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How Effective Were Mussolinis Economic Policies

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why was Russia so difficult to govern? * Poor old fashioned agricultural methods * Bad economy not enough produce being made in good yield and quickly * Poor industrial levels * High levels of poverty poor living and working conditions and salary which led to unhappy public. * Russia was very big but there were no effective ways to transport resources around the countries * Poor communication methods * Russification

why was there opposition to tsarist rule? * He was a weak tsar as he was primarily reluctant to taking over * Bloody Sunday * 1905 revolution * Failures of the Dumas * Social democratic party, octobrists, social revolutionaries- revolution through peasants * Ignorant and arrogant
What was the impact of ww1 on tsarist Russia? * Lack of available infrastructure- basic facilities banks factories ect. * Poor leadership of generals and officers * Poor communication * Incompetent and overconfident officials * Inflation * Middle class discontented as their sons were dying at war * Large life cost

why was there a Feb. rev in feb1917 * First WW put pressure on tsarist system * The weather was so bad so trains wouldn’t function and no import/export * Prices rose and rationing led to further discontent * Series of strikes * Famines and poverty getting worse * ARMY DESERTED THE TSAR WHERAS PRIOR TO THIS HE WAS SUPPORTED BY THEM I.E THROUGHOUT BLOODY SUNDAY RUSSO-JAPANESE * Tsarina Alexandra

What were the successes and failures of the provisional government? * They were an unelected body and didn’t represent the people of Russia * THEY DID NOT END THE WAR * Peasants were looting properties of landlords * People wanted an end to food shortages * Did not change enough very similar to the tsar * Positive: secret police abolished * Freedom of religion * Freedom of speech * Promise of an elected parliament—elections in future
How did the Bolsheviks seize power in October 1917 * The Bolsheviks began to grow in popularity through newspapers propaganda ect * Formed their own army called the Red Guard * Following the kornilov revolt- (PG on back foot) and Bolshevik red army threw the PG out so Bolsheviks took a lot of credit * Red guard had resources good weaponry * Lenin knew they wouldn’t get in through constituent assembly so he acted before it then dissolved it link to next one
How did the Bolsheviks consolidate their power? * Soviets throughout Russia supported the Bolsheviks and took over the cities in their aid * Dissolved the constituent assembly so there was no way they would be removed * By the end of 1917 all of Russia was soviet * Issued a number of decrees: decree on land, decree on unemployment insurance, December decrees, decree on political parties to remove opposition, decree to set up political plice

how did Lenin win the civil war * The reds strengths were war communism- government taking peasants grain and factories and given to the army and left the whites with a lack of resources * Red army was led by Trotsky great leader inspirational speeches, high morale tobacco, deserters would be shot * Conscription was introduced aged 18- 49 * Took over key areas communication * United * Peasants didn’t support the whites as they feared the old tsarist system would be restored * Weaponry being supplied by Kornilov * Whites weaknesses were they weren’t united but rather spread out across Russia * Operated in separate groups * The death of the Tsar also weakened support for the whites * Morale in the whites was very low due to no food poor resources

What was the NEP? * New economic policy REVERSED WAR COMMUNISM * Its aim was economic recovery * Peasants good sell and trade surplus food produce * Take a step back to go move forward * It allowed small business little shops factories and small businesses to make a profit. * Boost to the economy * Communist political control grew and Lenin expelled a third of the party who disagreed with the NEP
How did Stalin gain power in 1924? * Stalin tricked Trotsky into not attending Lenin’s funeral * He made the public see him as the closest to Lenin out of all possible successors * He sided with each of the opponents in order to eliminate them one by one and played them against each other * He was the general secretary so he decided who was in and who was out he fired several who were against him and brought in a lot of his supporters * Trotsky was exiled to Siberia
How did Stalin consolidate power? * Purges * Show trials * Eliminated all possible threat * Reasons for purges were: threat to his position, economic disagreements, political disagreement * Kirov: a popular leader in communists who criticised Stalin’s policies so Stalin killed him. * Stalin set up the NKVD to inform him on people who were against him led to paranoia from the peasants * Stalin set up gulags- labour camps victims of purges * Removed red army generals- ex Trotsky
What was the cult of personality? * Portrayed Stalin as a G-d, glorified him * He did this through changing education and brainwashed the youth from a young age * Propaganda and pictures of him were everywhere * Poems plays and books written about him * Newspapers gave him nicknames man of steel * Stalin created the image of himself as a leader and protector of the soviet union * Rewrote history about his role during the Bolshevik revolution * New photographs were created emphasizing this * Named roads
What methods did Stalin use to maintain his power? * Changed culture and religion * Culture artists and writers carefully censored to portray him in good light * Religion: there were 3 main religions Stalin dealt with Russian orthodox roman Catholics and Judaism * Christian leaders were imprisoned * More than 60,000 places of worship were closed * Mosques and Muslim schools were closed * Jewish school and synagogues closed
Why did Stalin decide to modernise soviet industry and agriculture? * Stalin wanted to transfer the USSR from a backward agriculture country to a modern industrial country * Collectivisation- policy created by Stalin give up small plots of land and animals and pool them with those of other families in order to make a farm large enough to use machinery and modern farming methods the idea was to create surplus of food through employing these methods * Industrialisation- industrialisation was supposed to be supported by the food surpluses that collectivisations were supposed to create. Agriculture surpluses sold abroad which allowed industrialisation to make the 5 year plans happen what were the key features of both collectivisation and industrialisation? * Give crops and animals to government * Human cost was enormous as they all starved * Benefits aim of producing enough food to feed town workers and army was achieved * Farming remained inefficient * 5 year plans Stalins introduced yearly unrealistic targets to motivate workers * Year 1 heavy industry * Year 2 consumer goods * Year 3 interrupted due to world war 2
How successful were Stalin’s economic policies? * Advances on industry although the targets were not met there was still remarkable advances in industry * Stakhanovites- Alexei Stakhanov was a worker who transported a record amount of coal on a ship he was seen as a national hero. This motivated others to work as hard as him, a group of very hard workers named themselves the stakhanovites * Skilled work force previously there was illiterate and unskilled but Stalin invested in education and training programmes to improve them * Women were encouraged to work to achieve 5 year plans * Introduced free health care and holiday with pay

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