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How Do the Medieval Elements of Drama Acquire Some Elizabethan Qualities in the Spanish Tragedy.

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Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy received great popularity and stamped as a form to be imitated not only because it has revenge as a tragic motive but also because it is a imitation from medieval tragedy. This masterpiece was presented as blood - revenge where the sacred duty of the father to avenge the murder of his son - and from that sensational theme (which was also popular in classic tragic dramas) derived its polarity and uniqueness.

Revenge tragedy in its general sense defines the real dramatic motivation behind which blood and violence lies. Kyd, as an Elizabethan dramatist wanted to show his uniqueness with academic tradition and for this he owns a great deal to Lucius Annaceus Seneca who was a successful dramatist of Roman tyrants.

In Senecan tragedies blood-revenge for murder, supernatural elements and delay are presented in realistic perspective. This style is followed by Kyd in his The Spanish Tragedy.

As a revenge tragedy, The Spanish Tragedy starts with supernatural effect or the ghost of Andrea in Act I. Just like medieval or Senecan dramas Kyd introduced the drama with a ghost who has connections between the plays main protagonist character and future development of the plot. As Don Andrea was killed in a fair battle an Elizabethan audience would have little sympathy for him so Kyd also introduced the partial hero Horatio who is good in every sense and perspective so that audience have sympathy for his death and also feels sympathetic for his father (the main protagonist , Hieronimo).

Then Kyd shows us geography of underworld of Virgils The Aeneid where he introduces “the third way” which is a mixture of Christianity and pagan universe. The third way is important for the character of Andrea who is not fit as lover or evil. This third way gives Kyd a chance to delay where the person seeking revenge requires proof or failure of legal justice and search for opportunity to take revenge.
Though the machinery of the ghost of Andrea and Revenge is Senecan in construction but the function of the two as chorus is not classical.

In Act I Scene ii Kyd confesses his fondness of Antithesis where the parallel structure is made. For example, Balthazar’s dialogue to Horatio and Lorenzo,
“…To him in courtesy, to this per force….”

He is indicating both of them where one as a fierce warrior and another as verbal manipulator.

Hieronimo’s grief for his son is reinforced by the grief of the viceroy for the supposed death of Balthazar and later for his actual slaying. The madness of Hieronimo for his sons death is an important dramatic device which is a common sign of medieval tragedy. Kyd used soliloquies to show human soul and human behavior under moral stress. Hieronimo question the “justice of heaven” that is “..How should we term your dealing to be just If you unjustly deal with those that in your justice trust?..”

In his madness or with sense Hieronimo first endeavors to secure his legal rights before taking the law in his hand but soon realizing that he can never find legal justice against two royal bloods. Here kyd also imposes medieval machinery of the importance of blue blood which was also a common element in Elizabethan tragedy.

In The Spanish Tragedy there is huge use of blank verse, hyperbolic, detailed descriptions and also great use of rhetorical language is seen which is also an unique imitation of medieval tragedy. It may be illustrated by the following description of Act II Scene iv where Kyd identifies Lorenzo and Balthazar as both super human and sub human. Super human because they posses inhuman mechanism, are indifferent to love and hopes of others and solely concerned for own ambition and sub human because they are incapable of normal human emotion.

It is medieval technique to show villain as a non-human to gain pity for the protagonist and Kyd has used it appropriately.
Kid also introduces here Machiavellian villain which was something new for Elizabethan audience. It has a double perspective, one to show Lorenzo as a villain and another to create relationship between the character and audience because Machiavellian was an evil philosopher for Elizabethan audience and it was more effective to take a character from real life.

In dealing with irony Kyd adopts dramatic irony which worked as medieval irony of fate. He also used double irony where Pedringano was hanged, Here Hieronimo is shown to judge the unjust.

Just like medieval hero’s impassionedness the ghost of Andrea was impassioned for revenge and Revenge shows him a show where a silent mosque was full with blood so informing the audience soon the revenge would make its hand red with blood.

Again to imitate medieval patriarchal society Kyd a shows Bel-imperia as a character who is dominated by either by her brother or father. BY obeying her fathers command for the hand of marriage with Balthazer and thanking her brother in Act III Scene x to protect her from danger and wrong decision makes it more clear to the Elizabethan audience that if they remain same they will suffer the same and what was happening nearly from Roman age will remain same.

Again when Hieronimo enters and declares
“..Vindicta mihi..”

Elizabethan preachers and audiences should be in shock because according to the Bible vengeance is for god only. Elizabethan audience would undoubtedly feel discomfort but thus Kyd wanted to show his sufferings, his loss and also for the causeless, unjustifiable murder he can adopt paganism over Christian morality.

On the other hand, intrigue as a prime object of medieval drama has created a different way to explain revenge tragedy and Kyd as a follower of classical tragedy implied it through as uncommon device which is play within play. For an Elizabethan audience play within a play was truly an uncommon thing to show. The intrigue played by the Lorenzo in murder of both Pedringano and Serberine in Act III Scene iii-viii was again played by Hieronimo with Lorenzo and Balthazer in the play within a play. As in Christian morality everyone has to die after committing murder as penalty so Kyd shows suicide of Hieronimo. This moment is drawn perfectly with the device of play with in a play.

Though play within play was something very new to the audience but its purpose was very much conventional.
Therefore it can be stated that classical sensuousness, horror, crime and intrigue has been projected through Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy in a way his Elizabethan audience would require. The Elizabethans were more hotheaded than their medieval ancestors. So showing the corpse of Horatio was very important.

On the other hand, medieval tragedy affirms that suicide must not be an escape from ones moral self, nor a passionate impulse, but a meaningful and rational one. Kyd shows it in a play within play where Bel-imperia and Horatio commits suicide after their revenge and finish Spanish royal blood.

Killing Duke of castle only indicates that class consciousness of both Elizabethan and medieval drama was evident.
So at last it can be said that though medieval tragedy is only based on destiny but as an Elizabethan revenge tragedy The Spanish Tragedy is based on problem with characters personal reasons. Kyd has combined popular tradition with academic tradition and that is the main reason why this play is very unique in every posture of its movement and acquires a new sub genre of tragedy where elements are classical but named as Elizabethan revenge tragedy.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kyd, Thomas. The Spanish Tragedy. English Renaissance Drama: A Norton Anthology.
E Middleton, Thomas (?). The Revenger’s Tragedy. English Renaissance Drama: A
Norton Anthology. Ed. David Bevington. New York: W.W. Norton & Company
Ltd, 2002.
Bowers, Fredson. Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy 1587-1642. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940.
McAlindon, T. English Renaissance Tragedy. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.
Tourneur, Cyril. The Atheist’s Tragedy. The Plays of Cyril Tourneur. Ed. Goerge Parfitt.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Rist, Thomas. “Religion, Politics, Revenge: The Dead in Renaissance Drama.” Early
Modern Literary Studies 9 (May 2003). 15 April 2006.

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