Premium Essay

Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bakait
Words 1743
Pages 7
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

Geert H. Hofstede was born on October 2, 1928 in Haarlem, the Netherlands. He received his M.Sc. from the Delft Institute of Technology in 1953, his Ph.D. (cum laude) from Groningen University in 1967. Hofstede is most well known for his work on four dimensions of cultural variability, commonly referred to as "Hofstede's Dimensions." These include: Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, Individualism-Collectivism, and Long-Term/Short Term Orientation. These dimensions were arrived in his 1980 publication, "Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values." The study took existing survey data (sample size of 116,000) collected from a multinational corporation (IBM). The result was a score in each of the dimensions for 40 different countries.
During 1978-83, the Dutch cultural anthropologist Geert Hofstede conducted detailed interviews with hundreds of IBM employees in 53 countries. Through standard statistical analysis of fairly large data sets, he was able to determine patterns of similarities and differences among the replies. From this data analysis, he formulated his theory that world cultures vary along consistent, fundamental dimensions. Since his subjects were constrained to one multinational corporation's world-wide employees, and thus to one company culture, he ascribed their differences to the effects of their national cultures. (One weakness is that he maintained that each country has just one dominant culture.)
In the 1990s, Hofstede published a more accessible version of his research publication in Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind [Hofstede]. His focus was not on defining culture as refinement of the mind (or "highly civilized" attitudes and behavior) but rather on highlighting essential patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting that are...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture

...Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture Geert H. Hofstede was born on October 2, 1928 in Haarlem, the Netherlands. He received his  M.Sc. from the Delft Institute of Technology in 1953, his Ph.D. (cum laude) from Groningen University in 1967. Hofstede served in the Netherlands Army from 1953 to 1955. In 1955, he married Maaike A. Van den Hoek. They've also "lived happily ever after", but I'm not sure where (probably Brussels, Belgium). Hofstede is most well known for his work on four dimensions of cultural variability, commonly referred to as "Hofstede's Dimensions." These include: Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, Individualism-Collectivism, Confucian Dynamism. These dimensions were arrived in his 1980 publication, "Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values." The study took existing survey data (sample size of 116,000) collected from a multinational corporation (IBM). The result was a score in each of the dimensions for 40 different countries. During 1978-83, the Dutch cultural anthropologist Geert Hofstede conducted detailed interviews with hundreds of IBM employees in 53 countries. Through standard statistical analysis of fairly large data sets, he was able to determine patterns of similarities and differences among the replies. From this data analysis, he formulated his theory that world cultures vary along consistent, fundamental dimensions. Since his subjects were constrained to one multinational corporation's......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Scientific Criticism to Geert Hofstede’s Research

...Scientific criticism to Geert Hofstede’s research Cross-cultural issues in European Human Resource Management Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 2 Hofstede’s findings 2 Hofstede’s Framework of Cultures 3 Power Distance (PD) 3 Individualism - Collectivism (IC) 3 Masculinity - Femininity (MF) 4 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) 4 Long/short term orientation (LTO) 5 Some aspects of Hofstede’s model having provoked scientific criticism 5 Methodological issues 6 Cultural Homogeneity 7 National Divisions 7 Number and bipolarity of dimensions 7 Out-dated concept 8 Political Influences 9 Conclusion 9 References 10 Abstract The high level of multiculturalism in the field of business indicates to raise awareness about cultural understanding. Researches in that line major refer to Greert Hofstede, who analyzes dynamics of cross-cultural groups and organizations. Undoubtedly, his model is as widely cited as criticized, because it is well-known pioneering research of national culture differences and their consequences. In this short paper, I am going to examine Hofstede’s findings and the reason why his work faces criticism. Introduction Culture in business has been of utmost interest for the last two decades, and with increasing national diversity in nowadays business environment, culture itself is regarded as an important dimension. The beginning of a pilot study in that sphere refers to the Dutch social psychologist Greert Hofstede and......

Words: 3257 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Student

...Hofstede's cultural framework [9], [10] Hofstede's (1980, 2001) cultural framework is built on the premise that people from around the world are guided by different attitudes, beliefs, customs, morals and ethical standards. Societies are based upon different traditions, rituals, and religions; and promote different views regarding family, work, social, and personal responsibilities. Hofstede's framework was originally comprised of four dimensions. The first dimension - individualism/collectivism - is widely acknowledged as a defining element of culture. In individualistic societies people are expected to look out after themselves, whereas in collectivist societies there is a greater emphasis on group welfare and loyalty. Individualists value independence and self-expression, and tend to believe that personal goals and interests are more important than group interests. In contrast, collectivists tend to view themselves as members of an extended family or organization, place group interests ahead of individual needs, and value reciprocation of favors and respect for tradition. The second dimension - uncertainty avoidance - represents the extent to which people feel uncomfortable or threatened by ambiguous and uncertain situations, and thus create belief systems and institutions in order to promote conformity. Societies with higher levels of uncertainty avoidance place greater value on security (e.g., financial, social), feel a greater need for consensus and written rules, and...

