Free Essay

Hospitality Service Management

In: Business and Management

Submitted By teamdudley
Words 2277
Pages 10
Hospitality Individual Report

Recession & Healthy Eating

Jason Holness

Hospitality Services Management

Events Management & Human Resources

Monday 20th June 2011

The great recession and healthy eating are two main concerns within the restaurant sector. Reviewing issues ranging from immigrants being blamed for homegrown residents finding it hard to find suitable work, down to healthy eating issues of obesity epidemics and why organic food is being served.


Two major current issues within the restaurant sector / tourism industry are recession and healthy eating. This report will further highlight those issues, go into depth and observe how HRM is trying to tackle the issues also.

The recent recession had caused a lot of people to change the way they live and businesses to change the way they operate. Issues more commercially known to the general public were was simply a loss of jobs or businesses going bankrupt. Businesses who were able to survive the recession either grew in demand or downsized operations to cut costs.

Moving onto another key issue within the restaurant sector, healthy eating has risen on the agenda as the government tries to reduce and combat obesity. Along side obesity is a list of other health and lifestyle issues, which seem to exist due to unhealthy consumption of food.


A recent report considers the question: did the presence of immigrant workers in the United States labour market, documented workers and un-documented workers, dramatically affect conditions for low-wage native workers during the Great Recession 2008-2009?

Pollin, R & Wicks-Lim, J. (2011) Did Immigrants in the U.S. Labour Market Make Conditions Worse for Native Workers During the Great Recession?

The recession had forced a lot of companies to release their low wage staff, with numbers hitting more than an average 9.5 percent from January 2009 until the end of 2010

The actions taken by businesses within the recession period, although hasty within thought, led a lot of home grown residents to believe that immigrants were the responsible beings for jobs being taken away from them.

A recent New Labour Forum (NFL) article (2011) gives a brief insight into why immigrants should stop getting the finger pointed at. ‘Can We Please Stop Blaming Immigrants? All kinds of people are justifiably enraged and frightened by the dismal economy. Some have concluded that immigrants are taking away the jobs that they themselves need. The logic seems straightforward. Assume that at any given time, there are a fixed number of jobs available. If immigrants take a significant share of available jobs at low wages that will mean fewer jobs are available for U.S. native. The increased competition for the given number of jobs will also weaken workers’ bargaining power, and thus drive wages down.

Pollin, R (2011) Can We Please Stop Blaming Immigrants, Economic Prospects. pp. 87

Compared to a National Seminar ‘HR strategies today are market driven’ it notes ‘during the recession, there was a lot of downsizing, closures and reorganizations. Employees who were fortunate enough to survive and keep their jobs were probably asked to increase their workloads, learn new jobs and work more hours. The morale of your key and talented employees will be low just after recession, and they will start to look for other opportunities.
Raman, V. (2011) Recruitment & Retention in Organizations are Market Driven

Across the waters, New Zealand has been reception to one of the fastest growing hospitality industries. Despite the global recession, The Ministry of Tourism (2009) forecasts an increase of 18.6% on visitor arrivals between 2008 and 2015. The projected increase in visitors indicates more workers will be needed in tourism, with a corresponding increase in demand for qualified hospitality employees. However, the hospitality industry does not generally appear to regard hospitality qualifications are very highly. As a result those who complete hospitality degrees are often disadvantaged when competing for jobs against those with more industry experience. Anecdotally, the industry values experienced employees over those with a degree, which is in contrast with the general expectation that degrees offer graduates advantage in their chosen area of work.
Harkison, T, Poulston, J, Kim, J-H, (2011) ‘Hospitality Graduates and Managers: The Big Divide’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 3

Business leaders have been urged to be on the look out for ‘recession depression’ among workers.

Coming as the government announced that an extra £13 million would be made available to local health authorities in a bid to reduce redundancy-related depression, the Priory Group has reported a marked increase in the number of worried professionals seeking help.

