Free Essay

How Significant Were the Divisions Among the Latin Leaders in Bringing About the Fall of Jerusalem?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By danandrews26
Words 780
Pages 4
How significant were the divisions among the Latin leaders in bringing about the fall of Jerusalem?

Although divisions between the devotees of Raymond of Tripoli and Guy of Lusignan caused much conflict and suspicion, there is a considerable amount of evidence to suggest that there were a series of other factors; for example Saladin’s personal qualities which proved extremely significant in the failure of Latin’s at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 and the lack of support/money received by the Latin’s.
In source 7 Ralph of Coggershall describes his concern surrounding the lack of support and money the Latin side possessed; ‘we should not move away from water, food and other necessities to lead to such a multitude of men to death’. As a result of the lack of resources, death and disease were colossal issues, especially as there was already a lack of men due to a downturn in crusading appeal, leaving the Latin troops somewhat outnumbered. The lack of support lead to momentous failures in the first and second crusade and therefore men not wanting to risk their lives and livelihood for what they believed to be an imminent death. This compared with Saladin, who was only growing in power in the build up to the Battle of Hattin in the year 1187, becoming king of Egypt and seizing control of Damascus. This power is supported within Source 1, where William of Tyre states ‘a man of humble antecedents and lowly station now holds under his control all these kingdoms’. This illuminates the disbelief and frustration the Latins felt at being gradually defeated by Saladin, having no power to reverse the lack of support, lack of money and his rising popularity and power.

Having lost a lot of support for the crusade due to the misadventures of the first and second crusades, not even the promise of remission of sins from Pope Urban III aided the rallying of troops and therefore, the Latin leaders had minimal resources to be fully equipped for battle. This difference between the two sides is emphasised in Source 2 with Baha ad-Din describing the intense support for Saladin as a result of his personal qualities, describing his despair at the bloodshed; ‘the suffering involved in it weighed heavily on his heart.’ This dedication to Holy War and love for his people gained him a reputation as ‘a remarkable man’ (Barber). This image gained Saladin a great deal of support and united front from his troops, preaching the Jihad to ignite anti-Christian believers and a thirst for their defeat. This is supported in Source 4 with Pope Urban III describing the Muslims as ‘the wicked race of the pagans’ during the heat of the despair at being defeated, having written the letter in May 1187. Though this view contradicts with Malcolm Barber’s views of Christian sympathy towards Saladin, Pope Urban was not at the Crusades himself and therefore, never knew Saladin who in turn received sympathy and an element of fear from the Latin side.

In relation to the question, Source 5 supports the view that the divisions between the Latin leaders were very significant in contributing to their defeat that the Battle of Hattin. The joining of forces made Raymond and Guy’s loyalists extremely suspicious of each other, with Eraclius blaming Raymond for their defeat; ‘had the Christians kept to their original plan, the Turks would have been defeated.’ Eraclius was a fierce loyalist to Guy, this omnipresent suspicious and heated attitude towards Raymond’s loyalists highlights the division and conflict between the two, adding to their poor leadership. The blame continues to be towards Raymond as shown in Source 3, which states that Raymond was ‘resentful’ that he was disposed of as regent to Baldwin IV and replaced by Guy, causing more conflict between the two parties. However Source 6 shows us the hatred between the two parties as being largely down to Guy’s refusal to unite the Poliens and the Poitou.

Though evidence suggests that the constant conflicts between Raymond and Guy were significant factors in their defeat at the Battle of Hattin, the sources also suggest other factors such as Saladin’s personal qualities and power and the lack of support and resources the Latin troops received, evidence such as the huge amount of land Saladin received and the strong reluctance to join the crusade despite the Pope’s call supports the view that the Latins were doomed from the beginning, no match against the Turkish front. Therefore, the sources infer that though the battles between the two parties were significant factors, it was not as significant as the power of Saladin or the lack of support they received.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cultural Diplomay

