Free Essay

Homeostasis Flight or Fight

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By LILLYROSE28
Words 874
Pages 4
FIGHT OR FLIGHT EXAMPLES:
Situation 1: You walk into class a few moments late, only to find everyone putting books and notes away- preparing for a test you did not realise had been scheduled for today. Your heart seems to stop, your mouth is dry, your knees feel weak and you momentarily consider hurrying back out the door. Your life is not really in danger, and running away will not solve your problem—so why should you feel a physical urge to escape?
Situation 2: At a meeting for which you have thoroughly prepared, the boss criticises you and accuses you of failing to attend to tasks that were, in reality, someone else’s responsibility. As all eyes turn on you, you feel your face getting hot, your jaw tightening, and your fist clenching. You would not shout or hit anyone—doing so would only make things worse. But you feel like shouting or striking out.
These two scenarios illustrate the two poles of the fight-or-flight response, a sequence of internal processes that prepares the aroused organism for struggle or escape. It is triggered when we interpret a situation as threatening. The resulting response depends on how the organism has learned to deal with threat, as well as on an innate fight-or-flight “program” built into the brain.

Situation 1: You walk into class a few moments late, only to find everyone putting books and notes away- preparing for a test you did not realise had been scheduled for today. Your heart seems to stop, your mouth is dry, your knees feel weak and you momentarily consider hurrying back out the door. Your life is not really in danger, and running away will not solve your problem—so why should you feel a physical urge to escape?
Situation 2: At a meeting for which you have thoroughly prepared, the boss criticises you and accuses you of failing to attend to tasks that were, in reality, someone else’s responsibility. As all eyes turn on you, you feel your face getting hot, your jaw tightening, and your fist clenching. You would not shout or hit anyone—doing so would only make things worse. But you feel like shouting or striking out.
These two scenarios illustrate the two poles of the fight-or-flight response, a sequence of internal processes that prepares the aroused organism for struggle or escape. It is triggered when we interpret a situation as threatening. The resulting response depends on how the organism has learned to deal with threat, as well as on an innate fight-or-flight “program” built into the brain.

FIGHT OR FLIGHT BY BEN MARTIN PSY.D http://psychcentral.com/lib/fight-or-flight/
Diagram showing the different stages that take place on the body when flight or fight takes place.
HOW FEAR WORKS BY JULIA LAYTON: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/emotions/fear2.htm

Diagram showing the different stages that take place on the body when flight or fight takes place.
HOW FEAR WORKS BY JULIA LAYTON: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/emotions/fear2.htm

Diagram showing the effects on the body when stress hormones are released. http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/psychology/stress/revise-it/what-is-stress Diagram showing the effects on the body when stress hormones are released. http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/psychology/stress/revise-it/what-is-stress The sudden flood of epinephrine, norepinephrine and other hormones causes changes in the body that include: * heart rate and blood pressure increase * pupils dilate to take in as much light as possible * veins in skin constrict to send more blood to major muscle groups (responsible for the "chill" sometimes associated with fear -- less blood in the skin to keep it warm) * blood-glucose level increases * muscles tense up, energized by adrenaline and glucose (responsible for goose bumps -- when tiny muscles attached to each hair on surface of skin tense up, the hairs are forced upright, pulling skin with them) * smooth muscle relaxes in order to allow more oxygen into the lungs * nonessential systems (like digestion and immune system) shut down to allow more energy for emergency functions * trouble focusing on small tasks (brain is directed to focus only on big picture in order to determine where threat is coming from).

The sudden flood of epinephrine, norepinephrine and other hormones causes changes in the body that include: * heart rate and blood pressure increase * pupils dilate to take in as much light as possible * veins in skin constrict to send more blood to major muscle groups (responsible for the "chill" sometimes associated with fear -- less blood in the skin to keep it warm) * blood-glucose level increases * muscles tense up, energized by adrenaline and glucose (responsible for goose bumps -- when tiny muscles attached to each hair on surface of skin tense up, the hairs are forced upright, pulling skin with them) * smooth muscle relaxes in order to allow more oxygen into the lungs * nonessential systems (like digestion and immune system) shut down to allow more energy for emergency functions * trouble focusing on small tasks (brain is directed to focus only on big picture in order to determine where threat is coming from).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Oxytocin Report

