Premium Essay

How Effectively Did the Occupying Powers Deal with the Nazi Legacy in the Years 1945-1949?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By lvkan
Words 529
Pages 3
In 1945 Germany had been defeated and WWII was over, the allies were in control of Germany each taking up there different occupation zones. The allies consisted of Russia, America, Britain and France. They were tasked with dealing with the legacy that Nazism had left behind as well as dealing with the legacy of the war itself. When focusing on the Nazi legacy the allies faced the issues of the political vacuum of power now that the leading party of the nation for the last 12 years, also the systems and culture created by this. Their main ways of tackling the Nazi legacy boiled down to several major areas; denazification, democratisation and the Nuremberg trials. The success of dealing with the Nazi legacy was fairly limited especially with the division of germany, also in such a short time period the ally powers struggled to find their feet.
The Nuremberg trials which took place from the 20 november1945 -1 october 1946, were the trials of the leading Nazi war criminals or what was left of them. There were 13 trials in total over this time period and was the most tangible form of dealing with the Nazi legacy and holding those who were responsible. The prisoners were tried for; crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity and conspiracy, most of the evidence only came to light at the trials and are now what we consider most of the Nazi plans and actions. By the end of the trials 3 were acquitted and 12 were sentenced to death including Goring. The trials were able to sentence the remaining Nazis but aren’t the major way of dealing with the legacy they left. The trials set a president for what would happen to the Nazis and were rather symbolic of destroying the legacy, also by killing or sentencing the leading Nazis it prevented the reoccurrence of the Nazi party forming with any major members from the war. It also found the men rightly guilty of their…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Why Did Gorbachev's Reforms Fail and How Did Yeltsin Rise to Power?

...Why did Gorbachev's reforms fail and how did Yeltsin rise to power? In typical political terms, Gorbachev unsuccessful, and did thus catastrophically: the "democratic reformation" he tried to enact within the Soviet Union led to the breakup of his state and country. However that's not the total story of his six and a half years as leader, throughout that Gorbachev had two unprecedented achievements. He led Russia (then Soviet Russia) nearer to real democracy than it had ever been in its centuries-long history. And, with the partners he found in American presidents Ronald Reagan and the first George Bush, he came nearer to ending the decades-long cold war than had anyone before him. Nor is it reasonable to assume that Gorbachev should have completed those undertakings. Few transformational leaders, even "event-making" and "historically fateful" ones, are able to see their missions to completion. This is especially true of leaders of great reformations, whose nature and period generate additional opposition and problems than their initiators (unless they are a Stalin) have power or time to overcome. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, to require a well-known example, a perestroika of American capitalism, continued to unfold and undergo setbacks long after his death. Most such leaders can solely open political doors; leave behind alternative ways that did not exist before, and hope, as Gorbachev usually did publically, that what they began would be "irreversible." How is this......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

How and Why Did the Nazi Treatment of Jews Change Between the Years 1933 and 1945?

...| How and why did the Nazi treatment of Jews change between the years 1933 and 1945? | Curran De Braganca | How and why did the Nazi treatment of Jews change between the years 1933 and 1945? Most of us have heard of the Nazi party’s horrific, genocidal regime on destroying the Jewish race, but what events led up to their dire judgement? In this study I aim to uncover the events, reasons and changes which led to the Holocaust and the further changes in the treatment of the Jewish race by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party. In the aftermath of the First World War, Germany is under the Judgment of the Allies as a result of Allied victory Germany is being blamed for most of the war, The Treaty of Versailles stated that they: * Are to pay compensation to the Allies: £6.6 Million, which was well over Germany’s financial capacity at the time. * Portions of Germany’s land has been claimed and will distributed under Allied power to form new nations and also will be given to allied nations who lost land during the war. * Germany’s army will be reduced to only 100,000 men plus their naval vessels have been limited to 6 capital ships. The west of Rhineland had been Demilitarised and occupied by Allied forces. * Germany was not allowed to join with Austria to boost its economy. These were only just a few of the terms of the treaty. In Germany, many people were ‘pointing fingers’ and putting the blame on others, one group of people however, is taking...