Words: 1549 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Culture of an Organisation

...ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION The Student’s Name The Name of the Class Professor The Name of the University The city and State where it is Located The Date Contents 1.0 Background to the Organization...........................................................................................4 2.0 Theoretical Framework.........................................................................................................5 3.0 Discussion of Central Topic..................................................................................................8 4.0 Conclusions and Recommendations.....................................................................................13 References..................................................................................................................................14 List of Figures Fig: 2.0 Diagrammatic representations of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions...............................7 AN ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION 1.0 Background to the Organization Organization culture is a predominant aspect of an organization’s internal environment Azhar (2003). Culture, to some extent, influences performance and efficiency in an organization Rousseau (2000). Every organization has its unique culture that differs from that of other corporate Schein (2004). For purposes of this report I chose IKEA group, I will conduct an in-depth analysis of its culture using the......

Words: 2964 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

...notion of culture. Leung et al (2005) define culture as “the values, beliefs, norms, and behavioural patterns of a national group.” Czinkota argues that “culture is an integrated system of learned behaviour patterns that are distinguishing characteristics of the members of any given society” (2011). Nakata and Huang (2002, cited by Yaprak) define culture as “the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”, as an individual. Siew et al. argue that “culture is a complex and broad construct that is difficult to accurately measure” (2007). However, scholars have tried to theorize it through several frameworks. In this essay, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the GLOBE study dimensions are compared in order to assess the frameworks’ abilities to accurately measure culture. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions were created as a result of an empirical research of the employees of a global company in order to identify the different work motivations caused by the employees’ nationalities (2001, cited by De Mooji, 2013). The dimensions were constructed at the national level and thus their variables offer insights on nations. They do not correlate at individual or organizational level. However, scholars have misapplied Hofstede’s dimensions to individuals and organizations, which resulted in flawed conclusions at individual level (Venaik and Brewer, 2013). A criticism of Hofstede’s......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Culture Analysis of an Organization

...ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION The Student’s Name The Name of the Class Professor The Name of the University The city and State where it is Located The Date Contents 1.0 Background to the Organization...........................................................................................4 2.0 Theoretical Framework.........................................................................................................5 3.0 Discussion of Central Topic..................................................................................................8 4.0 Conclusions and Recommendations.....................................................................................13 References..................................................................................................................................14 List of Figures Fig: 2.0 Diagrammatic representations of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions...............................7 AN ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION 1.0 Background to the Organization Organization culture is a predominant aspect of an organization’s internal environment Azhar (2003). Culture, to some extent, influences performance and efficiency in an organization Rousseau (2000). Every organization has its unique culture that differs from that of other corporate Schein (2004). For purposes of this report I chose IKEA group, I will conduct an in-depth analysis of its culture using the......

Words: 2964 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

How Are Culture and Leadership Linked

...1799 1799 ‘How are the concepts of culture and leadership linked?’ Introduction: This literature review will make use of four pieces of academic work to discuss how the concept of culture can intrinsically affect leadership. The literature finds that the link between culture and leadership is an important, yet complicated relationship. I will begin by discussing and defining the central concepts of culture and leadership. I will then explain and analyse the significance of culture upon leadership. Finally I will review Hofstede’s cultural framework to assess its significance and relevance to the topic at hand. Culture: To begin, culture is a phenomenon that carries multiple definitions. A simplistic view sees it as “how things are done around here”(Ouchi and Johnson, 1978 p.293). Culture can also encompass the behaviours, attitudes, norms, morals and unconscious values instilled within a group of individuals (Schien, 1985). Hofstede himself defines culture as the “collective mental programming” (Hofstede, 1980 pp.43) of individuals bound by some form of common orientation or geographical boundary. Culture shapes everything within society, and as an extension, leadership. Leadership is another interlinked concept, commonly defined as a relationship by which followers are influenced, and inherent changes are made towards a collective purpose (Daft and Lane, 2005). Moreover leadership refers to the “core set of traits, behaviours, skills, or characteristics......