...known as cortisol plays a heavy role into why a person may be feeling stressed out. It has been known that heightened levels of cortisol amplify the “risk for depression, mental illness, and lower life expectancy” (Bergland). Cortisol is a typically known as a hormone that induces stress that also assists one during an individual’s fight-or-flight situation to counteract any seeming threat that your brain processes. After the threat passes, the “hormone levels need to return to normal” so it goes through homeostasis (Mayo Clinic Staff). The natural reaction is that the adrenaline and cortisol activities will plunge in substitution for the body’s blood pressure and heart rate to come back regularly with the help of another hormone called oxytocin. This hormone help the body regulate homeostasis is popularly known as the love or trust hormone. It is the exact opposite of cortisols as it reverses its effect as it can be seen in the example of what happens during and after a fight-or-flight-situation. Furthermore, it can be seen that the relationship between the two, despite its distinctive characteristics is to help the body maintain homeostasis. If one hormone only exists without the other counteracting it—humans might as well have died off due to either being too sentimental (caused by cortisol) or have been too nice to have defend oneself against predators (caused by having too much oxytocin). This anecdote explains reason why it is essential for humans to have both......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Stress Can Affect Health and Wellbeing and the Maintenance of Homeostasis Using an Intergrated Biopsychosical Approach

...stress I would like to give is care giver stress. Care Giver Stress Homeostasis – the tendancy of biological systems to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment while continuously interacting with and adjusting to changes originating within or outside the system. (medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/homeostasis.) The composition of the internal environment is maintained within narrow limits, and this fairly constant state is called homeostasis. Literally, this term means 'unchanging', but in practice it describes a dynamic, ever-changing situation kept within narrow limits. When this balance is threatened or lost, there is a serious risk to the well-being of the individual. There are many factors in the internal environment which must be maintained within narrowlimits and some of these are listed in Box 1.1.Homeostasis is maintained by control systems which detect and respond to changes in the internal environment. A control system (Fig. 1.3) has three basic components: detector, control centre and effector. The control centre determines the limits within which the variablefactor should be maintained. It receives an input from thedetector or sensor, and integrates the incoming information. When the incoming signal indicatesthat an adjustment is needed the control centre responds and its outpu to the effector is changed. This is a dynamic process that maintains homeostasis. (Ross and Wilson) page 5Adrenaline and......

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Stress History

...1930s, the term was occasionally being used in biological and psychological circles to refer to a mental strain, unwelcome happening, or, more medically, a harmful environmental agent that could cause illness. Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis.[2] Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium, a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. Environmental factors, internal or external stimuli, continually disrupt homeostasis; an organism’s present condition is a state in constant flux wavering about a homeostatic point that is that organism’s optimal condition for living. Factors causing an organism’s condition to waver away from homeostasis can be interpreted as stress. A life-threatening situation such as a physical insult or prolonged starvation can greatly disrupt homeostasis. On the other hand, an organism’s effortful attempt at restoring conditions back to or near homeostasis, oftentimes consuming energy and natural resources, can also be interpreted as stress. In such instances, an organism’s fight-or-flight response recruits the body’s energy stores and focuses attention to overcome the challenge at hand. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye in 1926 who loosely described stress as something that "…in addition to being itself, was also the cause of......

Words: 1472 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Unit 5 - H&Sc

...Homeostasis The conditions inside the body must be controlled within narrow limits. This is called homeostasis. These conditions include water content, ion content, and body temperature and blood glucose concentration. Homeostasis aims for normal functions and values from the body, such as temperature and blood glucose levels. When those values are either lower or higher than normal, homeostasis brings the functions back within normal values. Internal environment Concept of negative feedback Homeostatic Mechanisms for regulation of the Heart Rate Heart Rate The medulla controls the heart rate. It sends and receives messages in the form of chemicals or hormones from the thousands of nerves running through the medulla, in an area called the medullary pyramids. The medulla constantly receives messages from the nerves, which are communication pathways from muscles, organs and other parts of the body. Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm). Heart rate can vary as the body's need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide changes, such as during exercise or sleep. The measurement of heart rate is used by medical professionals to assist in the diagnosis and tracking of medical conditions. It is also used by individuals, such as athletes, who are interested in monitoring their heart rate to gain maximum efficiency from their training The beating frequency (heart rate) is controlled by the balance of......

