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Hospitality Research Guidelines

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School of Hospitality and Tourism Kenyatta University P. O. Box 43844-00100 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 8710901, +254 20 8711622, Ext 57022 Email: dean-hospitality@ku.ac.ke

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ACADEMIC RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND THESES HANDBOOK

APRIL 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 1.1 2.0 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 3.0 4.0 (a) (b) (c) 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 SUPERVISION ................................................................................................................ 4 Responsibilities of Supervisors .................................................................................. 4 FORMAT OF PRELIMINARY PAGES OF A PROPOSAL................................................... 5 Cover Page ................................................................................................................. 5 Student Declaration Page .......................................................................................... 5 Table of Contents ....................................................................................................... 6 Abbreviations and Acronyms .................................................................................... 6 Operational Definitions of Terms .............................................................................. 6 Abstract...................................................................................................................... 6 FORMAT OF MAIN BODY OF PROPOSAL .................................................................... 7 PROPOSAL PRESENTATION DETAILS ........................................................................... 9 Typing ........................................................................................................................ 9 Oral Presentation..................................................................................................... 10 Tense ........................................................................................................................ 10 SUBMISSION OF A PROPOSAL TO SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM – BPS 10 PROGRESS REPORTS AND NOTICES OF THESIS SUBMISSION.................................. 10 THESIS FORMAT.......................................................................................................... 10 USE OF TABLES, FIGURES AND PLATES ...................................................................... 11 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 13 CHAPTERS................................................................................................................ 13 CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ..................................................... 13 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............ 14 REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 15 SPECIFIC GUIDE FOR PROPOSAL REVIEWING....................................................... 15 SPECIFIC GUIDE FOR THESIS REVIEWING ............................................................. 16 EXAMPLES OF REFERENCES .................................................................................... 17 GUIDELINES TO SUPERVISORS............................................................................... 19 CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................... 19 Guidelines on Tables and Figures ........................................................................... 12

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PREAMBLE This working document is a general guide for students to write research proposals, projects and theses. The document will also help supervisors in guiding postgraduate students in matters relating to research preparation, thesis production and project work. In addition, the document explains ways of maintaining quality supervision among postgraduate students and their supervisors. It also highlights on how students registered for Graduate Courses in this school can complete their courses within the stipulated time. This is only possible if the students and supervisors work hard and in an enabling environment. How this environment can be obtained has been described and explained in the document.

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GENERAL INFORMATION AND UNIVERSITY GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ACADEMIC RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND THESES IN THE SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM 1.0 SUPERVISION
Every department shall identify and allocate supervisors for its postgraduate students. In principle, every student will have a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 3 supervisors, student is registered. depending on the need. One of the supervisors shall be from the University where the

A supervisor may be drawn from outside the department, School or even the University, in which case, the Board of Postgraduate Studies (BPS) must certify that he or she is competent supervisor. An On-line supervisor may also be used. in the candidate’s area of study upon submission of certified curriculum vitae by the

1.1

Responsibilities of Supervisors

As principal resource persons to the students, supervisors shall:            Be available for consultation at least once per month. Give feedback to their students within 2 weeks. Guide students to relevant literature and their sources. Link students to researchers working in related fields. Discuss and critically evaluate the candidate’s findings and ideas. Advise candidates on the form and structure of thesis/proposal. Train candidates in the conventions of scholarly presentations. Advise students on rules governing their specific degrees. Enhance the quality of a student’s work. required by University regulations. University regulations.

Ensure that written report on the progress of a student’s studies are submitted as Ensure that a student presents seminars at appropriate levels as required by the

In the absence of feedback from a supervisor substantially, arrangements must be made by the Chairman of Department to ensure continuity in supervision by identifying a suitable replacement.

By placing his/her signature on the declaration page of the proposal/ thesis, a supervisor will certify that the proposal/thesis represents the work of the candidate that was carried out under his/her supervision and is ready for official examination.

