Productivity, Foundation Basic Industrial Hygiene-AIHA Publications

Bryman. A (2008), Social Research Methods, Third Edition. Oxford University Press Inc.,

Bulletin of the World Health Organization.(2008),Occupational health hazards of mine workers World Health Organization.

Carrol, J. (2008),Organisational learning activities in high hazard industries. The logic underlying self-analysis, Journal of management studies.
Cerritos College (1956). A brief guide to the analysis of open ended survey questions.

Charamba L (2006) National Health and Safety Training Course. NSSA. Harare

Factories and Works Act (Chapter 14:08) (1976) Government Printers: Harare.

Frey, Lawrence. R, Carl. H, Betan and Gary .L (2000) Investigating communication: An

Allyn and Bacon.Introduction to Reseach Methods.2nd ed. Beston:

Health and Safety. The Financial Returns from a Safe Working Environment. (Second edition). CRC Press: London.
Health Safety Executive (2006) The Department of labour. Model for Business, Excellence. Government Printers: Harare.

Health Safety Executive (2006) The Department of labour. Model for Business, Excellence. Government Printers: Harare

Henry, Gary. T (1990) Practical Sampling. Vol.21 London: Sage publications

International Standard: ISO 7708 “Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health Related Sampling”.
Kish, Leslie (1965) Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley and sons

Macleod (1995). How Health and Safety Makes Good Business Sense. Med Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Inc: USA

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Mtetwa , B. (2005),An aid to occupational safety and health, World safety and health day commemoration: commitment to safer workplaces. Benarby printers, Harare.
Mtetwa, B. (2005),Best practices in occupational safety and health: aiming for zero tolerance, Benarby Press, Harare .
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National Center of Occupational Health Safety and others.(1997),Resolution of meeting on Occupational Health Proffessional Training in the SADC region, Johannesburg.
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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Analytical Methods-4th Edition;

National Social Security Authority on Occupational Health and Safety.(2000), Occupational injuries in sectors of Zimbabwe industries, On Guard

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Profitability through Health and Safety. The Financial Returns from a Safe Working Environment. (Second edition). CRC Press: London. Research Training Manual: Harare
Schwartz 1991/2; Schwartz & Dockery 1992b; Ostro 1994
The ACGIH TLVs (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values) Booklet Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety OSH Answers Web Site at http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/

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APENDIX A: RESEARCH TOOLS QUESTIONNAIRE

RESEARCH TOPIC:
The influence of occupational health and safety on production: A case of Zimbabwe PPC, Colleen Bawn.

My name Emmanuel Maganga. I am an undergraduate student doing Geography and Environmental Studies at Midlands State University. I am requesting for your participation in this survey by answering the scheduled questions below. This study seeks to assess the influence of occupational health and safety on production: A case of Zimbabwe PPC, Colleen Bawn.You are kindly invited to answer the questionnaires as honestly as you can. Your input and opinions will thus help the researcher draw appropriate conclusions. Data collected will be strictly for academic purpose and will be treated confidential and anonymous. Instructions a) Do not put any personal identification mark on this document
b) Indicate your response to each question by putting an X or tick in the appropriate box or write in the space provided
c) Answer all questions

Date ………………………………………………………………..
Department ……………………………………………………………….
Position in department ……………………………………………………………….

(A) BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1. Age Group
18-28 29-39 40-49 50-60 61 and above

2. Sex of Interviewee Male Female

3. Marital status Married Single Divorced Widowed

4. Educational Level Grade 7 ‘O’ Level ‘A’ Level Diploma Degree

(B) HEALTH AND WORK RELATIONSHIP

5. How long have you been working in this area? ……………….. 6. What are the products processed in your section? …………………………………………… 7. For how long are you exposed to the working environment? ………………………………………………………………………… 8. When working, is there time off/ break? yes | No | 9. Have you ever had complains of body parts affected in the last 12 months and which part of the body? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10. Which is the most common problem (accident, injury, diseases/ sickness)? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11. (a) What type of machinery do you us? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Have you experienced any problems with the machinery in terms of injuries? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SECTION B. UNDERSTANDING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

12. Have you ever heard about occupational health and safety? Yes No 13. If yes, what do understand about it………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14. When was it implemented in your company? ………………………… 15. What is your understanding of aims of OHS? …………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16. From your own perspective, are its aims being addressed? ……………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SECION C. ATTITUDE OF MANAGEMENT TOWARDS OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY 17. What type of protective clothing do you use if there is any at all? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18. How often are you supplied with the PPE? ………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19. How often do you usually meet to discuss issues concerning occupational health and safety? Regularly Rarely Not at all 20. Does the company value the standards of occupational health and safety? YES NO , and give reasons for your answer ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22. State other problems that may be of concern in terms of OHS standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

APENDIX B: INTERVIEW GUIDE WITH PRODUCTION SUPERVISORS, CLINIC NURSE, SAFETY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT OFFICER AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT
RESEARCH TOPIC: THE INFLUENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS ON PRODUCTION.
I am requesting for your participation in this survey by answering the scheduled questions below. I am an undergraduate student doing Geography and Environmental Studies at Midlands State University Data collected will be strictly for academic purpose and will be treated confidential. Your answers will be of great input to the reseach being undertaken.

1. What are the common hazards in production and why are they common?
2 What are the health problems/ effects emanated by the hazards?
3. Amongst the effects , what are the common disaeses and why?
4. Are there any standards of Occupational Health and Safety?
5. How is the response rate if accidents occur and who is responsible for action when accidents occur?
6. How is the Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate and are the OHS standards helping in reducing this?
7. What is the management doing to upgrade the OHS standards in the department?
8. Is there any SHE Policy that workers have familiarised with?

APENDIX C: OBSERVATION CHECKLIST * Machinery used. * Hazards found in the production section. * PPE used by the employees. * Working conditions of employees. * Work procedures. * General house keeping. * Ergonomics

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...The Meaning of History Student’s Name University Affiliation MEANING OF HISTORY The term history combines a number of terminologies for it to have a meaning. It therefore refers to a systematic account of natural phenomena involving accounts of events that are narrated in a chronological order and deal with past of mankind. History can also be defined as the dialogues that relates the present with the past. Evolution of mankind sometimes defines the word history. It explains the story of man and his progression in civilization, his downfalls, successes, his laws and wars, religion, arts and development. In other words it can be summarized as the biography of great men who were heroes in the past. The origin of history started way back in Greek being connected to the world famous historians Thucydides and Heredeotus.The word history also relates to writers or narrators of events referred to as historians e.g. we have historians narrating the new history of the Era of the Polis. History follows the example of discovering past human dimensions which one of the history authors divides it into five different stages. The Golden age, the Silver age, the age of Bronze and finally the Iron Age. History incorporates a number of significance that helps us to understand its meaning better. It makes life richer by providing importance to the books one reads, the sites one visits and the kind......

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History Is a Lie

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