Premium Essay

Horney and Freud Differences

In: Science

Submitted By Limey4u
Words 394
Pages 2
Horney and Freud Differences

Horney is known for her contribution to feminine psychology. Horney stated mild anxiety disorders are created through factors that involve culture and how an individual was raised as a child (nurture). Those thoughts created a paradigm shift from the teaching and views of Sigmund Freud, who states that neuroses is created through universal instictstual factors and the lack of sex (nature).

Freud stated that women possess insecurities of being female and would rather be a male because of the difference of the anatomy. Horney believed the opposite to Freud. She believed men possessed jealous of the female anatomy and intrinsically women are smarter than men. Horney did agree with Freud regarding females envy of males, although, it was not because of the male anatomy but through the hieararical status men had within society.

Horney believed neuroses were created through functional and dis-functional interpersonal relationships, something she had experienced in her personal life. Horney believed the defense mechanism use to counter the neuroses were continually use thus creating a habit or a need to use the defense mechanism without the need to employ them. Individual would use the defense mechanism prematurally in order not to experience the neuroses that occur in certain situations.

Freud believed inate behavior and the lack of sex created anxiety; therefore, indiviual’s would utilize defense mechanism to compensate. However, according to Horney basic anxiety could result from a variety of things including, " direct or indirect control, indifference, erratic behavior, lack of respect for the child's individual needs, lack of proper guidance, disparaging attitudes, too much admiration or the lack of it, lack of reliable warmth, having to take sides in parental disagreements, too much or too little responsibility,...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psy 405 Week 2 Debate

...Freud vs Horney Freud and Horney, two who were crucial to psychology and the concepts of psychodynamic development. Although Honey started out as a firm believer and follower of Freud, she began to see some of his theories conflicted with how she saw them to be, causing some differences of opinions and eventually her departure from following his research. Freud and Horney both had their own theory about the psychosexual structure, which also included Feminine Psychology. According to Freud and the way he saw human biology, it is universally the same in its course of development, as was the conflicts that developed among the people that he observed, the same. Freud’s differences in views from Horney’s revealed his undervaluing of importance of certain roles played by some others relating to culture, environment, and human development past the point of puberty. Freud: Believed that an individual’s present behavior is determined by their infantile experiences that was a result to some degree by environmental influences. Freud stated that certain innate behaviors and the absence or lack of intimacy (sex) creates anxiety; individuals would utilize some defense mechanisms to compensate for their anxiety. Argument Horney: Believed that the growing child finds him or herself through life experiences, specifically through involvement and interaction with their family, which she found environment to be the most important foundation (Horney, 1950). Drive is the component......

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Karen Horney vs. Freud

...concerning Freud and his writings vary greatly throughout the world. Individuals may distinguish the great genius in his groundbreaking theories of psychoanalysis, or they may reject his writings arguing that he had pushed the envelope too far. Either way, it is safe to say that his theories still evoke a considerable amount of debate to this day. Out of all of Freud’s theories, however, it can be argued that his views on women and feminine psychology are the most controversial. The debate between Freud and feminists has been well documented through the writings of many authors. The Enigma of Women is one of several books that have been published that analyzes the issues between Freud and feminism. In The Enigma of Women, Sarah Kofman comments on Freud’s prediction that feminists would take to the warpath against his writings on the women arguing that Freud’s theories are “rife” with masculine prejudice (11). Other credible books, such as Samuel Slipp’s The Freudian Mystique raise important questions on Freud’s theories of feminism. Why did Freud make such grossly biased and incorrect statements about women, while in other areas he was a very perceptive and accurate observer? Slipp argues that it was Freud’s genius and his monumental discoveries in other areas of mental functioning that lent credibility to his theories on women (12). Some of the earliest disagreements about Freud’s feminine psychology had been voiced by the German female psychoanalyst Karen Horney. Horney......

