Premium Essay

Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich:

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Emanpop
Words 3187
Pages 13
Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich:
Omer Bartov

Ioan Popescu
500182744
HST 603-011
The autonomy of the Wehrmacht within the confines of the Third Reich, particularly with respect to its relationship with the Nazi party has been open to considerable debate post World War II. In Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich, Omer Bartov addresses the motivating factors responsible for transforming the Wehrmacht from merely a highly efficient and professional military organization into an extremely politicized armed forces motivated by National Socialist ideals. Bartov argues four distinct yet related theories which, when taken together bring insight into the Nazification of the Wehrmacht in ultimately becoming Hitler’s Army. His arguments first highlight the war experience through the de-modernization of the Wehrmacht particularly on the eastern front along with the social organization relating to the destruction of the ‘Primary Group’. These factors resulted in the Wehrmacht to compensate through the ‘Perversion of Discipline’ which directly attributed to many war crimes along with harsh punishment of its own soldiers. Finally, the distortion of reality through propaganda all shaped the soldiers perception of the war and ultimately allowed Hitler to assume total control of the Wehrmacht. Murray Sager argues that the Wehrmacht supported Hitler, not just in gratitude, but because the Wehrmacht closely identified with the aims of National Socialism (Sager, 2010). Furthermore, Wolfram Wette argues that the Wehrmacht’s long-standing prejudices against Jews, Slavs, and Bolsheviks made it a willing accomplice to Nazi aims (Wette, 2008). Samuel Newland points out that from the beginning of the National Socialist era, Hitler's generals were not in opposition to his schemes but supported him, further showing a Wehrmacht commitment...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hitler's Failures Post 1940

...From the beginning of the Second World War, Adolf Hitler had a set of goals that he looked to accomplish; establish the Aryan Race as the supreme race over all others, abolish the Treaty of Versailles, expand German territory (Lebensraum), and defeat Communism. To manipulate the German people, he utilized propaganda regarding previous grievances such as Germany’s outcome from World War I and the economic situation of Germany to twist the general consensus into the hatred of Jews, “gypsies”, and other races deemed inferior to the Aryans. As for military strategy, Hitler felt that the best way to go about gaining territory was keep it as a “one-front” war, because it would keep the Wehrmacht from spreading out itself too much and overextending it’s supply lines. In addition, he devised the Blitzkrieg or “lightning war”, which meant that his forces were concentrated into a cohesive unit, so that the Panzer tanks would swoop in first, causing panic among enemy soldiers, and then these tanks would continue moving while the German foot soldiers took advantage of the confused enemy and pick them off. While both his propaganda and innovative military strategies worked for a stretch of the war, Hitler’s strategy’s began failing from 1940 until his suicide in 1945 that were ultimately responsible for Germany’s loss in World War II. Hitler’s first began making mistakes when, in 1940, Hitler missed two major opportunities to defeat Britain when it was weakest. In June, when the......

Words: 1748 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Educators and Their Influence on German Youth Leading Up to the Holocaust

...into non-Aryan hating, militaristic, strong, and very obedient members of the Nazi society. If a government can control the educational system, it can most likely control society a lot more easily. However, some of the nationalistic views that many of the main Nazis had were brought to them during World War I in the classroom. Many classrooms celebrated the military aspect of war and they celebrated and taught nationalism for Germany. Classrooms did not really do that until the war. It was after the loss in World War I that the attitudes perpetuated by the enormous let down where teachers helped with the Nazi effort and taught the essentials to the Nazi party. Teachers did not do much to fight the Nazi effort and even though not all of them directly participated in the Holocaust, they did breed a nation of young extreme German nationalists whose ideals perpetuated the event. Extreme nationalism was a very popular topic for classrooms during and after World War I, which played a contribution to some of the main Nazis during the Nazi era. A large percentage of the Nazi base was born between 1900 and 1908 including Martin Bormann (born 1900), Rudolf Hoss (born 1900), Heinrich Himmler (born 1900), Ernst von Salomon (born 1902), Werner Best (born 1903), Reinhard Heydrich (born 1906), and Baldur Schirach (born 1907) were all men who went through the German school systems during and after World War I (Anson 337). The teachers during this time taught a nationalist bias that......