In particular, a rising fear of possible unemployment, combined with mounting dents at home, is leading growing numbers of people to become stressed, with both businesses and the medical profession urged to ‘act quickly’ to prevent the problem getting worse.

According to official data, around 15 per cent of UK adults suffer from depression at least once in their lives with the condition costing businesses millions of pounds each year as a result of lost working days.

Managers called on to tackle ‘recession depression’ (2009) [Online] Available at: STRATEGIC ROLE OF HRM DURING RECESSION
The main focus in recession of all organizations is mainly to reduce the cost, which is also one of the main causes of layoff. HRM can play an important role in reducing cost in many processes from recruiting o evaluating the employees.

The two ways to reduce the cost in recession period:

* To reduce the staff, firing some workers * To divide the responsibility among employees in the same cost

The first way HRM identifies employees for lay off is diverting its responsibilities towards the workers who will be left in the organization. The reduction cost which is processed by reducing large numbers of workers could be done without reducing a large number of workers, but the one important thing left to be considered is equality.

HRM can work out and identify those events, which are useless. In the period of recession and focuses on them to control the cost, in recession, there is a cycle, which ultimately effects the organization and customers. When economies become slow the buying power of customers reduces, where as the cost of producing, recruiting, training, sponsoring etc. increases.

Strategic Role of HRM During Recession. (2010) [Online] Available at:

[Healthy Eating]

When consumers choose organic food, they are more interested in the healthy benefits than with the impacts of farming practices on the environment. Health is the most important motive for consuming organic food due to organic food being considered healthier than conventional food.

A university study revealed 390 medical students had concerns over their health and food-related behaviour. Results suggested that health worries are significantly associated with organic food consumption, with many people believing organic food will save them from disease.

However another recent university report reviewed around 100 studies to compare organic and conventional foods, finding no conclusive evidence that organic foods are more nutritious.
Poulston, J. & Yau Kwong Yiu, A. (2011) ‘Profit or principles: Why do restaurants serve organic food?’ International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 30, Iss1 pp. 184-191 However there was a lot more factors to include in the thinking of restaurants in the healthy eating era or attempting to change over from traditional methods.
It was mentioned in a report, ‘seven factors were revealed among the importance of the food service attributes. These factors were named according to the attributes reflected, including Variety in Food Choice, Healthy Options, Service and Atmosphere, Social Setting, Value and Price, On-the-Go Options, and Convenience of Location. Each one of these dimensions distinguished the type of consumer this particular sample of university freshmen represents. These customers consider flavour, quality, assortment, and variety, and customization highly important. The health factor also comes into play when examining their needs and wants. They expect on-campus dining facilities to offer healthy and organic meals and items, made-to-order options, and early operating hours for those who head to class in the morning.

Choi, EK. Wilson, A. Fowler, D. Yuan, JJ. (2011) An Analysis of Freshmen Students’ Motivation to Eat at On-Campus Dining Facilities [Online] Available at
Motivation to eat On-Campus dining facilities

With all considerations in place for healthy eating along side lifestyles, it is seen that obesity is one of the major risk factors in regards to customers and restaurants. The rise is dramatically increasing, especially to those who are from socially and economically disadvantage backgrounds.

A journal had stated ‘local government participants felt that there was little responsibility for improving the food environment beyond food safety at the local government level. The proactive development of policies which require the provision of healthy foods within local government and the setting they are involved with, such as recreating centres and early child care, were seen to be outside the strict purview for food safety set out for local governments by the Health Act.

A programme director described the importance of the existing Act:
Well I think the Food Act is mainly around food safety, probably rather than providing healthy eating environments.

The strength of such legislation is in the systems, which councils put in place for checking and compliance.