Words: 2192 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cell Phone Negotiations

...ages around the globe. Because of this, the mobile phone industry is a billion dollar industry. As in any business, cell phone distributors look for the lowest possible purchase price from manufacturers to make the highest profit. This strategy is standard for companies in a global economy and negotiations must occur to get the lowest possible price. The difficulty is in negotiating with suppliers around the globe with different cultural backgrounds. Consideration of such things as gender, personalities, culture and perception are a must for each negotiation. Not doing so could result in loss of profitability and growth. Typically most distributors look overseas for manufacturers because of the cheaper labor rates abroad. This paper will evaluate negotiation styles of Chinese and American teams' negotiation for the lowest possible cell phone manufacturing price using Hofstede's cultural dimensions theories. Hofstede's theories use four dimensions to describe differences in cultures and negotiation styles including individualism-collectivism, power distance, career success vs. quality of life and uncertainty avoidance. The cultural differences of each team are described and then a scenario of how the negotiation would go is developed (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2010, "Chapter 16"). Review This essay will begin with a review of the two teams involved in the negotiation. The first team is an all-male team from the United States (University of Phoenix, 2014). This team......

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cultural Dimension Differences Us vs India

...Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions US vs. India by Edward A. Molnar January 19, 2013 Abstract This article acknowledges the six dimensions of Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, and defines five of them for a comparison between the United States and India. This article shows for the most part, the definitions of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are correct, but the article did identify some ambiguities while making the comparisons. Finally, future areas of possible research were identified that would assist in the removal of the ambiguities. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions US vs. India Geert Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions was a result of an analysis of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM in the 1960’s and 1970’s. This theory describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of that culture’s members and how those values relate to behavior. This is accomplished by using a structure resulting from factor analysis (Hofstede, 2011). This theory has been used as an example for several fields, particularly in cross-cultural psychology (Hofstede, 2011). Geert Hofstede’s original cultural dimensions theory had four dimensions from which cultural values could be analyzed. These four dimensions were: (a) individualism versus collectivism (IDV); (b) uncertainty avoidance (UAI); (c) power distance (PDI); (d) masculinity versus femininity (MAS). While Hofstede was performing research in Hong Kong he added the fifth dimension,......

Words: 2493 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

What Difficulties Might the International Manager Experience in Trying to Apply Hofstede's Model?

...What difficulties might the international manager experience in trying to apply Hofstede's model? Culture is the learned way in which a society understands, decides and communicates.”(Hollensen, 2007). Hofstede, a Dutch academic wished to find an explanation for cultural differences across the world, in relation to society and business. He began by researching why various concepts of motivation did not work in the same manner in all countries. Hofstede based his studies on an extensive IBM database, receiving 116,000 questionnaires from IBM employees from over 70 countries, and in 20 languages. The gathering and evaluation of this study took 6 years, at the end of which, Hofstede concluded that the way people in different countries perceive and interpret their world varies along 4 dimensions. Hofstede’s model is known as the 4+1 model due to the addition of another dimension some years later. Theoretically this model appears to be effective in business context, however, after in-depth analysis, it can be seen that difficulties may arise for the international manager when trying to apply it. The first dimension, Power Distance, refers to the degree of inequality between people in both physical and educational conditions in a culture. In ‘High Power distance’ societies, the power is concentrated amongst the few highest people, of who make all the decisions. Therefore, the others in society have no choice but to obey, and carry out the decisions made. Differences in...

Words: 2204 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ee Gret

...Journal of Business Research 60 (2007) 277 – 284 Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies Ana Maria Soares a,⁎, Minoo Farhangmehr a,1 , Aviv Shoham b,2 a School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal b Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel Received 1 March 2006; received in revised form 1 August 2006; accepted 1 October 2006 Abstract Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential [Ogden D., Ogden J. and Schau HJ. Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: toward a microcultural perspective. Academy Marketing Science Review 2004;3.]. However culture is an elusive concept posing considerable difficulties for cross-cultural research [Clark T. International Marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. Journal of Marketing 1990; Oct.: 66–79.; Dawar N., Parker P. and Price L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3): 497–516.; Manrai L. and Manrai A. Current issues in the cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1996; 8 (3/4): 9–22.; McCort D. and Malhotra NK. Culture and consumer behavior: Toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in International Marketing. Journal of International Consumer......