...The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy Argov Fellows Program in Leadership and Diplomacy Cultural Diplomacy: An Important but Neglected Tool in Promoting Israel’s Public Image Ronit Appel, Assaf Irony, Steven Schmerz, Ayela Ziv May 2008 Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Research Methodology Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3 Research Questions………………………………………………………..……4 Methodology………………………………………………………………..…..5 2. A Definition of Cultural Diplomacy and its Benefits Cultural Diplomacy: A Definition……………………………………….…….7 Benefits of Cultural Diplomacy – In General and Specifically for Israel……………………………………..8 Can the Benefits of Cultural Diplomacy be Measured?.................................................................................17 Examples of the Positive Effects of Cultural Diplomacy Programs…………………………………………18 French-German Relations: A Case Study of Successful Cultural Diplomacy………………………………21 3. Appreciation for Cultural Diplomacy in the United States and Europe The United States of America…………………………………………..……..25 Europe……………………………………………………………………..…..28 4. Cultural Development in Israel Israeli Culture……………………………………………………………….…31 Organizations in Israel Promoting Culture……………………………....……34 Governmental Support of the Promotion of Culture………………………….35 5. The Israeli Government’s Attitude Toward Cultural Diplomacy Does the Israeli Government Value Cultural 1 Diplomacy?.............

Words: 20159 - Pages: 81

Premium Essay

Christianity

...Christianity Christianity (from the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one",together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas) is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and oral teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the world's largest religion, with approximately 2.2 billion adherents, known as Christians. Most Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human, and the saviour of humanity whose coming was prophesied in the Old Testament. Consequently, Christians refer to Jesus as Christ or the Messiah. The foundations of Christian theology are expressed in ecumenical creeds. These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father. Most Christian denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge everybody, living and dead, and to grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life. His ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel", meaning "good news" (a loan translation of the Greek: εὐαγγέλιον euangélion). The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus's life and teaching, four of......

Words: 12460 - Pages: 50

Free Essay

As It Goes

...Contents Preface to the First Edition Introduction Part 1. Thought Control: The Case of the Middle East Part 2. Middle East Terrorism and the American Ideological System Part 3. Libya in U.S. Demonology Part 4. The U.S. Role in the Middle East Part 5. International Terrorism: Image and Reality Part 6. The World after September 11 Part 7. U.S./Israel-Palestine Notes Preface to the First Edition (1986) St. Augustine tells the story of a pirate captured by Alexander the Great, who asked him "how he dares molest the sea." "How dare you molest the whole world?" the pirate replied: "Because I do it with a little ship only, I am called a thief; you, doing it with a great navy, are called an Emperor." The pirate's answer was "elegant and excellent," St. Augustine relates. It captures with some accuracy the current relations between the United States and various minor actors on the stage of international terrorism: Libya, factions of the PLO, and others. More generally, St. Augustine's tale illuminates the meaning of the concept of international terrorism in contemporary Western usage, and reaches to the heart of the frenzy over selected incidents of terrorism currently being orchestrated, with supreme cynicism, as a cover for Western violence. The term "terrorism" came into use at the end of the eighteenth century, primarily to refer to violent acts of governments designed to ensure popular submission. That concept plainly is of little benefit to the practitioners of state......

Words: 93777 - Pages: 376

Premium Essay

World Civilisation

...HUM 1000: WORLD CIVILIZATIONS NOTES BY DR. KAKAI P.W THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF CIVILIZATION IN AFRICA Definition of key terms As we begin this course, it is crucial to first discuss our understanding of the concept ‘civilization’. This is a comparative term which is usually applied in comparison to such words as ‘barbarian’ ‘savage’ and ‘primitive’. In classical antiquity the Europeans used the word ‘barbarian’ to refer to a foreigner who was regarded as inferior (Ogutu and Kenyanchui, An Introduction To African History, 1991 p33). Do you think this is still the way we use the word barbarian? The Latin speakers referred to hunters, food-gatherers as savage. In the 17th century this term ‘savage’ referred to a person without art, literacy, or society who lived in fear of existence and death. ‘Primitive’ on the other hand, in Latin meant ‘the first or original’. Europeans used these words interchangeably when referring to non-Europeans while the word civilization was preserved to describe historical developments of European people (ibid). Now the term civilization is no longer confined to the above development but also extends reference to non-European communities. Attributes of civilization includes observance to law, belonging to an organized society, having a society of literate people with advanced developments in urbanization, agriculture, commerce, arts and technology. The French thinkers of the 18th century referred to a person of the arts and......