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2.0

FORMAT OF PRELIMINARY PAGES OF A PROPOSAL (a) Cover Page
This page should not be paginated All wording should be single- spaced and in uppercase the following sequence:   

The title at the cover page to be bold and font-size is 14. Items will be arranged in

Title should be focused, informative and not more than 20 words abbreviation in brackets

Full names of student followed by highest qualification in standard Registration number of student below the name

Then follows the writing:-

For Masters

“A Research Proposal submitted in partial fulfilment of the Requirements for the and Tourism of Kenyatta University.”

Award of the Degree of (specify, e.g. Master of Science) in the School of Hospitality

For PhD

“A Research Proposal submitted in fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of (specify, e.g. PhD) in the School of School of Hospitality and Tourism of Kenyatta University.”

Month and year of submission comes immediately after (Centred)

(b)

Student Declaration Page To have the following writings in font 12, Times New Roman: “This Proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a Degree in any other University.” Then the student signs above his/her name and registration number, followed by the date. E.g.:

Signature:

___________________

Date: __________________

Name: Osore Beatrice Mugita- H60/10704/2008

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Supervisors:

This proposal has been submitted for review with our approval as University supervisors:

Then the supervisors, sign above at least two of their names written in full, together with their respective departments. supervisor should appear at the top and the other(s) below it. E.g.: 1. Signature: ___________________ The name of the main

Date: ________________________

Prof. ___________________________ Department _____________________ Kenyatta University (State Institution of the Supervisor) 2. Signature: ___________________ Date: ________________________

Prof. ___________________________ Department _____________________ Moi University

(c)

Table of Contents The table of contents should capture the main titles and subtitles (Up to three levels) in the text (proposal/thesis).

The Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures need to be computer generated and as listed sequentially (d) Abbreviations and Acronyms This section should be included in the proposal. Abbreviations and

acronyms need to be given because they may be found in the proposal. (e) Operational Definitions of Terms This should come immediately after the abbreviations and acronyms (f) Abstract All proposals must have an abstract, which should not exceed one page; should be single-spaced and not paragraphed. The abstract should consist of precise spectrum of the entire proposal including the problem, objectives and methodology and data analysis methods. It should give an overview of 6

the proposal. The abstract follows the list of figures and should start on a new page. 3.0 FORMAT OF MAIN BODY OF PROPOSAL
Each major section e.g. INTRODUCTION should start on a separate page. Note: Numbering of the main body of the proposal to follow as stated below where applicable

1.0

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
The introduction should start with an introduction which specifies the subtitles of content covered. 1.1

Background to the Study (introduces subject area under study and current situation).

1.2 1.3 1.4

Problem Statement and Justification (to be precise and focused) Purpose of the study Objectives of study 1.4.1 1.4.2 General Objective Specific Objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time bound)

1.5 Research Questions (or Hypotheses). 1.6 Significance (to explain the benefits and the beneficiaries of the findings of the study).

1.7 Delimitations/ Scope of the study (Gives the extent to which the study will be carried out)

1.8 Limitation (Anticipated shortcomings). 1.9 Assumptions (if necessary)

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2.0

CHAPTER (TWO) LITERATURE REVIEW
  The Literature Review should start with an introduction which specifies the subtitles of content covered. In this section of Literature Review, student should demonstrate evidence of understanding of current research on the subject under investigation and show clear gaps in knowledge that will be discussed. 

Appropriate themes for this chapter can be developed using the specific objectives of the study. Thus, relevant themes to the study and those derived from related literature including the theoretical framework guiding the study should be discussed here.



The literature review should be consistent with the requirements of the title study.

(internal consistency) and aspects of the introduction e.g. background to the     The literature review should be properly cited, paraphrased and critiqued. reviewed literature. years old.

The Literature review should have a summary of identified gaps in the Unless for archival studies, 80% of the references used should be less than five Endeavour to use current refereed journals and periodicals as much as possible.

3.0

CHAPTER (THREE): METHODOLOGY
The Methodology section should start with an introduction which specifies the appropriate to the study. They include: 31 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 subtitles of content covered. This Chapter highlights methodological details Research Design (State and justify the chosen design). chosen)

Study Area (State where the study will be done (location) and why it was Target Population (Describe the target population and give figures and a source). Sampling Techniques (Explain the Sampling techniques used for the study) will be determined).