Words: 4047 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Holocaust

...Marcel Nazi era- Companies that Help in the Holocaust Throughout history, there have been important events that have distinct a particular ethical issue within various companies. One of these horrific events was the Holocaust, which is defined by Michell R Marrus as “the systematic mass murder of European Jewry by the Nazis”, which “sits uneasily in the history of our time” (Marrus, 1987). To many people the Holocaust is still a source of remorse. Consequently they feel embarrassed, since many were apathetic towards the people suffering, but many also believe that historical investigations can bring about additional insight regarding companies and their commitments. The Holocaust is a part of the history that produces an uncomfortable sensation because of the horrible that happened in this era. As Nora Levin stated, it is not only the magnitude of the destruction- the murder of six million Jews- but because the events surrounding are in a very real sense incomprehensible. No one can understand how mass murder in such a scale could have happened or could have been allowed to happen. The purpose of this paper is not to talk about the Holocaust, however, to create a profound analysis of the German automobile companies that helped the Nazis to perform and gain profits from this holocaust of innocent people. Examples of these companies are the Ford Company, BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke), Daimler Benz, and Volkswagen. From 1930-1945, these companies aided the Nazi cause......

Words: 2572 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Hitler: Monster or Man

...Hitler: Man or Monster Mostafa Emad Tosson Academic Writing, Fall Class 2015 Canadian International College Abstract This research paper will present Hitler’s life from childhood till death, and how his character was shaped by happenings throughout his life. Conducting this research happened by studying Hitler’s biography from different points of view and analyzing the happenings he experienced to prove if Hitler was a man or a monster. Hitler: Man or Monster The man who has become known to many as the worst warmonger in history had humble, even bohemian beginnings. Believe it or not, Adolf Hitler was once a struggling artist, selling watercolor paintings of Viennese landmarks to keep him out of the poor house. How did Hitler go from this penny-pinching life to leading the Nazi Party and eventually Germany itself? Troubled Childhood Born 1889, April 20 – Adolf Hitler was born in an inn in the Austrian village of Braunau-am-Inn. He was the third child of Alois Hitler who was a customs official and his third wife Klara who came from a poor peasant family, but the other two children had died in infancy. Life was financially comfortable for the Hitler family but Alois was a domineering character and young Adolf frequently found himself on the wrong side of his father's short temper. At second Adolf had a half-brother, Alois Jr, and a half-sister, Angela, from Alois' previous marriage. Adolf's younger brother, Edmund, was be born in 1896. Another sister, Paula,......

Words: 4469 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Ib History Paper 1&2 Essays

...1. TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE RISE TO POWER OF HITLER AND THE THIRD REICH, THE RESULT OF PREVIOUS POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS? Introduction Paragraph: Hitler was able to become Germany’s chancellor in 1933 and after 6 months he was already able to establish a dictatorship. It is surprising how such an abominable personage was able to gain total control over Germany, which had been able to become a democratic republic. As Kershaw stated, “the future of Weimar looked promising. And without the onset of the world economic crisis from 1929 it might have remained so”. Thesis: The rise to power of Hitler and the Third Reich was to a large extent the result of previous political and economic problems, such as Germany’s authoritarian origins, the minimum support the Weimar Republic had, WWI and the Great Depression. Body Paragraph 1 – Political and social structure of German authoritarian origins Germany had always favored nationalism, militarism, and anti-Semitism; all emotions in the German people that went back to Germany’s roots and history. Before the Third Reich and the Weimar Republic, Germany lived a prosperous period known as the Second Reich, during which they became a great empire due to the authoritarian traditions and the military success. This is a view extremely supported by the “structuralists”, who believe that Nazism and Hitler were simply products of German history and that they were forces that still......

Words: 3288 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Mcmitler

...politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He was effectively dictator of Nazi Germany, and was a central figure of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust. Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers' Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he dictated his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy. Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order......

Words: 13618 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Ww2 Study Vuidd

...World War Two Study Guide Fascism: a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry,commerce,etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism. A political movement that employs the principles and methods of fascism, especially the one established by Mussolini in Italy. Benito Mussolini: Benito Mussolini served as Italy’s 40th Prime Minister from 1922 until 1943. He is considered a central figure in the creation of Fascism and was both an influence on and close ally of Adolf Hitler during World War II. In 1943, Mussolini was replaced as Prime Minister and served as the head of the Italian Social Republic until his execution by Italian partisans in 1945. Adolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1933 until his suicide in 1945. Hitler was responsible for starting World War II and for killing more than 11 million people during the Holocaust. He was know as the Führer of the Third Reich. As dictator of Germany, Hitler wanted to increase and strengthen the German army as well as expand Germany's territory. Although these things broke the terms of the Versailles Treaty, the treaty that officially ended World War I, other countries allowed him to do so. Since the terms of the Versailles Treaty had been harsh, other countries found it easier to be lenient than risk another bloody European war. When the Nazis attacked Poland World War II began. Nazism:......