A CEO went on to describe the structures within their council:
We have environmental health officer who go around and check food safety right through the city so anyone that’s got a corner shop or a food outlet, restaurant, any of those sort of things, even street stalls, every single thing will food related will have to comply with the Food Safety Act

Allender, S (2011) ‘Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?’ [Online] Available at:

The increasing risk associated with passive smoking has been reflected in legislation, which requires work organisations to operate a no smoking policy. Some employers have banned staff smoking in company car parks, even if the employee is inside their car. Some have introduced counseling and health education programs designed to help staff that smoke to give it up altogether. A similar social concern with diet has en-courage some organizations to provide advice to employees on healthy eating, and where staff canteens are provided, to ensure that menus conform this approach.

Adam-Smith, D & Christy, G. (2009) The Janus Face of Risk: The Case of HRM, and Health and Safety. [Online] Available at: [Conclusion]

Some may argue the recession era is coming to an end, others may argue that it is still at it worst and it is going to get even more worse. Alongside the issue of recession, lies the cutbacks made in nearly every department, most importantly food choices. Recession has made individuals choose other alternatives than their usual choice. Those who used to eat out maybe twice a month, have either reduced their eating out to once a month, or obtained and rely on discount / deal vouchers to make their money spend seem worth it.

Restaurants have been known to cope really well during the recession period and the healthy eating introduction, in a sense, has proved to be even more popular and has sustained, maintained and introduced new clientele.


Allender, S (2011) ‘Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?’ [Online] Available at:

Choi, EK. Wilson, A. Fowler, D. Yuan, JJ. (2011) An Analysis of Freshmen Students’ Motivation to Eat at On-Campus Dining Facilities [Online] Available at:

Harkison, T, Poulston, J, Kim, J-H, (2011) ‘Hospitality Graduates and Managers: The Big Divide’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 3

McCool, AC. McCool, BN. (2011) ‘The Social responsibility of the food service industry: The need for action regarding the obesity crises’, Emerging Issues and Trends in Hospitality and Tourism Research 2010 [Online] Available at:

Pollin, R (2011) Can We Please Stop Blaming Immigrants, Economic Prospects. pp. 87

Pollin, R & Wicks-Lim, J. (2011) Did Immigrants in the U.S. Labour Market Make Conditions Worse for Native Workers During the Great Recession?

Poulston, J. & Yau Kwong Yiu, A. (2011) ‘Profit or principles: Why do restaurants serve organic food?’ International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 30, Iss1 pp. 184-191

Adam-Smith, D & Christy, G. (2009) The Janus Face of Risk: The Case of HRM, and Health and Safety. [Online] Available at: Strategic Role of HRM During Recession. (2010) [Online] Available at:

Managers called on to tackle ‘recession depression’ (2009) [Online] Available at:

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hospitality Industry

...The Hospitality Industry – Unit 1, Task1 In this booklet, I am going to be going in to detail of seven different businesses within the Hospitality Industry. I am going to be including; turnover, number of businesses, number of employees, products, services and facilities. The Hospitality Industry in the UK is a broad and varied Industry, ranging from worldwide corporations to single person organisations. People can do more than eighty different jobs within the Industry. There are twelve other different sectors of the Hospitality Industry: Sectors of the Hospitality Industry Hospitality Services Pubs, bars and clubs Gambling Contract catering Membership clubs Hostels Holiday parks Self catering Visitor attractions Tourist services Travel services Events You can see that from the twelve different sectors of the Industry, that it is a very large, vast and broad Industry. Each individual sector is big in itself, meaning that there are many holiday parks, membership clubs, hostels etc. There are different jobs within each sector and many people are employed within each sector. One Hotel: The hotel I have chosen is Q Hotels; they are a budget chain hotel all over the UK with 21 unique 4 star hotels. They are situated in many different areas of the UK, with some in the countryside and others in the heart of the city. The dedicated staff caters to every individuals needs, whether it is the fussy ones or arranging a conference of over 150 people.......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Job Performance of Practicumers of Bshrm Student

