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How Academic Journals Are Related to Each Other

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How academic journals are related to each other

McCann et al (2009) explore the notion that Australian heterosexual males attitudes and behaviors are greatly altered due to an inherent trepidation of being observed through societal constructs as gay. This trait tends to be seen from early teens to initial adulthood with single-sex settings heightening notions that in order to be a successful male one must distance themself from the alternate trait, concurrently exemplifying society’s utopian standard of masculinity. However once these ideas that shaped males were broken down there followed a process of greater acceptance towards difference and discarding of homophobia.

Anderson and Adams (2011) explicitly and objectively refer to McCann et al (2009) and the contact theory. Anderson and Adams (2011) expand the contact theory delineating that ‘contact with gay men leads to acceptance of bi-men, as well’ (Anderson and Adams, 2011: 10) While this may be valid, it does not accurately reflect the findings of McCann et al (2009) who does not refer to ‘bi- men’. Further despite both journals conclusions vehemently relating, for example both articles recognize the importance of team sport in creating homophobia, McCann et al (2009) findings are only referred to once and are not discussed in a real substantive way, more used as a stepping stone for Anderson to add validity to his own argument.

Additionally Hetzel (2011) accurately represents the content that was concluded in McCann et al (2009) in that while she has used the reference to compare and add validity to her own argument she has not changed the fundamental McCann et al (2009) ideas but rather used it as a basis to highlight reasons as to why females are generally less intimidated with there sexual classification as opposed to males who fear ‘guilt-by-association’ (Hetzel 2011: 1433) Despite this McCann et al (2009) is still referred to hastily only being referenced once and also being combined with another reference. Thus while McCann et al (2009) aims to give reason to Hetzel (2011) findings, it is not discussed in an essential way but rather dismissively cited amongst other references and used without true engagement.

Furthermore, McCann et al (2010) content is not fairly represented as the article is primarily subjectively written. Grounded theory was used to derive information and while it aims to be objective, bias can occur due to the researches previous knowledge of issues studied. This is evident with relatively the same points being concluded except for the introduction of how homophobic humor emerged as central to the formation of Australian male identity. As a result the conclusions were very accurate as they were both similar and drawn from the same research and interviews used in McCann et al (2009). McCann et al (2010) is discussed in a genuine substantive way with at least five direct references and intertwining ideas contained throughout both articles.

The value of McCann et al (2009) to sociological literature is undeniable whether it contributes in a minor or major way. The discussion of Australian mens trepidation of being perceived as gay and how this can alter their behavior essentially adds Australian context to international research; which is highly important as it shows when any multi-cultural society develops both educationally and economically it can become more tolerant and willing to discuss such issues like homophobia and how that characteristic can be eroded. Through thorough research and a clear and convincing argument McCann et al (2009) has made a significant theoretical contribution to sociology.

References

McCann, P., V. Minichiello and D. Plummer (2009) ‘Is homophobia inevitable? Evidence that explores the constructed nature of homophobia, and the techniques through which men unlearn it’. Journal of Sociology, 45:201-220.

Anderson, E and A. Adams (2011) ‘Aren’t we all a little bisexual? The recognition of Bisexuality in an unlikely place’. Journal of Bisexuality, 11:1, 3-22

Hetzel, C (2011) ‘Exploring the relationship between public opinion and personal attitudes and behavior toward lesbians and gay men: Social conformity revisited’ Journal of Homosexuality, 58:10, 1421-1441

McCann, P., V. Minichiello and D. Plummer (2010) ‘Being the butt of the jokes: Homophobic humour, male identity, and its connection to emotional and physical violence for men’ Health sociology review, 19:505-521

Hughes, K (2012) ‘The uses of gender’, 106-127. Holmes, D., Julian.R and K.Hughes Australian sociology a changing society. Malaysia: Pearson Australia

Karen Gocsik/Dartmouth college (2004) ‘Writing the sociology paper’ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/student/soc_sciences/sociology.shtml (30/3/12)

Cox, L (2011) ‘Program to take on homophobia in schools’ The Sydney morning herald, 21st January p.14.

Mitchell, R (2012) ‘AFL needs to man up on homophobia issue’ The Sydney morning herald, 19th February p. 22.

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) (2008) ‘Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Equality’. Canberra: HREOC.

Herek G. (2004) 'Beyond Homophobia’: Thinking About Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century' Sexuality research and social policy 1:6-24

Human Rights Watch and the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (2003) ‘More Than a Name: State-sponsored Homophobia and Its Consequences in Southern Africa’. New York, United States of America

Department for children, schools and families (2007), 'Safe to Learn: Embedding Anti-Bullying Work in Schools - Preventing and Responding to Homophobic bullying in schools'. Nottingham

Bernstein, M (2004) ‘Paths to homophobia’ Sexuality research and social policy 1:41-55

Summers, C (2004) ‘An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture’ http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/homophobia.html (29/3/12)

Plummer, D (1999) ‘One of the Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood’. New York: Harrington Park Press.

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