Words: 3106 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

How Far Did the Position of Black Americans Improve in the Years 1945-55?

...How far did the position of black Americans improve in the years 1945-55? (30 marks) The position of black Americans improved to a certain extent in the years 1945-55. The period certainly saw lots of ‘de jure’ improvements in the lives of black Americans, particularly those in the Southern states, but there were limited ‘de facto’ improvements to go with this. Nevertheless, some progress towards equality had been made in the areas of education, transport, public amenities, voting rights, employment and housing. There was a significant move towards equality in education in the period 1945-55. Court cases such as Sweatt v. Painter in 1950 and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954 achieved great publicity and initiated the end of segregation in the education system. They also showed black Americans that the Supreme Court was on their side as it ruled in favour of the NAACP in both cases, the former dealing with the rights of students to graduate-level education and the latter dealing with the rights of younger students. This gave black Americans confidence that segregation could be successfully challenged. However, these ‘de jure’ victories led to little ‘de facto’ change. For example, by 1957, only 750 of 6,300 southern school districts had been desegregated. This was true despite the Brown II ruling by the Supreme Court, which stated that the desegregation of education should occur ‘with all deliberate speed’. Nevertheless, the Brown case was highly symbolic,......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years 1945-55?

...How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945-55? It is clear that the Second World War played a vital part in improving the lives of African Americans between 1945 and 1955. However, the impact of the war was lessened by other factors that brought about change such as the civil rights groups and President Truman. These factors were able to convert de jure change into de facto change; something the Second World Wars alone was unable to do. World War Two had a dramatic effect on civil rights for Black Americans. Over 1.2 million black men joined the U.S army during the war and the experience radicalised them. Northern blacks were often trained in rural military camps in the Southern states, this was their first experience of formal racial segregation. They were appalled to know they were fighting a racist opponent, yet being treated as a second class citizen and receiving prejudice treatment back home. Consequently, the black soldiers used the ‘Double V’ sign, which meant they were fighting for two victories: victory overseas and victory over racism at home. The war also began to change the racist attitudes of whites. The United States and her allies were fighting a racist opponent, Hitler, who passionately believed in a ‘Master race’. In the past, white supremacy groups such as the Ku Klux Klan had presented racism as something that was both natural and noble, however,......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Succesful Were the Nazi Economic Policies in the Years 1933 - 1945?

...During the years 1933 – 1945, Hitler and the Nazi party introduced various policies in which impacted the economy, is it necessary to label them all a success? The most successive policy that they announced was those in which was led by Albert Speer, this had a great influence on both the economy and the final stages of war; despite Germany being unsuccessful. The first policy that was introduced was the “New plan” which was created by Hjalmar Schacht in the year 1933. Schacht intended to reduce imports, reduce unemployment, create agreements with other nations and finally channel the government’s spending. In some perspective, the “New plan” was a success; unemployment had decreased significantly, it was reduced from 6 million in 1933 to 300,000 by 1939. Moreover, industrial production had rose considerably in comparison with Weimar Germany before the Wall Street Crash. Due to these factors, it can be interpreted as a great success however, there are features that hinder it. Firstly, Germany were still importing a huge amount of their produce, they failed to produce the same amount of money that they were spending; by 1939 the German government were in debt of 40 million Reichmarks. As a result of this, the new plan cannot be labelled as a great success, however there were aspects that influenced the success of other policies. As the war drew closer, Hitler was aware that the country was not prepared for confrontation therefore he advised his Nazi associate – Goering,......

Words: 994 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Does Moa Consolidate the Position of Communist Power in the Period 1949 to 1954?