...became competent to the different challenges of the global market. Acquiring techniques or knowledge for new trends is a head start for being a competent employee which can be learned through quality education. Job qualification for Hotel industry is essential in finding a competitive work in the Philippines or even in other countries. Due to the rampant growth in hospitality industry, there has been a major concern for the Hotel and Restaurant Management students to be highly competitive or highly qualified in terms of hotel and restaurant preferences and standards. The job market in the hospitality industry is very competitive, employers will always want new graduates who are ready to “jump in” and start working immediately. Equipped with knowledge on the new trends for today’s hospitality industry, in order to be competitive in this market, newly graduates must possess the maximum skills required to perform efficiently and effectively in the hospitality industry. Industry professionals often claim that what educators teach in the classroom is out dated (Kang, Wu, & Gould, 2005). Technology, the workforce, hospitality and tourism products, and customers are constantly changing. As a result, relevant competencies also evolve. Therefore, university faculty and industry professionals must work together to ensure that graduating students can possess the necessary skills to enter the workforce successfully. These present challenges give empetus to the researchers to......

Words: 12996 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Undergraduates' Perceptions of Tourism and Hospitality as a Career Choice

...Undergraduates' Perceptions of Tourism and Hospitality as a Career Choice Scott A. Richardson Griffith University Gold Coast, Australia E-mail: ABSTRACT This study explored undergraduate tourism and hospitality student’s views of the industry as a career choice. Three hundred and seventy-nine tourism and hospitality students, from eight Australian institutions, completed a questionnaire rating the importance of twenty factors in influencing their choice of career, and then the extent to which they thought tourism and hospitality, as a career, offers these factors. A number of factors have been identified as being significantly different. From the results it is clear that students generally do not believe that a career in tourism and hospitality will offer them the factors that they find important. Key Words: Career choice, Undergraduates, Perceptions, Tourism, Hospitality INTRODUCTION The tourism and hospitality industry worldwide, and in Australia in particular, has been confronted with the problem of attracting and retaining quality employees which has lead to a shortage of skilled personnel to staff the ever-growing number of tourism and hospitality businesses (Andorka, 1996; Bonn & Forbringer, 1992; Breiter, 1991; Deery & Shaw, 1999; Dermady & Holloway, 1998; Emenheiser, Clay, & Palakurthi, 1998; Ferris, Berkson, & Harris, 2002; Freeland, 2000; Heraty & Morley, 1998; Hinkin & Tracey, 2000; McDermid, 1996; Powell, 1999; Tourism Division,......

Words: 6459 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Report Hostmark

...Report of Hostmark Hospitality Group Hostmark Hospitality Group manages hotels and resorts in the United States and Egypt. The company also operates stand-alone concept restaurants and maintais a strong presence in this business segment. The Group is preferred as an award-winning hotel management company for Marriot, Hilton, Starwood, IHG, Wyndham and Choice. Hostmark Hospitality Group has consistently delivered superior results to institutional real estate owners, non-institutional ownership groups, publicly traded companies, joint ventures and privately held companies by providing hotel management, asset management, project management and lender consulting services. Hostmark Hospitality Group also offers specialized programs for Commercial Mortagege Backed Security special servicers and balance sheet lenders managing under-performing hotel loans. Acting in a consulting capacity, Hostmark provides hotel analytical and operating advisory services to lenders needing hospitality expertise and workout advice on asset disposition strategy. Hostmark Hospitality Group has also performed the role of court appointed receiver and operator in more than 170 foreclosed properties. Whether through workout advice, operational improvements or through management improvement, Hostmark has assisted numerous lenders and borrowers in maximizing both the short term cash flow and long term value of their assets. They have a progressive and proactive philosophy has resulted in successful,......

