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Hofstede's 6 Dimensions

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Hofstede's six basic cultural dimensions

• Power distance (PDI), or the degree to which members of a national culture automatically accept a hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in organizations and the society; This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low power distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power • Individualism-collectivism (IDV), or the degree to which individuals in a given national culture perceive themselves as separate from others and free from group pressure to conform;
The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. A society's position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.” • Masculinity (MAS), or the degree to which a national culture looks favorably on aggressive and materialistic behavior. The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation,...

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