Words: 6682 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Negotiation: Theory and Practice

...EMPL 3270: NEGOTIATION – THEORY & PRACTICE RESEARCH ESSAY Q2: According to Fells (2012, p.207) “As a negotiation unfolds, it is easy to attribute any behaviour, particularly behaviour that is different to your own, to culture and so ignore the many similarities”. Consider this statement with reference to contemporary research on cross-cultural negotiation and use examples to illustrate your analysis Introduction: Former President and charismatic leader of the United States John F. Kennedy once stated that, “We cannot negotiate with people who say what's mine is mine and what's yours is negotiable” (Kennedy, 1961). This timeless quotation epitomizes and typifies in essence what can commonly be regarded as cooperative negotiation. Formally, the term negotiation is commonly defined as two or more parties or groups deliberating amongst each other endeavoring to achieve a decisive result, which is mutually beneficial for both entities. When considering the process of negotiation across contrasting geographic locations or countries, negotiators have to understand the repercussions which heterogeneous cultures have in the final outcome of a potential deliberation. Culture is defined as the ‘unwritten rules of society’ (Hofstede et al, 2010) and most typically refers to those characteristics or values, which are unconsciously embedded in a large group of citizens through the ongoing processes of tradition and various forms of education. Understanding the pertinence of......

Words: 2536 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Huygtuy Tygtjuy

...20/03/2014 Week 3 Lecture Understanding Culture  Chapter 3 from Deresky (2011) Understanding Culture Topic Objectives: • Define culture • To understand how culture affects all aspects of international management • To be able to distinguish the major dimensions which define cultural differences among societies or groups • To emphasize the need for international managers to have cultural intelligence in order to interact successfully in international environment • Know how to use culture to define attitudes and behaviours at work • Be aware of the interaction between culture and internet. 2 Culture “A set of shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society, and passed on to succeeding generations.” Examples: – Evidence of culture is in peoples language, music, food, beliefs etc. • Related concept: – Culture shock • A state of confusion of not knowing how to behave in a foreign unfamiliar culture. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3 1 20/03/2014 Culture and its importance Studies show multinationals face major management issues for poor intercultural skills of international managers. Research shows that cross cultural differences are cause of failed negotiations and interactions, resulting in losses to major multinationals of over billions of dollars! Furthermore, examples can be drawn from historical failures of......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hofstede Model of Culture Dimensions

...Model of Cultural Dimensions The main part of Prof. Geert Hofstede’s study or Model of Cultural Dimensions is “how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.” From 1967 to 1973 Prof. Hofstede collected and analyzed data base of employees value scores. Actually this data was collected by IBM from more than 70 countries. The total number of countries was divided into 3 parts to make the analysis easy. In first part they considered largest 40 countries to analyze data. Then he extended the analysis to remaining 40 countries and 3 regions. Based on IBM study replications and extensions, international population and cultural factors includes 74 countries for Prof. Geert Hofstede’s ranking scores from 2001. The four primary Dimensions of Hofstede’s Model to assist in differentiating cultures are: Power Distance – PDI, Individualism – IDV, Masculinity – MAS, and Uncertainty Avoidance – UAI Additional fifth Dimension developed after study with Chinese employees and managers and applied for 23 countries- Based on Confucian dynamism (Long-Term Orientation – LTO) The dimensions are related to the other country, cultural, and religious paradigms. About Hofstede (Small Biography) Name: Gerard Hendrik Hofstede Dutch organizational sociologist Studied: the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures Date of Birth: 3 October 1928 Place of Birth: Haarlem Work: Author of several books including Culture’s Consequences and Cultures and......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hofstede's Cultural Dimension

...Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: A Comparison of Greece and U.S. Human Resource Management Approaches By Kelly M. Mistretta MBOL2 MBA 533, Human Resource in Management Dr. James C. Dumville Saint Leo University – Center for Online Learning September 9, 2012 Name: Kelly Mistretta Title: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: A Comparison of Greece and U.S. Human Resource Management Approaches Date: September 9, 2012 Abstract Globalization continues to become more important in the business culture in our world. No longer can management focus only on companies within their own country. Businesses are forced to compete with companies from other countries. With the increased global competition, a business must understand other cultures if they hope to remain competitive and have continued success. There are several models that show the influence of cultural differences between nations. Hofstede’s model, called the theory of cultural relativity of organization practices is the most recognized model. Hofstede’s model focuses on cultural influences and work behaviors in five different dimensions. Each dimension has important implications in understanding business. This paper will compare the Hofstede analysis of Greece and the United States. Biographical Sketch Kelly Mistretta is currently an MBA student at Saint Leo University. Mistretta has a BA in Accounting and plans to obtain an MBA to equip her with improved business skills to better contribute to......

Words: 1324 - Pages: 6