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Applied Theory to the Hr Practices in the Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts Brand

...department and also control staff’s and customer’s emotions as they represent the key to a better reputation of the brand. Lastly, a personal reflection upon the workshops was written, illustrating the fact that they represent a better command of the subject. 2. Diversity and Groups Nowadays, managing a hotel brand is done with the help on diversity management (Mor Barak, 2005). There exist four magnitudes of diversity: tenancy, age, sex and race. After a study conducted by Ely (2004), race and sex are not irrelevant to performance, as opposed to tenancy and age which are judged by experienced staff who believe that wisdom comes with age. Cooperation and teamwork represent the key to the issue. Banks in the USA developed diversity education programs where employees were stimulated to work with the ones they did not accept, results being highly positive and thus leading to a better collaboration in the at near future (Ely, 2004). For the Four Seasons brand, extensive research needs to be carried out, starting with the company’s website, which influences potential staff and customers to choose it over others that offer the same services. Keywords such as “workforce diversity, disability, age, sex, gender” have been searched for in order to evaluate the level of diversity that the brand promotes. They should put emphasis on equality and do not ignore the...

Words: 1543 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hosp 590

...KELLER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT | HOSP 582 – Survey of Hospitality Management | Week 1 Homework | Professor: Eva Smith | 1/9/2016 | | Email address: Chapter 1 1. What is the role of a manager in the hospitality industry? The role of a manager in the hospitality industry is wide and varied. However, the manager must focus on 3 main objectives, namely; a manager must be able to direct the operations of business to achieve goals on schedule, within budget and make a profit. Secondly, a manager must also be able to relate to employees and guests to create a successful work environment and experience for the guest. Lastly, a manager should always make sure that guests feel personally welcomed and everything in the facility is working smoothly. According to our text, “there are three general kinds of hospitality objectives with which management must be concerned: 1. A manager wants to make the guest feel welcome. Doing this requires both a friendly manner on your part toward the guest and an atmosphere of “liberality and good will” among the people who work with you in serving the guest. That almost always translates to an organization in which workers get along well with one another. 2. A manager wants to make things work for the guest. Food has to be savory, hot or cold according to design, and on time. Beds must be made and rooms cleaned. Gaming facilities must be service oriented. A hospitality system requires a lot of work, and......

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism

...Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism Name: Institution: Date: Introduction Since the turn of the century, there has been an upsurge in the use of social media. As a result, many tourism organizations that include hotels, travel agencies, and airline companies have started using the internet as one of the important tools in marketing and communication strategies. Many businesses within the hospitality industry rely on good reviews from their customers, and social media is offering this as a natural marketing tool (Bennet, 2012). The use of social media have become very widespread, and the travelers use these sites consistently to brag about their great experiences as well as express displeasure with poor experiences. This is a natural way through which the social media is impacting the hospitality and tourism industry. After realizing the power of social media, businesses are also leveraging on the wide presence of customers in social media to communicate, engage, and market their services and products to the customers (Guzel & Sengun, 2015). The growth of social media has had immense impacts on social media that range from marketing, communication, and even corporate social responsibility. This paper conducts a literature review on the effects of social media on hospitality and tourism. Literature Review According to Mahmood A Khan (2012), the benefits of social media can be very helpful in marketing and management in hospitality and tourism. He......

Words: 2669 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


...A Hotel And Restaurant Management Career Might Be For You Leave a comment » A career in hotel and restaurant management might be for you if you like to make important decisions, hire staff and run the day to the day operations of your business. It might sound like fun stuff but it is hard work. As a manager, you will be the first one to arrive and the last one to leave. All responsibility will fall on you. The perks of being in hotel and restaurant management business, however, can be great. As a manager, you are responsible for everything that goes on in your hotel or restaurant. You need to have food orders in on time, make sure guests are accommodated for and ensure that your staff respects and listens to you. You must be a great communicator and leader to succeed in hotel and restaurant management. Whether it is a high profile hotel, a glamorous restaurant or a small deli, a manager must indulge himself in the business. If one thing goes wrong it falls on the manager’s shoulders. The service industry is the biggest industry in the United States today. It garners more attention and customers than any other business in the country. Don’t expect this trend to stop. Small businesses are currently thriving in the U.S. More and more of these offices are popping up everywhere. Combine that with the stature of the service industry and a small hotel or restaurant can prove to be quite profitable. Being involved in hotel and restaurant management is becoming a common......

