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How Much Water Is in the Hydrate? Laboratory Report

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HOW MUCH WATER IS IN THE HYDRATE?
LABORATORY REPORT

PREPARED BY:

CHEMISTRY 113 LAB

February 2016

PROFESSOR TEACHER ASSISTANT:
Introduction:
A hydrate is a substance that water. It is important to know how much water is in the hydrate because when performing scientific experiments, it is required to know the mass of each substance. If the substance is heated, then the hydrate can lose the water and the water evaporates, which is called an anhydrous substance. Since water is polar and has interactions with ions, hydrates are made in the substance. How much water the substance can have, depends on the structure of the substance. An example of a hydrate is magnesium sulfate, which the chemical formula is MgSO4. To find the percentage of water in the hydrate, this formula should be used:

mass % water of hydration = (g water/ g hydrated salt) x 100%.
Procedure:
First, set hot plate on maximum heat. Next, you will weigh the mass of the crucible with crucible lid and record data. Weigh out 2.00g-2.50 grams of hydrate; put hydrate into crucible. Using crucible tongs, place crucible with lid and hydrate inside, on top of hot plate for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, remove lid partially while keeping crucible on hot plate; time for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes is up allow to cool for 5 minutes. After cooling period, record mass of crucible with lid and hydrate and subtract findings from initial mass of empty crucible. For trial 2 place crucible back onto plate and repeat heating and cooling times followed by taking the mass of the final product.
Results:

The mass percentage of H2 O | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Theoretical | 17.05% | 36.08% | Experimental | 29.93% | 22.9% |

Trial | Mass of crucible | (before) CuSO4 | (after) CuSO4 | Hydrate Mass | 1 | 26.91g | 2.680g | 1.455g | 28.744g | 2 | 19.63g | 2.424g | 1.868g | 21.498g |
Cycle 2: Mass final is 28.365g

Discussion and Conclusion:
In conclusion, the results of the lab experiment were met. The goal of the experiment was to determine the mass % difference of the hydrate of the theoretical and the experimental mass of water within the hydrate. In the experiment, water was extracted from the substance by applying heat.The difference in %error is quite significant. There may several factors that can contribute to the numbers. One reason is that the hydrate may have not been given enough time to properly evaporate from the crucible. Another reason was possibly the amount of outside mass could have been added to the measurements. This may have been due to human error, not all participants used the tongs to carry the crucible.
Works Cited:

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