Words: 2000 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Holocaust

...studying the Holocaust must know the factual background before some of the more technical studies can be understood. As well as general works we have included books of specialized interest concerning the matters about which we at The Holocaust History Project are most frequently asked. Many of these books deal with more than one subject, but in the interest of brevity we have not cited a book more than once. General history of the Holocaust The Holocaust was not just an event. It was a process that continued for over a decade and involved millions of people. No single book could cover every aspect of the Holocaust. Those listed below will give the reader a general idea of the historical realities of the Holocaust. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1975) Martin Gilbert,...

Words: 5578 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Nazi Death Camps Paper

...Nazi Death Camps Nazi Death Camps Arbeit Macht Frei Arbeit Macht Frei 2012 Joseph Frimpong Western Civilization 2 11/2/2012 2012 Joseph Frimpong Western Civilization 2 11/2/2012 Arbeit macht frei; when translated into English means labor makes you free. This was the first thing many Jews in the 1940’s saw as the banner above the gates of the place they’d likely die read. (Wachsmann) German soldiers fed Jews false hope, thinking that the harder they worked the closer freedom would be when in reality freedom could only come with death. The world changed forever when an estimated 20,946,000 people died due to the world war ignited by Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich. The Third Reich was the name for Nazi Germany under Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) when it was a totalitarian state. Totalitarianism is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever necessary. (Dictionary) Soldiers were killed in battle, Civilians in cross fire, and by starvation but nothing compares to the systematic execution and elimination demonstrated by the Third Reich sponsored death camps. Before the organized concentration camps that are well known throughout the world to have killed a countless number of people there were camps built in the early 1930’s when the Nazi’s first came into power. Earlier camps were temporary and were set up to confine, interrogate, torture, and......

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Hitler and Mussolini

...Hitler and Benito Mussolini helped to instill fear throughout the rest of Europe through the 1930s and 1940s. The powerhouse duo was very similar in many ways including persuasion and public speaking; however they also had different key qualities to make them unique. Having risen to power years earlier during the 1920s, Benito Mussolini was the senior of the two, and an initial inspiration and mentor for a young Adolf Hitler. Mussolini’s ideas of a fascist Italy became a building block for Hitler and Nazi Germany. However, early on their relationship was not a good one as Mussolini saw himself as superior. Mussolini had little respect for Hitler and the Nazi Germany as a whole. He did not agree with Hitler’s beliefs regarding racialism and his desire of an Aryan race. As time continued Mussolini’s view of Nazi Germany and Hitler would change completely. As the Germans became the powerhouse of Europe, Mussolini was forced to take a backseat to Hitler throughout World War II. A young Benito Mussolini began his rise to power in Italy as early as 1918. It is then that he realized that in order for Italy to grow as a dominant force in Europe, a dictatorship was necessary. With his good looks and his persuasive speeches, a young Mussolini was able to gain the support of the Italian people. Although the content of his speeches was often incorrect, opinions contradictory, and attacks often misled or unjustified, it was in fact his persona that won over the Italians. ......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Germany Revision

...SECTION 1: THE SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF THE WEIMAR GOVERNMENT 1918-OCTOBER 1933 |9 November 1918 |Abdication of the Kaiser | |January 1919 |Spartacist Uprising | |February 1919 |First Weimar elections | |28 June 1919 |Treaty of Versailles signed | |July 1919 |Weimar Constitution announced | |March 1920 |Kapp Putsch signed | |January 1923 |Occupation of the Ruhr | |January-November 1923 |Hyperinflation | |8-9 November 1923 |Munich Putsch ...