Words: 1057 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...HOM 210: Introduction to Hospitality Management Ch 1: The Hospitality Industry and You I. What is Hospitality Management? Hospitality means “the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers with liberality and good will” Hospitality: Comes from hospice, “house of rest” for travelers and pilgrims. Also, an early form of a nursing home. • Hospitality includes hotels and restaurants and many other institutions that offer shelter or food or both to people away from their homes. • Hospitality professions are among the oldest and they involve making a guest, client or resident welcome and comfortable. II. The Manager’s Role in the Hospitality Industry. The 3 objectives are: 1) A manager wants to make the guest welcome personally. 2) A manager wants to make things work for the guest. 3) A manager wants to make sure the operation will continue providing service and making profit. Key terms to know: • Profit • Break even or zero profit • Controlled but negative profit => Loss • Subsidy. The key lies in achieving a controlled profit, loss or break-even. III. Why Study in a Hospitality Program? Before, hospitality was skill centered, but now it is not enough. If you need a good cook, you get one who has years of experience. “Today, the center of our society’s productivity is the knowledge worker, the man or woman who applies to productive work ideas, concepts, and information” So studying is necessary part of your preparation for a career......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Lens

...CAUTHE 2007 Conference Tourism: Past Achievements, Future Challenges HOSPITALITY: A SOCIAL LENS: CHALLENGING THE EXISTING ORDER Paul Lynch University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom Alison Morrison University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom ABSTRACT This paper locates developments in hospitality research, notably relating to hospitality studies, in the context of Kuhn’s (1962) evolution of scientific theory. The paper highlights the development of the ‘hospitality lens’ by Lashley, Lynch and Morrison (2007) and suggests it can facilitate the study of hospitality in any social situation from a strengthened social scientific perspective. It is argued that the study of hospitality should be not just for understanding hospitality but also society itself. Such an approach is suggested as both logical and healthy for the subject development with adoption of more critical perspectives on hospitality. The considerable implications of adopting a ‘new’ hospitality research agenda are described with reference to the conceptualization of hospitality, the nature of research and the research community, subject implications including journal publication outlets, and the higher education context. Keywords: Hospitality lens; ‘new’ hospitality; subject development. INTRODUCTION This paper moves beyond any pre-occupation with the vocational roots of hospitality higher education debate as it is considered that that debate has had its day. Rather, the content is framed......

Words: 5121 - Pages: 21

Free Essay


...importance of hospitality management in global market Subject: English Submitted by: Miss Christina Lecturer of English department Submitted to: Mithu Ahmed ID NO: 13300016 To All students of kolej gemilang Methodology: (1) Internet (2) Books (3) Shit-paper (4) Myself Hospitality industry is a huge sector of global market in this era. Hospitality industry makes our life more comfortable, more enjoyable, and more flexible. It is also a great helper of world economy. Importance of hospitality management in global market: There are many importance of hospitality management in global market. I write down below in my own opinion. (1) Remove Unemployment (2) Economic aspects (3) Education aspects (4) Safety Life Unemployment (or joblessness) occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate. According to International Labor Organization report, more than 197 million people globally are out of work or 6% of the world's workforces were without a job in 2012. Here Hospitality management helps to solve...