Sample Size (explain the sample size-(unit of analysis) and explain how it Research Instruments (Justify the choice of instruments that will be used in achieve)

the study and how they will be constructed and what they are meant to Pre-Testing - Use relevant statistics techniques to conduct pre-testing

3.6

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3.7

Validity and Reliability- Explain how the validity and reliability of the instruments will be established. N.B. If using a standardized test, quote test and existing validity and reliability levels. Data Collection Techniques (Explain how field data collection will be done) framework and also the anticipated findings) Logistical and Ethical Considerations (If any)

3.8 3.9 3.10 3.12

Data Analysis (researcher should explain and justify the analytical

Conceptual framework and Measurement of variables (explain the independent and dependent variables and how they will be measured. The conceptual framework to reflect the research title and the objectives)

4.0

REFERENCES
References should be single-spaced and listed alphabetically in the reference list. recommended. referencing. For citations within the text, the format of author and year of publication is

Use the latest American Psychology Association (APA) style of

5.0

APPENDICES
They will include such items as Work Plan, Budget, Maps, and Questionnaires. These must be numbered sequentially e.g. 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, etc.

4.0

PROPOSAL PRESENTATION DETAILS (a) Typing
8.1: 8.2: 8.3 Typing: All proposals in the School should be typed in font 12 (Times New Roman) on A4 size paper, double- spaced, and on one side of the page; all other sides 25 mm (1 inch); Page margins: Page margins will be as follows: left 40 mm (1.5 inches) and Page numbering: e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc should be top centre and start on the INTRODUCTION page. All preceding pages except cover page should have Roman numbering system (i.e. i, ii, iii, etc). numbers (i, ii etc) in a sequential manner From title page to

abbreviation/acronyms page, the numbering will be in Roman lower case 8.4 Page numbers: The proposal should not exceed 20 pages for a Masters thesis and 30 pages for a PhD thesis, excluding references and appendices.

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(b)

Oral Presentation
The recommended mode of oral presentation is the Power point.. 15 minutes for Masters Presentation and 20 minutes for PhD Presentations. The Dean’s office will be requested to facilitate such presentation in the School’s Boardroom/Lounge.

(c)

Tense
Future tense should be used in writing proposals, but this must be changed to past tense when writing thesis.

5.0

SUBMISSION OF A PROPOSAL TO SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM – BPS
Three (3) spiral bound copies, duly signed by the student and all supervisors and

accompanied by departmental minutes certifying that appropriate seminars were held, will be handed to BPS by the departmental representative to the board. No proposal will be handled if not accompanied by the respective departmental handed in three (3) weeks prior notice to handing in the signed proposal to the departmental coordinator and at least one supervisor MUST BE present.

representative, with a nil fee balance statement. Defense of proposals must be

6.0

PROGRESS REPORTS AND NOTICES OF THESIS SUBMISSION
All supervisors are expected to sign and endorse the progress and notice of submission forms.

signature shall suffice, but names of the other supervisors must be written in their specified positions. A note on why any of them cannot sign must be attached. However, it is preferred that supervisors who are out of the country should write to respective department for filing.

If however, a supervisor is not available, one supervisor’s

confirm their approval. A copy of duly signed forms should also be left at the

All students will be expected to submit their progress reports quarterly. All students are required to submit their “notice of thesis submission” 3 months in advance of thesis submission. Failure to do so, then the student will have to resubmit the thesis in accordance to the above-mentioned requirement.