Words: 1522 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

All Stressed Out

...called homeostasis. External stressors disturb this balance, producing an immediate general physiological aarousal. The organism adjusts to the stress in stages, first mobilizing its resources, then using them to cope with the stresss, and eventually depleting its energy resources. Selye called this sequence of body reactions the general adaptation syndrome. When the stressor occurs for example, when you hear footsteps behind you in a deserted alley—your body briefly goes into shock. It then mobilizes its resources to preserve homestasis against your reaction to the stressor. If the stressor continues, those resource will be reduced abd eventually exhausted. PsychSim 5: All Stressed Out 59 The Biology of Stress • Although both men and women experience the fight-or-flight syndrome, some scientists argue that women also can experience stress differently (tend-and-befriend). Briefly explain this hypothesis. University of California psychologist Shelley Taylor and her colleagues have suggested that although fight-or-flight characterizes the primary physiological responses to stress for both men and women, behaviorally, women’s responces are more marked by a pattern of tend-and-befriend. Tending involves activities that are desighned to protect the self and especially, any offspring. Befriending involves the creation and maintenance of social networks. • Can you think of why this alleged gender difference in fight-or-flight and......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Unit 5 Health and Social Care P5

...Homeostasis Homeostasis is a process of where our body has to be able to control certain things such as body temperature and the water level so that they don’t change, therefore it is when it keeps things the same. It is how the body keeps the conditions inside, and some scientists refer to it as a constant internal environment; two examples of this is: • Keeping the body temperature at 37 degrees, • The amount of water in our body. Our bodies are always making adjustments to be able to carry out normal bodily functions, but fortunately for us the adjustments are done automatically, if this wasn’t the case then we would all be very busy and would regulate our internal environment very frequently. Homeostasis is controlled by the Automatic nervous system and the Endocrine system (hormones). Negative feedback system Homeostasis is quite often referred to as the negative feedback, which means that the system is able to take suitable action to maintain the constant environment. The main responsibility of homeostasis is that it has to maintain constant levels of many body functions e.g. body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and also blood sugar levels. Body temperature The term used for monitoring the body temperature is called thermoregulation. An adult’s body temperature is usually close to 37 degrees. There are temperature detectors in the skin and the internal organs monitor it and feedback to the hypothalamus in the brain to take the correct action when the......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Fvkf

...similar individuals l. The social setting m. The information a person communicates about himself or herself through words and actions n. All of the above 4.) The functionalist theory was derived from the work of which sociologist? Page 100 o. Cooley p. Thomas q. Durkheim r. Goffman 5.) Which of these is a type of suicide that Durkheim conceptualized? Page 101 s. Egoistic t. Anomic u. Altruistic v. All of the above 6.) What refers to the maintenance of a relatively constant condition? Page 103 w. Homeostasis. x. Process y. Preparation z. Communication 7.) Walter Cannon formulated the concept of the “___________” pattern of physiological change to illustrate how the body copes with stress resulting from social situation. Page 104 {. Flight or fight |. Fight or flight }. Flatten or inflate ~. Inflate or flatten 8.) Hans Selye developed a theory known as the ___________. Page 105 . General adaptation syndrome . Specific adaptation syndrome . Human adaptation syndrome . Pinpoint adaptation syndrome 9.) Leonard Pearlin identified which type of social stressors? Page 106 . Life events . Chronic strains . Special occasions . Both A and B 10.) Which life event has the greatest weighted value? Page 116 . Divorce . Martial separation . Death of......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Big Race/Cardiodynamics