Words: 29345 - Pages: 118

Free Essay

Worship Manual

...WORSHIP MANUAL by David C. Stone Third edition (May 1998) Revised (October 1998) © 1998 David C. Stone. All rights reserved. This document is very much a continuing effort. It is an attempt to express a theology and philosophy of corporate worship that is becoming increasingly prevalent in churches across both denominational and international borders. This third edition contains greatly expanded content in chapter 1 (The Meaning of Worship) and some additional material in chapter 2 (Corporate Worship). This includes corrections, additional references and a short Bible survey that fills in some of the background material to the text. The first revision finally includes the material on the Tabernacle (section 2.5) and the beginnings of a study on the history of worship (chapter 3, incomplete), as well as some minor section renumbering. I still fully intend to add a chapter on leading worship, but I got a little sidetracked! If you enjoy reading this document, or have any comments or suggestions, please write to me at the address below. I look forward to hearing from you! post: David C. Stone 25 Mabelle Avenue, Apt. 2702 Etobicoke, ON M9A 4Y1 Canada email: dstone@chem.toronto.edu Notice: this email address is provided for comments and requests regarding this document only. Please do not send commercial or bulk mailings to this address, or add this address to any mailing list(s). Your cooperation is greatly appreciated. Contents Copyright Notice &...

Words: 23268 - Pages: 94

Free Essay

Globalization

...GLOBALIZATION BACKLASH AND THE RISE OF ANTI-HEGEMONIC PARTY STATES Diego Olstein Hebrew University of Jerusalem Contents Introduction: Globalization and Anti-Hegemonic Party State………………………………..5 Part I: Principle Chapter 1: Defining Anti-Hegemonic Party State………………………………………………….18 Chapter 2: Anti-Hegemonic Party State and Domestic Features of Political Regimes…………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Chapter 3: Anti-Hegemonic Party State and Exogenous Perspective on Political Regimes……………………………………………………………………………………………75 Part II: History Chapter 4: The Global Rise of Anti-Hegemonic Party States and Globalization Backlash 1917-1945...…………………………………………………………….91 Chapter 5: The Big Leap of Anti-Hegemonic Party States: The Second Wave 1946-1975…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………111 Chapter 6: Globalization Anew and the Marginalization of Anti-Hegemonic Party States 1976-2010………………………………………………………142 Conclusions Introduction: Globalization and Anti-Hegemonic Party State In 1997 the European Commission defined Globalization “as the process by which markets and production in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent due to the dynamics of trade in goods and services and flows of capital and technology. It is not a new phenomenon but the......

Words: 33126 - Pages: 133

Premium Essay

A Good E-Book on Various Religions Across the World

...THE HANDY RELIGION AN SWE R BOOK JOHN RENARD Detroit The Handy Religion Answer Book™ C O P Y R I G H T © 2002 BY VI S I B LE I N K PRE SS® This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition, and other applicable laws. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine or newspaper. All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Visible Ink Press® 43311 Joy Rd. #414 Canton, MI 48187-2075 Visible Ink Press and The Handy Religion Answer Book are trademarks of Visible Ink Press LLC. Most Visible Ink Press books are available at special quantity discounts when purchased in bulk by corporations, organizations, or groups. Customized printings, special imprints, messages, and excerpts can be produced to meet your needs. For more information, contact Special Markets Director, Visible Ink Press, at www.visibleink.com or (734) 667-3211. Art Director: Mary Claire Krzewinski Typesetting: Graphix Group Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Renard, John, 1944The handy religion answer book / John Renard. p. cm. ISBN 1-57859-125-2 (pbk.) 1. Religions--Miscellanea. I. Title. BL80.2 .R46 2001 291--dc21 Printed in the United States of America All rights......

Words: 245202 - Pages: 981

Free Essay

Weapons

...MEDIEVAL WEAPONS Other Titles in ABC-CLIO’s WEAPONS AND WARFARE SERIES Aircraft Carriers, Paul E. Fontenoy Ancient Weapons, James T. Chambers Artillery, Jeff Kinard Ballistic Missiles, Kev Darling Battleships, Stanley Sandler Cruisers and Battle Cruisers, Eric W. Osborne Destroyers, Eric W. Osborne Helicopters, Stanley S. McGowen Machine Guns, James H. Willbanks Military Aircraft in the Jet Age, Justin D. Murphy Military Aircraft, 1919–1945, Justin D. Murphy Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918, Justin D. Murphy Pistols, Jeff Kinard Rifles, David Westwood Submarines, Paul E. Fontenoy Tanks, Spencer C. Tucker MEDIEVAL WEAPONS AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THEIR IMPACT Kelly DeVries Robert D. Smith Santa Barbara, California • Denver, Colorado • Oxford, England Copyright 2007 by ABC-CLIO, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data DeVries, Kelly, 1956– Medieval weapons : an illustrated history of their impact / Kelly DeVries and Robert D. Smith. p. cm. — (Weapons and warfare series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-10: 1-85109-526-8 (hard copy : alk. paper) ISBN-10:......