7.0

THESIS FORMAT
The standard format shall comprise: 11.1 Title Page (same as in proposal)

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11.2

Author: Full name of student should appear as it is in the registration form, while the registration number should be written below the name, together proposal, but replace the word proposal with thesis.) Then the date e.g. August 2010 with the name of the Department, then follows the writing. (Same as in

11.3

Declaration Page (should be similar to that in the proposal except that the words.” This is my original work ……. (As it is in the proposal)

word “Proposal” is replaced with “thesis,” followed by the declaration Dedication statement not exceeding 25 words for Masters’ thesis and 30 words for PhD thesis may follow declaration, beginning on a separate page. dedication and not exceeding 200 words. recommendations.) Acknowledgement – This, beginning on a separate page, should follow Abstract (As it is in proposal except it captures results and the Abbreviations/Acronyms (As it is in the proposal guidelines)

11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8

Table of Contents- This begins on a new page. It should assist the reader to consistency in the use of headings and subheadings.

know quickly and clearly, how the thesis is organized. There must be List of Tables- This follows the table of contents, beginning on a separate text.

11.9

page. Numbering of tables should be: Table 1.1, 2.1, 3.1…throughout the

11.10 List of figures- This immediately follows the list of tables and on a separate figure and source(s) should be written below it.

page. Numbering should be figure 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 etc. The name/title of the Numbering of Chapter and subtitles in proposal/thesis should be based on

11.11

Chapter numbers e.g. subtitles in chapter one should be numbered as 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, etc.

8.0

USE OF TABLES, FIGURES AND PLATES
Tables, Figures and Plates may be included within the text or appear on separate pages. If on separate pages, however, they should be placed near the text, which refers to them. Each table in the text must have a number and caption. Number them consecutively throughout, by chapter using a decimal system e.g. the first and so on. Do not number tables and figures by sections in the chapter (as 2.21). In include them in the list of figures and tables. table in chapter 2, for example, would be table 2.1, the second would be table 2.2, numbering appendix figures and tables, use a separate appendix system and do not

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Guidelines on Tables and Figures        Place a table or figure immediately after the first mention of it in the text-on the same page if there is room, or on the following page. appendix. Tables or figures of peripheral importance to the text may be placed in an All tables and figures must be referred to in the text by number (not by a phrase such as "the following table"). Avoid using colour to distinguish different lines or areas in a figure because the distinction will be lost when your work is photocopied or microfilmed. reasons why this is not possible. list of photographs or plates. Words included in the figure should be typed unless there are technical List and caption photographs as figures unless you wish to have a separate

Landscape. If a table/figure is set up in landscape orientation then it should always be on a page by itself. Landscaped materials must be placed reading outward (i.e., with the top of the table/figure at the binding [left] side of the should be in portrait orientation like all other page numbers.

page). This page must have a page number. The page number, however,  Each figure must have a caption that begins with the word “Figure” (“F” capitalized) and the figure number, followed by a brief description of the the bottom of the figure and the top of the caption as follows:figure. This must be placed below the figure, with one blank line separating

Figure, Chapter number, figure number, description e.g Figure 4.3. Schematic of control system for the methanol-water column. 

Each table must have a caption that begins with the word “Table” (“T”

capitalized) and the table number, followed by a brief description of the the bottom of the caption and the top of the table.

table. This must be placed above the table, with one blank line separating

Table 3.2. Performance measures obtained using the proposed

procedure.

When a figure or table is continued to the following page, a continuation note ( e.g., “Figure 5, continued” or “Table 5, continued”) must appear in place of the caption on the continuations. The original caption must not be repeated in either case.

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9.0

REFERENCES
APA is the recommended conventional referencing technique for both in-textcitation and references. References should be after chapter V.

10.0

CHAPTERS
Chapters one to three have content and form as those described in the section for applicable.

proposal BUT in more detail. Change the future tense to past tense where

11.0

CHAPTER FOUR:

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter should deal with the interpretation and explanation of the findings of the study with regard to the stated hypotheses and research questions. Internal seen in the explanation. inconsistency in view of the research problem, the reviewed literature should be

Guidelines for Chapter Four     Introduction to the chapter

An overview of the findings need be mentioned.

Discussion of the findings is to be based on the objectives. The results are actual presentation of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs Move from the descriptive (univariate) to the inferential statistics (multivariate) Mention negative results as well as positive. Concur and critique other studies.

  

Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations. Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings.

Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. It is far better to say "X had significant positive relationship informative like "There is a significant relationship between X and Y". not they are significant. with Y (linear regression p

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