...Cardiodynamics Case Study 2 The Big Race At the start: Question 1: Since the race has not actually started, the anticipation of the race is activating the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, which is stimulating these changes. Question 2: The thought of the race creates enough stress to activate the sympathetic division of the autonomic system. Question 3: The sympathetic division stimulates the fight or flight organs.  This means that blood and nutrients are being delivered to areas that might be needed for a fight for your life, or to run for your life.  This means that organs needed for non-life saving actions, such as the bladder and digestive systems, will be inhibited so that the heart, limbs, and brain can receive more blood and nutrients for quick decision making and to support fight or flight scenarios.  Sympathetic stimulation also increases ADH release which will preserve blood volume and insure greater blood flow to large muscle groups and other tissues. Question 4: Sympathetic stimulation of the liver will stimulate glycogenolysis, which puts more glucose into the bloodstream. Question 5: Sympathetic stimulation decreases the production of saliva. One Minute In: Question 1: With any sort of extreme exertion, such as intense rowing, muscles will have an immediate increase in their demand for ATP. ATP is produced by aerobic cellular respiration, which is the most efficient method.  This creates demand for oxygen from the......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Stress

...resulting in strain. In the 1920s and 1930s, the term was occasionally being used in biological and psychological circles to refer to a mental strain or a harmful environmental agent that could cause illness. Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis.[2] Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium, a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. Environmental factors, internal or external stimuli, continually disrupt homeostasis; an organism’s present condition is a state in constant flux moving about a homeostatic point that is that organism’s optimal condition for living. Factors causing an organism’s condition to diverge too far from homeostasis can be interpreted as stress. A life-threatening situation such as a physical insult or prolonged starvation can greatly disrupt homeostasis. On the other hand, an organism’s effortful attempt at restoring conditions back to or near homeostasis, oftentimes consuming energy and natural resources, can also be interpreted as stress. In such instances, an organism’s fight-or-flight response recruits the body’s energy stores and focuses attention to overcome the challenge at hand. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye in 1926 who loosely described stress as something that "…in addition to being itself, was also the cause of......

Words: 8864 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Stress

...from the bloodstream into the tissue if needed to fight against an infection, and when the infection is gone, they return the body to homeostasis. When a person is in stress, these glucocorticoids do the same thing as if they were fighting an infection; however, if the body is in constant stress, it will continue to "fight the infection" and will not return the body to homeostasis. This can cause glucocorticoid receptor resistance and can cause the body to develop an even higher risk of depression, upper respiratory infections, diabetes, autoimmune disease, slower healing, and even cardiovascular disease (1). The body's stress response kicks in when you feel there is a possible threat, which is necessary to ensure the best chance of survival. In the brain, the hypothalamus and the pituitary control the stress response. The adrenal glands also aid in controlling stress response by the kidneys. When the brain senses danger, it sends nerve signals down the spinal cord to the adrenal glands telling them to release adrenaline, which then increases the sugar in the blood, the heart rate, and the blood pressure. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland telling it to release factors that travel quickly through the blood stream and stimulate the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol, a stress hormone. Cortisol also keeps your blood sugar and blood pressure up to help you escape if needed, this is also called the fight or flight response (6). Short term stress of a few......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Evaluate the Literature Which Attempt to Explain the Causality of Two Emotional Disorders and Explain How Our Body Responds to the Stress Response.

...approaches allow psychologists and other health professionals’ to accessed deeper understanding of the disorders and its impact on human behaviour. Stress which is one of the emotional disorders can be seen as a physical or psychological response to a threatening event. The causes of stress (the threatening event or the demands of a situation) for instance, exams or being redundant, are referred as stressor (Woods 1997). Selye (1956, cited in Woods 1997) suggested that the human body respond to stress in three different patterns known as “the general adaptation syndrome” which is identified in three stages, firstly is the alarm response; this involves the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system to prepare the body for ‘fight, flight or frolic’. The hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to trigger the release of stress hormones like the adrenaline and noradrenaline to cause changes in the physiological activity such as, fighting inflammation and breathing difficulties. Secondly is the resistance, this is when the alarm response decreases but the stressor continues and the body continues to produce large amount of adrenaline in order for the body to cope with the stressor (the individual may look tense or jumpy). Lastly is exhaustion, this is when the body starts to indicate the effects of prolonged resistance to the stressor. Muscles become exhausted, the kidneys may become impaired and stores of hormones become low. Because the body resources have been used......