...During the years 1949 to 1954 Moa Zedong consolidated the power of the communist party after the civil war with the nationalist GMD. Moa initially did this by establishing the ‘People’s Liberation Army’ (PLA) on the 1st of October 1949. He also used force registration of the people to control all members of Chinese society. By imposing mandatory paperwork to own vital things like property, he ensured that ensured that he could control every aspect of their life and ensure conformity and allegiance to the communists through the fear that they would find out. When Mao took control he divided the country into six regions, loosely based on old Chinese provinces. Each had its own bureau of officials consisting of a Chairman, Party secretary, Military commander and Political commissar. Since two of these posts were military positions held by former PLA commanders from the war, it effectively placed the country under military control. Mao had done this intentionally has he believed that it was the best way to ensure the further industrialisation of China, and the continued control of the communist government. This defiantly workedas it not only allowed the Chinese government to direct any complaints the people may have at the ‘enemy’, but it also meant that because they were at war the people felt they had a duty to band together and work hard thus improving the economy. The ‘reunification campaigns’ is evidence of how brutal Moa and his government were whiling to be. He sent......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How Did the Bolsheviks Seize Power?

...were the Bolsheviks able to seize power in 1917 and how did they consolidate their rule? The Bolsheviks mainly gained their power by using force and violence. During 1971 the Bolsheviks were quickly gaining popularity among the Russian people, they took control by attacking the unpopular, weak Provisional Government’s meeting place in the Winter Palace and then declared a new workers government, this was just one of the factors that led to the Bolsheviks success. A rise in popularity definitely led to the success of the Bolsheviks. One of the reasons why the Bolsheviks popularity was increasing was because they promised the people of Russia the things that they wanted most of all, which was to provide food for all families, end the war to reduce Russian deaths and bring in land reform in the countryside. This was all very well advertised with the slogan ‘Peace! Bread! Land!’ created by Lenin. It appealed to all people, the soldiers who were tired of war, to the hungry workers in the town and to the poverty-stricken peasants. The Germans financed the Bolsheviks because they knew that Lenin wanted to take Russia out of the war, this gave them the money to mount their publicity campaigns. In September 1917, the army commander in chief, general Kornilov, attempted to move troops back from the front to Petrograd in order to destroy the soviets and arrest leading Bolsheviks. Kerensky was afraid that Kornilov might be planning to take power for himself so he decided to......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

“the Soviet Union Developed Its Influence in Eastern Europe in the Years 1945-1949 Because It Wanted to Guarantee Its Security in the Future”. How Valid Is This Assessment?

...in the West during the development of the Cold War was that the Soviet Union conducted an expansionist policy which was seen to threaten peace and collective security. The provocative and expansionist nature of Stalin’s foreign policy after 1945 was singled out as the prime cause of the Cold War and, as the Soviet Union sought to expand world communism, the West was forced into taking action to safeguard the free world. However, a closer examination of Soviet foreign policy during this period illustrates a combination of mistrust and a lack of understanding which arguably led to a misinterpretation of Stalin’s motives for expanding Soviet influence in Eastern Europe. While there is evidence that supports the Orthodox view that Stalin’s expansion was aggressive, new arguments have come to light to support the idea that the Soviet Union “wanted to guarantee its security in the future” and can therefore it was simply a defensive move. One key factor responsible for the incorporation of Eastern Europe into the sphere of Soviet control was the presence of the Red Army in Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War. Although Stalin was willing to accept coalition governments, in the eastern European states the USSR had occupied, in the years immediately after the Second World War, the tension generated by the Cold War resulted in the trend towards the imposition of communist governments on the countries of Eastern Europe. Thus developments in this region of Europe were......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Far Did the Position of African Americans Improve in the Years 1945-1955

...How far did the position of Black Americans improve in the years 1945-1955? The position of Black Americans from 1945-1955 changed a lot throughout these years, and mainly for the better, particularly in social and economical areas. Although there were occasional setbacks in some areas, such as politically, overall their position was vastly improved. In this essay I’ll be discussing the different areas in which Black Americans improved their position in and some areas in which they continued to struggle in. Firstly the economic improvements made by Black Americans were hugely significant, many African Americans had exceptionally low paying farming jobs that barely supported a decent standard of living. However when The Second World War involved America in 1945 things began to change in the employment area, masses of new jobs were created both in the North and South of America. In the South, $4.5 billion was spent on setting up factories to produce items for The Second World War. Unfortunately, at first African Americans were unable to get jobs in these factories, Philip Randolf was appalled at the racism of this and threatened to lead a march of African Americans to Washington unless the racism from the employers was resolved. In recognition of this, Franklin Roosevelt made an executive order that made sure that industries involved in the production of war goods could not discriminate against people by their race, creed, colour or national origin. After this executive......