Words: 118320 - Pages: 474

Free Essay

Subsidies Food

...unlikely as the transitional democratic politics and the increased number of political participants will block change in the short term. iii iv Acknowledgements This thesis has served to unite my academic experience at Stanford. Four years of preparation, and the past year of writing, have produced this exploration of food, politics, and the Middle East. The CISAC Honors Program has provided a fantastic interdisciplinary home for this pursuit. I am thankful to Professors Blacker and Crenshaw for their guidance in this yearlong process. I will fondly remember the quarterly presentations, Professor Blacker’s insistence on concise language, and Professor Crenshaw’s direction on crystallizing the “puzzle”. My fellow CISAC students were a cornerstone of the thesis experience, both in Washington and on campus. We gained a community that understood the travails of literature reviews and last-minute chapters, and the thrills of...

Words: 24159 - Pages: 97

Free Essay

The Public Needs to Know

...******Created by ebook converter - www.ebook-converter.com****** ******ebook converter DEMO - www.ebook-converter.com******* ******Created by ebook converter - www.ebook-converter.com****** KOINONIA HOUSE Coeur d’Alene, Idaho 83816-0347 ******ebook converter DEMO - www.ebook-converter.com******* ******Created by ebook converter - www.ebook-converter.com****** COSMIC CODES Copyright © 1999 by Koinonia House Revised 2004 P.O. Box D Coeur d’Alene, ID 83816-0347 Web Site: http://www.khouse.org Second Printing 2004 Third Printing 2011 ISBN 978-1-57821-072-5 Design and production by Koechel Peterson & Associates, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Scripture quotations in this book are taken from the King James Version of the Bible. All rights reserved. No portion of this book may reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Publisher. Printed in the United States of America. ******ebook converter DEMO - www.ebook-converter.com******* ******Created by ebook converter - www.ebook-converter.com****** “Cosmic Codes was the authoritative resource that we relied on in the research of our PAX-TV/Discovery Channel television special Secrets of the Bible Code Revealed. It’s absolutely packed with fascinating factual information on all of the Bible-related codes.” DAVID W. BALSIGER PRODUCER, SECRETS OF THE BIBLE CODE REVEALED “Chuck Missler writes from a technological and Biblical background in this cutting-edge analysis of the hidden codes...

Words: 141008 - Pages: 565

Premium Essay

Business

...A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.[note 1] Many religions have narratives, symbols, and sacred histories that aim to explain the meaning of life, the origin of life, or the Universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature, people may derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. Many religions may have organized behaviors, clergy, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, holy places, and scriptures. The practice of a religion may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of a deity, gods, or goddesses), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions may also contain mythology.[1] The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith or set of duties;[2] however, in the words of Émile Durkheim, religion differs from private belief in that it is "something eminently social".[3] A global 2012 poll reports 59% of the world's population as "religious" and 36% as not religious, including 13% who are atheists, with a 9% decrease in religious belief from 2005.[4] On average, women are "more religious" than men.[5] Some people follow multiple religions or multiple religious principles at the same time, regardless of whether or not the religious principles they follow......

Words: 7947 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

The World in 2008

...season in January and February to the general election in November. The betting is that the winner will be a Democrat—with a strong chance that a Clinton will again be set to succeed a Bush as leader of the free world. China, meanwhile, will hope to use the Olympics to show the world what a splendid giant it has become. It will win the most gold medals, and bask in national pride and the global limelight. But it will also face awkward questions on its repressive politics. America and China will be prime players in the matters that will concentrate minds around the world in 2008. One of these is the world economy, which can no longer depend on America, with its housing and credit woes, to drive growth. America should—just—avoid recession, but it will be China (for the first time the biggest contributor to global growth) along with India and other emerging markets that will shine. Another focus of attention will be climate change. As China replaces America as the world’s biggest producer of greenhouse gases, serious efforts on global warming depend on the serious involvement of those two countries. If 2007 was the year when this rose to the top of the global agenda, in 2008 people will expect action. It is striking that green is a theme that links all the contributions from political leaders in this volume, whether at the city level (Michael Bloomberg), the national level (Felipe Calderón, Nancy Pelosi, Nicolas Sarkozy) or the supranational level (the UN’s Ban Ki-moon, ASEAN’s......