Words: 3511 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Karen Horney

...Danielson, a ship’s captain, became the proud parents of the one and only Karen Horney, a pioneer in the field of psychoanalysis (Boeree, 1997). She along with her brother, also named Berndt, and five step-siblings described their father as an authoritarian who ruled with an iron fist and held a strong religious code of ethics; so much so that he was given the nickname of the “the Bible thrower” (Boeree, 1997). Her mother Clotilde, (also known as Sonni) on the other hand, was the complete opposite of her father and was 19 years his junior. Her childhood was one of contradicting perceptions. Horney portrayed her father as a harsh man who favored her brother Berndt more than he did Karen. This representation of her father, however, is negated by the fact that her father would continuously bring her back small trinkets from his excursions around the world (Boeree, 1997). Not only that, but he also allowed her to accompany him on several of his voyages, which considering the time in which they lived in, when women were still inferior to men, was quite odd. Whether this perception of her father is correct or incorrect, ultimately Karen’s viewpoint would end up having the bigger impact, leading her to the very deep-seated relationship she held with her mother; a closeness that resulted in her nickname as her mother’s “little lamb” (Boeree, 1997). Horney spent her childhood reading the multiple volumes of the German......

Words: 3121 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Psy 405 Week 2 Personality Overview’s personality. Certainly, the pick is not an easy one because there are so many interesting theories explaining why one is the way he or she is. However, when trying to discuss any kind of personality it is almost impossible not to stumble on the assumptions and propositions made by Sigmund Freud. Most likely is it due to the fact that he is still the best-known theorist concerning personality research, while at the same time, he is one who received plenty of controversy regarding his theory. Even more interesting when one is writing about Freud and his theory is when one chooses to compare it against another theory. By doing so, one can research a theory more deeply. In this case, the other theory is the psychoanalytic social theory developed by Karen Horney. By reading further, one shall see how each theory differs from one other. Based on the given information, one may be more likely to conclude which theory or perhaps both explain one’s personality to its fullest. Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory One can say that not only is Freud’s theory interesting but also that Sigmund Freud as a personality was very interesting. At first, a very ambitious physician, Freud was able to discover a drug, later on called cocaine and claimed that it would be the cure for morphine addiction (Markle, 2012). As with...

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Personality Overview

...information is considered when attempting to enlightenment an individual about their personality. Choosing just one theory is certainly not easy as there are several interesting theories’ that can help show why a person is the way he or she is. When talking about assumptions and propositions made by Sigmund Freud regarding personality it is almost unfeasible not to stagger; at least for most people. What does this say regarding Freud? Perhaps one might find that even today’s society Freud is still recognized as the greatest theorist concerning personality research. Despite all the fame Freud’s theory received copious amounts of controversy. The only way to make Freud’s theory more interesting is to compare it against other theories. By comparing many theories, one can come to a deeper understanding for any theory. One theorist whose theory is interesting in comparison to Freud was Karen Horney. The differences between the two are amazing. Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s theory was interesting but Sigmund Freud was also very fascinating as person. In the beginning Freud was a very motivated physician who came across what to him was a very appealing drug named cocaine. Freud typically...

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Theories of Personalities Brochure

...References Bibliography Adler Graduate School. (2016, 05 09). Alfer Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from Adler Graduate School: Boeree, D. C. (2006). Karen Horney. Retrieved from Personality Theories: Changing Works. (2016). Melanie Klein. Retrieved from Changing Minds: Feist, J., Feist, G. J., & Roberts, T.-A. (2013). Theories of Personality. New York: McGrawHill. McLeod, S. A. (2013). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology : McLeod, S. A. (2013). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: McLeod, S. A. (2014). Carl Jung. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: Personality Development. (2016, 05 09). Erich Fromm. Retrieved from Personality Development: Karen Horney – Psychoanalytical Social Theory – While most of the theorists believed that neurosis came from childhood, or something traumatic that may have happened, Horney believed that neurosis came from the difference of parenting while growing up. She found that there were ten neurotic needs as a child, she went on to group those into three groups in order to analyze them better. The first was compliance this......

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Paper

...Personality PSY/211 Personality Personality is a hard subject to nail down. There are many theories and perspectives to what psychologist think how personalities are structured. From Freud to Eysensk, some theories are crazy, but they do make sense. Psychoanalytic perspective is used more for explaining past behaviors than predicting future behaviors (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 432). Some psychoanalytic ideas have been validated; such as much of an individual’s mental life is unconscious (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 432). Early childhood experiences have pivotal impacts on later relationships (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p.432). Also, people differ greatly in the degree into which impulses, emotions, and thoughts toward adaptive and social acceptance are regulated (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 432). Humanistic perspective emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and free will. It focuses more on healthy personalities instead of psychologically troubled individuals (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 433). Humanistic psychologists believe that people are motivated less by environmental reinforcements and more by the need to grow psychologically (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 433). Humanistic perspective is criticized for two points (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014, p. 436). It is hard to test scientifically and humanistic view of human nature is too optimistic, because it minimizes the darker, destructive side of......