Words: 1227 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How Far Was the Ussr Responsible for the Outbreak of the Cold War 1945-1949?

...How far was the USSR responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War 1945-1949? To a certain extent, the USSR’s responsibility of the Cold War cannot be underestimated as their policies following the Second World War may have been seen as aggressive by USA. The forceful take-over of Eastern Europe through the Red Army occupations, especially in distinctive cases such as Poland and Czechoslovakia, can be seen as being far from the “liberation” over which the two war-time allies had agreed, while the rigging of elections did not conform to the Yalta agreement of the organisation of free ones. Stalin responded to the Americans’ policies of containment by creating his own agencies, therefore creating even more hostility between the two superpowers, while also refusing the existence of anything but Soviet puppet states in Eastern Europe. However, the event which cemented the outbreak of the Cold War was Stalin imposing the Berlin Blockade, taking direct action towards weakening the Americans’ position. One may see that Stalin’s blockade resulted in the official creation of two separate German states, one of the most significant events of the Cold War. On the other hand, revisionists point out that the USSR was taking defensive measures to protect itself from anything that could have caused as much damage as the Second World War, while the Americans, who were superior economically, adopted provocative policies. They challenged the patience of the Russians by hiding crucial events......

Words: 4209 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

How Far Did the Position of Black Americans Improve in the Years 1945-55?

...Point- The position of Black Americans improved in the years 1945-55 politically Evidence- Morgan vs Virginia case, the vote, President Truman, Explanation- Irene Morgan refused to give up her seat on an interstate bus and was fined $100 inevitably led to the Supreme Court prohibiting segregation on interstate transport with the help on NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall. The Morgan vs. Virginia case did not lead to a change in practice however. The situation with many rulings was still very much de jure and de facto. Black people were given the vote so they were able to vote in more sympathetic political figures. This meant that someone who sympathised black people would be able to do something about it rather than ignore the racial inequality. President Truman established a committee to investigate race relations and to safeguard the rights of minorities. The report of this committee was published in 1947 was called ‘To Secure These Rights’. It called for many drastic changes to be made to the law including changes to black voting rights, reduce lynching by introducing new legislation and to end segregated facilities such as schools and public toilets. Link- This shows that the position of Black Americans did improve in the years 1945-55 politically. Analysis- Despite black people being able to vote, most Southern blacks could not and the possession of the vote did not bring Nothern blacks great gains. Also, poll taxed was introduced to further put off black people voting...

Words: 791 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Key Issue 6 Essayhow Effectively Did Elizabeth and Her Government Deal with the Problems They Faced in the Later Years of Her Reign?

...How effectively did Elizabeth and her government deal with the problems they faced in the later years of her reign? Towards the end of Elizabeth’s reign she dealt less with problems of marriage and succession but more to do with rebellions that challenged her and her privy council’s rule, and financial and social issues. However her relationship with parliament was an issue throughout her entire reign. Elizabeth was somewhat effective when dealing with the social problems that occurred at the end of her reign. Elizabeth tried to prevent poor harvests which would gravely damage the economy and her popularity in the public with the ‘Book of Orders’ which attempted to prevent any poor harvests. This was ineffective in preventing the awful harvests in 1586-87 and in 1594-96. This led to riots in 1595. However, Elizabeth was then very effective in dealing with the riots as a consequence. In 1598 she passed a Poor Law act, which required all parishes to appoint overseers of the poor and provide relief, this also increased employment rates. This therefore increased her popularity and her relationship with parliament. Whilst Elizabeth was effective in dealing with the negative consequences involving the daily lives of her people, she as less effective at managing the financial problems, such as balancing her relationship with parliament to grant her subsidies and money spent during warfare. Elizabeth was less effective in dealing with finance. Due to the squashing of the......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Far Did the Position of Black Americans Improve in the Years 1945-1955?