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Hospitality is a subjective concept. Hospitality comes from many definitions like receiving guests in a generous and cordial manner, creating a pleasant or sustaining environment, satisfying a guest’s desires, generating a friendly and safe atmosphere. Hospitality means that the act or practice of one who is hospitable, reception and entertainment of strangers or guests without reward, or with kind and generous liberality. Some said that it is like an act or service of welcoming, receiving, hosting or entertaining guests. However, it is not being cast as a servant. Training for hospitality is very important. They must have the skills in other to maintain the relationships with the customer and also among the workers itself. Employees who possess a positive attitude toward constructive criticism prosper and progress in their career. All employees occasionally make errors in judgment and fail to meet standards. In order to do so, they should practicing promotional skills in their job. For example, front desk clerks who are comfortable with practicing promotional skills are a great asset to a front office manager. We must accept the challenge to sell products and services throughout the organization and seek ways to meet or exceed sales quotas. This quality allows a front desk to understand the total effort necessary to product a profit for the company. Furthermore, to have a quality in hospitality, they must do a screening process during the interview session. The......

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

To Determine the Factors That Affect the Students Interest in Taking Hotel and Restaurant Course

...on Gender difference of students on motivational factors to study Hospitality management in National University Motivational Factors 1. Social Status 2. Job opportunities 3. Modern major 4. Special interest 5. Attractive major 6. Ease in studying 7. Fulfill dreams Female Male First, this Conceptual Framework is made up the two journals I had: “Motivation of Students to study Tourism Hospitality programs.” By Bashar Aref Alhaj Mohammad and Hamam Talal Alsaleh and “Students Motivation and Preference of Studying Hospitality and Tourism Management Programmes in Polytechnics: A Case Study Ho Polytechnic” By Appaw-Agbola Esther Theresa. It explains the different motivational factors that the students may get if they took Hospitality as their preferred journey. These factors can provide students some motivations that will help them why they study Hospitality Management. This framework is also made because as a researcher, we want to see the difference between the motivational factors which are the following: Social status, Job opportunities, Modern major, Special interest, Attractive major, Ease in studying and Fulfillment of dreams, of both male and female students that are going to be in the hospitality management in National University. Significance of the study This study aims to motivate the incoming freshmen who will take Hospitality management at National University. It also helps the researcher to......

Words: 6458 - Pages: 26

Free Essay


...Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Etymology The word hospitality derives from the Latin hospes, meaning "host", "guest", or "stranger". Hospes is formed from hostis, which means "stranger" or "enemy" . Current usage In the West today hospitality is rarely a matter of protection and survival, and is more associated with etiquette and entertainment. However, it still involves showing respect for one's guests, providing for their needs, and treating them as equals. Cultures and subcultures vary in the extent to which one is expected to show hospitality to strangers, as opposed to personal friends or members of one's in-group. Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality. Global concepts Pakhtuns The Pakhtun people of South-Central Asia, predominant in the all provinces of Afghanistan have a strong code of hospitality. They are a people characterized by their use of an ancient set of ethics, the first principle of which is milmastiya or "hospitality". The general area of Pakhtunistan is also nicknamed The Land of Hospitality. Classical ethic'' world To the ancient Greeks, hospitality was a divine right. The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to. The ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Operation Management

...found to be different in personality from managers in other industry. For example studies by Lockwood [1989], stone [1988] and WORSFOLD [1989] found hotel managers to be more autocratic, assertive, competitive, stubborn, spontaneous, cynical, critical, controlling and practical. What techniques were suggested for improving the quality of services in response to fluctuations in demand? i. The “chase and level strategy” where the firm chase demand by offering flexible working hours, etc. The firm alter the level of demand by utilizing marketing mix [sassier 1976] ii. “Yield management” is used to alter demand by carefully forecasting, overbooking, choosing high yield customers etc. [KIMES 19890] iii. “Intelligence enhancement strategy” is used to analyse historical trends in demand and supply [Cronin: 1994]: product variation, time and location variation, queuing, pricing [love lock, 1992] iv. “Developing Coping” strategies which recognise dimensions within a total service delivery [Armistead and Clark, 1994] v. It is proposed that the concept of packaging can be utilised by tourism firm to effectively manage both demand fluctuation and services...

Words: 479 - Pages: 2