Words: 1028 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Freud's Psychsexual Stages

...The Psychosexual Stages define how human personality develops from birth to early adulthood. Freud believed that children experience unconscious sexual fixations as they grow in age. These sexual urges change drastically with each stage. Without proper resolution following each stage, we may experience faults in our future personalities according to Freud. In this stage, the first of five, encompassing children from birth to 1, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating and the infant experiences pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. The mouth is the infant’s primary erogenous zone, meaning that the oral cavity is where libido energy is most focused. The infant gains pleasure through sucking and eating; the child ultimately develops a sense of comfort through oral stimulation. However, the primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process the child eventually must become less dependent on caretakers as it grows. In theory, an infant who is neglected (under-fed) or overprotected (over-fed) may become orally fixated with the onset of adulthood. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. During the anal stage, the second of Freud’s five stages this begins near the age of 1 and goes till about 3. The erogenous zone shifts from the oral......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

What Makes Up the Basics of Personality Theory

...University Abstract Since the 1960’s personality theories has emerged as a major field of specialization. There have been many studies completed outlined by literature on a variety of theories of personality. The importance of individual differences and distinctiveness of the individual are the most frequently studied of personality theories. Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two comprehensive areas: One understands individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other understands how the various parts of a person come together as a whole. Some scientists think that your personality is based on genetic predispositions or nature. Other scientists think the way you act stems from life experience, the way you were taught, and the environment in which you grew up or nurture. Personality can best be described as personal qualities of an individual. There are no two people have the same personality, however, all the different personalities in the world can be characterized into four main theories. The four psychologists that thought up the four theories are Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Abraham Maslow. Each man based his theory on a different part of a person’s personality development. The study of personality traits is beneficial in identifying the many variables that exist from human......

Words: 2814 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Evaluate the Extent to Which Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Can Help Us to Understand a Client’s Presenting Issue?

...psychosexual development is based on the idea that parents play a pivotal role in the sexual and aggressive drives that form in the early years of their child’s development. Freud (Freud & Philips 2006) proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages - psychosexual stages. Each stage represents the fixation on a different area of the body and as a person grows physically, certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration, pleasure or both. Freud referred to the instinct or drive which resulted in these fixations as the ‘libido’ and the areas of the body as the ‘erogenous zones’. Freud believed that life was built around a series of tensions and pleasures; believing also that all tension was due to the build-up of this libido, or sexual energy and that all pleasure came from its release (McLeod 2008). In describing human personality development as psychosexual Freud meant to convey that what develops is the way in which sexual energy accumulates and is released as we mature biologically. McLeod further explains that Freud used the term 'sexual' in a very general way to mean “all pleasurable actions and thoughts”. I believe this is a crucial point in helping understand what Freud was saying; certainly I have misunderstood Freud to this point and was somewhat dismissive and sceptical of his relevance to understanding behaviour because of the overtly sexual nature of his theory, I could not......

Words: 2944 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

According to Jung (Bandura Freud) Ego Is Everything

...Such in a mother complex will spend time related to the idea of mother whereas the same in a father as in sex, power, money or any other complex.   Jung didn't believe that the stages of development where important such as Freud.  Jung defined the stages in terms of the focus of libidinal energy.  Jung disagreed with Freud about the nature of the libido.  Freud believed that the libido was mainly sexual in nature and how it was invested within the five years of life was determined by a large extent on what a individual adult personality would be like.  He also believed that libidinal energy was directed simply toward whatever was important to the individual at the time and what was important changed as a function of a person's maturation. Jung believed that the libido as general biological life energy that is concentrated on different problems as they arise. Libido is the driving force behind the psyche which is focused on the various needs either biological or spiritual. The value of something is determined by how much libidinal energy is put into. Jung also believed that the Libido was the driving force for the personality of a person, and however much energy is put behind the force is how well the person’s libido is.stated by Hergenhahn and Olson (2007), Freud and Jung agreed on...