...Progression of black rights during 1945-1955 can be clearly seen but was a long and slow process, although the awareness of racial equality dramatically increased. Various factors were involved. Factors such as: presidential involvement and the use of media post WW2.We also see improvements in education and NAACP. More importantly how the NAACP and southern states responded to these factors, later shaping the result to black civil rights. During this time America saw two presidents come to power: Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) and Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961). Both of which affected the civil rights movements in different ways. Truman who was vice president to Roosevelt was elected officially in 1948, Born in Missouri in the late 19th century he had been brought up in an area that saw racism towards coloured people as a natural occurrence, and this was also the case for Truman. Truman had first encountered blacks as family servants with his ancestors previously owning slaves. Truman had told his sweet heart Bess that: “One man is as good as another, “So long as he is honest, decent and not a Nigger or a Chinaman”. (Sanders, 2003, p60) So he is an unlikely candidate to eventually be bringing the lack of rights of the blacks to light and standing behind the civil rights movement later in his career. With the number of racial murders on the rise in the south, Truman set up and implemented a civil rights committee to produce a report “Secure These Rights” brought attention to......

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

‘the Emergence of a Separate East German State in the Years 1945 to 1949 Was Entirely Due to the Provocative Actions of the Western Occupying Powers.’ Assess the Validity of This View.

...‘The emergence of a separate East German state in the years 1945 to 1949 was entirely due to the provocative actions of the Western occupying powers.’ Assess the validity of this view. While Cold War tensions generally made the division of Germany, to a certain extent, an inevitability, the view that western powers were ‘entirely’ responsible for this division is highly valid. As many historians have noted, the West initiated nearly every step on the path to division. However, whether they should be totally held responsible has been highly debated as the USSR contributed to the Cold War tensions which made unification increasingly difficult, while the leaders and politicians within Germany also had a part to play. The western powers were highly significant in the division of Germany. As early as 1946 General Clay announced that the American zone was abandoning the Level-of-Industry Plan decided on by the Four Powers only a few months before, by way of allowing some industrial growth. This measure was decided out of fear of communism developing in Germany without a stable economy. By making this decision, the USSR was further distanced from the US. Following this in 1946, the announcement that the US zone would merge with other zones led to Bizonia. Although they claimed this was for purely economic reasons, France and the USSR protested what Fulbrook saw as a step towards political merging. Following the creation of Bizonia, America and Britain decided to put their...

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How Far Did Stalin Destroy Lenin’s Legacy?

...How far did Stalin destroy Lenin’s legacy? Stalin destroyed Lenin’s Legacy: • Stalin created a personal dictatorship, Lenin ruled through the party etc. Stalin was more interested in furthering his own interests... as suggested by the excessive use of the cult of personality etc. • Lenin was against the concept of the cult of personality and personal rule, under Lenin there was much more debate within the party, unlike Stalin’s reign where he forced his policies through with the use of fear or the party machine etc. • It also seems that Stalin was hungry to achieve supreme power right from the word go, using Lenin’s funeral to his own advantage setting himself up as his disciple and also damaging Trotsky’s reputation. • This would suggest that Stalin did not care so much for the creation of a communist state/party policies/welfare of the people etc, but more so his own rise to power. • This is shown by his policies which lay in the centre of the party, he also changed his policies depending on who he needed to destroy next – the left and right. At first he supported the NEP, but when the need to destroy Bukharin and the right arose he turned against it advocating rapid industrialisation, reverting to the left ideology of Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky. • This also shows another discontinuation from Lenin to Stalin – Stalin’s use of terror within the party, Lenin never resorted to killing his comrades/other communists, only exiling Mensheviks etc. Stalin also......

Words: 551 - Pages: 3