Words: 1836 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Stress

...This assignment is based upon stress, the bio-psychosocial approach on how stress can affect health, well-being and the maintenance of homeostasis. There are many definitions of stress but the majority of definitions put emphasis on the relationship between the individual and the environment. This is called the bio-psychosocial approach. When treating patients the Practitioner should take a more holistic approach when determining the type of treatment that is required, this would include taking into account the patients lifestyle, environment and social support. The World Health Organisation states that ‘Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. (WHO 1948). Stress can be defined as any type of change that causes physical, emotional or psychological strain. However, there are many types of stress and not all types of stress are harmful or negative. One theory is that stress is the result of a persons appraisal process. The assessment of whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment. Stress has been identified as being the individuals ability to adapt to the environment (Lazarus and Folkman 1984; Lazarus and Launer 1978; Pervin 1989). There are two types of stress response which Lazarus (1966) made a distinction between, these are psychological and physiological stress. Lazarus stated that physiological stress is a response to a physical damage already......

Words: 3289 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Homeostasis

...Unit 5 – Anatomy& Physiology P5 - Understand how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment P5- Explain the concept of homeostasis In this assignment, I will be explaining the concepts of homeostasis, and how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment. These consist of; heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and lastly blood glucose level. Homeostasis Homeostasis is the mechanism in our bodies which regulates and maintains a stable and constant environment. Our bodies are always making adjustments to regulate normal body function; luckily these adjustments are done automatically, otherwise we would be very busy people, regulating our internal environment repeatedly. Homeostasis is controlled by the nervous system and the endocrine system. Homeostasis is described as a ‘negative feedback system’. This just basically means that the system is able to take remedial action to preserve a constant environment. Homeostasis is in charge of maintaining the constant level of many body functions, such as heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and blood sugar levels. (Rasheed, Hetherington and Irvine, 2010). Heart rate Roles of internal receptors, autonomic nervous system-sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply, cardiac centre and sinoatrial node A receptor is the structure that monitors internal conditions. Receptors intellect changes in function and begins the body's homeostatic...

Words: 2131 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

P5 - Understand How Homeostatic Mechanisms Operate in the Maintenance of an Internal Environment

...P5- Explain the concept of homeostasis In this assignment, I will be explaining the concepts of homeostasis, and how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment. These consist of; heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and lastly blood glucose level. Homeostasis Homeostasis is the mechanism in our bodies which regulates and maintains a stable and constant environment. Our bodies are always making adjustments to regulate normal body function; luckily these adjustments are done automatically, otherwise we would be very busy people, regulating our internal environment repeatedly. Homeostasis is controlled by the nervous system and the endocrine system. Homeostasis is described as a ‘negative feedback system’. This just basically means that the system is able to take remedial action to preserve a constant environment. Homeostasis is in charge of maintaining the constant level of many body functions, such as heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and blood sugar levels. (Rasheed, Hetherington and Irvine, 2010). Heart rate Roles of internal receptors, autonomic nervous system-sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply, cardiac centre and sinoatrial node A receptor is the structure that monitors internal conditions. Receptors intellect changes in function and begins the body's homeostatic response. The receptors transmit a message to the brain, which in turn sends a message to the effectors, the heart and blood vessels. The......

Words: 2112 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The 2000 Meter Row

...Case study: The 2000-Meter Row: A Case in Homeostasis Study Questions- At the start: #1. What is responsible for raising Jim's heart and respiratory rate and stimulating sweat just before the race? When the race is almost ready to begin, Jim's nervous system sends signals to his heart causing his respiratory rate to increase. Since Jim's heart and respiratory rate increases this causes him to breathe more rapidly and causes him to sweat to maintain a normal body temperature. #2. Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race? When Jim is about to start the race he feels the pressure and the stress of having to do his best which makes his autonomic nervous system more active due to the stresses he is facing. #3. What changes do you think are occurring in the digestive and urinary system at this time? When Jim's stress level rises his digestive system feedback starts to occur. Changes in Jim's urinary system are occurring due to him sweating. Since Jim body is stressed because of the race, his Kidneys are working harder. Kidneys play a major role in the urinary system which control a lot of your body functions such as electrolytes, water, and acid-base balances in the body. #4. What is happening to Jim's blood glucose levels just before the race? Since Jim has been constantly sweating, this causes dehydration at the beginning of the race. Jim has been sweating profusely which caused his glucose level to drop. #5. Why is......

Words: 1261 - Pages: 6