Words: 2094 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Psychotherapy 2015

...Psychotherapy, treatment of mental or emotional disorders or personal problems using psychological techniques that rely heavily on verbal and emotional communication and other symbolic behavior. Psychotherapy differs in two ways from the informal help one person gives another. First, it is conducted by a psychotherapist who is specially trained and licensed or otherwise culturally sanctioned. Second, psychotherapy is guided by theories about the sources of distress and the methods needed to alleviate it. Because communication is the primary means of healing in most forms of psychotherapy, the relationship between the therapist and patient, or client, is much more important than in other medical treatments. The therapist’s personality influences the patient and may be used quite deliberately to achieve therapeutic ends. Psychotherapy is often used in conjunction with other treatments, especially psychotropic drug therapy (seePsychoactive Drug; Psychiatry). These drugs may be prescribed by a mental health professional, usually a psychiatrist (a physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems). (See also Mental Disorders; Mental Health.) Attempts to ameliorate emotional and mental disorders through psychological means date from ancient time. Psychotherapeutic practices based on scientific principles date from about 1772, when the Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer defined and used a form of hypnosis called animal magnetism. Neuroses were treated in the......

Words: 3472 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Personality Theories

...mind and early childhood. Sigmund Freud, a psychiatrist created this perspective on personality. Freud believed that things hidden in the unconscious mind could be revealed in a number of various ways, including free association, through dreams, and slips of the tongue. Neo-Freudian theorist including Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler and Karen Horney believed in the importance of the unconscious mind, but disagreed with of concepts of Freud’s theories. Several of Freud’s theories and observations were based on case studies and clinical studies, making his finding difficult to generalize to a greater population. Freud saw behavior and personality as a result of a constant exchange between conflicting psychological forces. These psychological forces work at three different levels of awareness: The preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious. The preconscious contains information that you are not aware of at the moment such as, recent events and memories but can easily bring to remembrance. The conscience level represents all the feelings, thoughts, and sensation you are aware of at this present moment. Furthermore, the conscious and the preconscious are only a small part of the mind. The bulk of these psychological processes made up of the unconscious. You are not directly aware of those suppressed thoughts, wishes, feelings and drives, but the conscious exerts a huge influence on your conscious behavior and thoughts. However, Sigmund Freud believed the human mind......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Theories of Personality

...Theories of Personality Over the centuries, humans have been trying to figure out what makes each individual different. From the physical signs like hair color, to the more subtle personality differences that each human has, what really makes each individual unique? There have been many theories over the decades that can give some insight into this very question. Two of these theories are known as the psychodynamic theory and the humanistic and existential theory. Both of these theories have different takes on what individuality and personality are. There have been many theorists’ ties to these ideas. Some of these theorists include Freud, Adler, and Klein. These and many other theorists have tried to come up with a complete explanation of what individuality is and how it differs from person to person. Psychodynamic Theory The father of most modern psychology is widely considered to be none other than Sigmund Freud. According to Feist and Feist (2009), Freud was also the theorist behind the psychodynamic theory with his theories collectively called psychoanalysis. But there are other theorists within the psychodynamic theory as well. These theorists are Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan. But, each of these based their ideas on those of Freud. The psychodynamic theory has two main parts that help to define it. According to Psychodynamic (2008), the first part of the psychodynamic theory is the acceptance of the unconscious......

Words: 1658 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

This Is Absolutely No

...Theories of Personalities | Conscious | Unconscious | Biological | Social Influences | Similarities | Uniqueness | Freud: Psychoanalysis | Even though we are aware of our daily actions, we are still motivated with the actions of our unconscious and still be guided with the dream analysis. | He believed that everything from slips of the tongue to religious experiences is the result of a deep-rooted desire to satisfy sexual or aggressive desire and drives. | As Physician, he viewed the human personality from the heredity concept as he trained medical outputs. He believed that infantile fantasies and anxieties are also rooted in biology. | Even if he frequently speculated about the consequences of prehistoric social units of life and about the consequences of an individual’s early social experience. | Humanity’s evolutionary past gives to a great many similarities among people and individual. | Individual experiences also, especially those of early childhood, shaped people in a somewhat unique manner and account for many of the differences among personalities. | Adler: Individual Psychology | Adler explains that those thoughts are understood and regarded by the individual as helpful in striving for success. | He explained that it is a part of the goal in which is neither clearly formulated nor completely understood by the individual and he added that unconscious thoughts are those that are not helpful. | He regarded Self-centeredness with biological aspects as pathological......

Words: 2514 - Pages: 11