Words: 13280 - Pages: 54

Premium Essay

Hilter

...An Overview of Hitler’s Nazi Germany One of the most hated names of the 20th Century was Adolf Hitler. His role as dictator of Germany and his harsh treatment of Jews led to the deaths of millions of people during World War II. His leadership skills and his ability as a speaker appealed to the German people who were in a poor economic state following World War I. His political career began as Chancellor of Germany. Later he became the Fuhrer or leader of Germany and the founder of the Nazi Party. Hitler’s time as leader of Germany left the entire world with scars that took many years to heal. Adolf Hitler’s dictatorship was based on violence and hatred of certain races and minorities. He enforced his ideas using a secret police force known as the Gestapo. He formed concentration camps for those Germans who wouldn’t follow his rules as well as to murder millions of Jews. His success in World War II was short and when it became evident that his government would fail, he committed suicide. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in a small town close to the German border. His father was a strict Catholic man who was very demanding of young Hitler. This strict way of life was very common at this time. As a young Catholic, Hitler sang in the choir and served as an altar boy. He did not practice the Catholic faith as an adult but considered himself a Christian. His hatred of Jews began as a young boy. Because of the political movements of the time that involved several......

Words: 2149 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Nazi Germany

...was what Hitler wanted for Germany under the control of the Nazi party. From 1933 to 1939 Hitler tried to control every aspect of Germany and its people. To create a totalitarian state Hitler would have to insure that one party and one party only controlled Germany. He would also have to ensure that he could keep the economy, the opposition, the media, the army and the police fully under his control. This essay will closely examine if he achieved this or not. Carl Freidrichs, a German historian believes that to have a totalitarian state all of these features are needed. In other words for a country to be a totalitarian state then the following features were essential. These included: suppression of all sources of opposition, total control of the media, total control of all groups in society, the total control of education, total control of the economy and finally total control of all civil life. If these things could be controlled then Hitler would have indeed created a totalitarian state. Firstly Hitler would have to crush all opposition to ensure that he could create his totalitarian state. Although Hitler had quickly established a one party state and silenced his political opponents, even though their use of threats and violence the Nazi party could never fully silence their opponents. The church provided them with a large amount of opposition. Both Cardinal von Galen and Pastor Bonhoeffer were amongst the Nazis leading critics and were later arrested and executed.......

Words: 2135 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Women in Nazi Germany

...The women in Nazi Germany had a very specific role set up for them. The specifications of their job consisted of revolving around their house duties, their husbands and their children. Most of the income in the family would come from the husband, while back at home, the women would tidy up and keep everything in place. The encouragement of marrying at a young age, and getting a proper family dates back to 1933, from when Hitler first rose to power, and the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage was introduced. This law specified that all newly married couples would get a government loan of 1000 marks which was about 9 months average income. This loan was not to be simply paid back. The birth of one child meant that 25% of the loan did not have to be paid back. Two children meant that 50% of the loan need not be paid back. Four children meant that the entire loan was cleared. In another sense, it was logical for the families to reproduce in order to have a stable life. Hitler’s policies mainly revolved around the main idea of producing more children in the country, in order to have more mother and more soldiers. With more young boys and girls, Germany was gaining more soldiers and mothers. Before becoming eligible men and women, all of the youth had to go through specific programs where they would gain more knowledge and learn new policies. The programs were called “Hitler Youth”. In the first few years the programs were launched, they were strictly for the boys, where......

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Mr.Lee

... The Rising of a Racist Dictator-- Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler is the leader of the Nazi Party (Nazi is the abbreviation of the Germen word “Nationalsozialismus”) (Shirer Foreword). He improved Germany to a powerful country rapidly after the World War I. Also he is one of the main sponsors of the World War II. He used to lead the Germans to the peak of the power and conquest. His Nazi spirit leaded people to the top of the anti-semitism. With his Nazi Party, Hitler killed at least five million Jews, eight million Bohemians, more than two million Polacks and six million Soviet soldiers and citizens. He started the World War II and it made the death of about twenty million soldiers and twenty million women, children and seniors (Shirer Foreword). In recent study of Hitler and his holocaust against the Jews, he rose to power and spread his anti-semitism throughout Germany and Europe, with the establishment of the concentration camps and his doctrine of hate called “The Final Solution”. I found that the disaster for human beings was not only caused by Adolf Hitler, but was also caused by the everyday people in Germany. In some ways, his “success” represented the common aspiration of the German people at that time. The Treaty of Versailles attacked the finance of Germany and it made the Mark (the German currency at that time) become pieces of useless paper. The army and some large companies got a lot of benefits from that crisis, but the common people in Germany......

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6