Words: 89030 - Pages: 357

Premium Essay

International Business

...Quazi Tasnim Hasan ID # 112 111 051 Assignment No. 4 What is economic integration? For the Last 65 years, the world has undergone significant changes. The decade of the 1970s was dominated by the two energy crises. Industrial economies were faced with a new “enemy”: stagflation—a combination of high inflation and unemployment. Developing countries were increasingly becoming more dependent on foreign borrowing and centrally planned economies were unable to secure economic growth. Furthermore, the world witnessed a radical transformation during the past two decades. The greatest economic experiment of the twentieth century was the movement from communism to a market economy, which began in Mikhail Gorbachev’s Russia in the mid-1980s, and then spread to Eastern Europe at the beginning of the 1990s and to China later on during the same decade. Although the transition to a free market has led to disappointing outcomes, most Eastern Europe countries have concentrated on integrating their economies with Europe and on becoming part of the EU. All these events led to the world becoming more and more global in nature and to defining globalization as a closer economic integration among nations through increased trade and capital flows. It also refers to labor movement and technology transfer across international borders as well as cultural and political issues, which are beyond the scope of this chapter. Globalization is the result of technological processes occurring mainly in the...

Words: 8839 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

An Outline of English Literature

...times to the close of the Victorian Era, has three specific aims. The first is to create or to encourage in every student the desire to read the best books, and to know literature itself rather than what has been written about literature. The second is to interpret literature both personally and historically, that is, to show how a great book generally reflects not only the author's life and thought but also the spirit of the age and the ideals of the nation's history. The third aim is to show, by a study of each successive period, how our literature has steadily developed from its first simple songs and stories to its present complexity in prose and poetry. To carry out these aims we have introduced the following features: (1) A brief, accurate summary of historical events and social conditions in each period, and a consideration of the ideals which stirred the whole nation, as in the days of Elizabeth, before they found expression in literature. (2) A study of the various literary epochs in turn, showing what each gained from the epoch preceding, and how each aided in the development of a national literature. (3) A readable biography of every important writer, showing how he lived and worked, how he met success or failure, how he influenced his age, and how his age influenced him. (4) A study and analysis of every author's best works, and of many of the books required for college-entrance examinations. (5)...

Words: 16972 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Catechism

...CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH Table of Contents PROLOGUE I. The life of man - to know and love God nn. 1-3 II. Handing on the Faith: Catechesis nn. 4-10 III. The Aim and Intended Readership of the Catechism nn. 11-12 IV. Structure of this Catechism nn. 13-17 V. Practical Directions for Using this Catechism nn. 18-22 VI. Necessary Adaptations nn. 23-25 PART ONE: THE PROFESSION OF FAITH SECTION ONE "I BELIEVE" - "WE BELIEVE" n. 26 CHAPTER ONE MAN'S CAPACITY FOR GOD nn. 27-49 I. The Desire for God nn. 27-30 II. Ways of Coming to Know God nn. 31-35 III. The Knowledge of God According to the Church nn. 36-38 IV. How Can We Speak about God? nn.39-43 IN BRIEF nn. 44-49 CHAPTER TWO GOD COMES TO MEET MAN n. 50 Article 1 THE REVELATION OF GOD I. God Reveals His "Plan of Loving Goodness" nn. 51-53 II. The Stages of Revelation nn. 54-64 III. Christ Jesus -- "Mediator and Fullness of All Revelation" nn. 6567 IN BRIEF nn. 68-73 Article 2 THE TRANSMISSION OF DIVINE REVELATION n. 74 I. The Apostolic Tradition nn.75-79 II. The Relationship Between Tradition and Sacred Scripture nn. 80-83 III. The Interpretation of the Heritage of Faith nn. 84-95 IN BRIEF nn. 96-100 Article 3 SACRED SCRIPTURE I. Christ - The Unique Word of Sacred Scripture nn. 101-104 II. Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture nn. 105-108 III. The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture nn. 109-119 IV. The Canon of Scripture nn. 120-130 V. Sacred Scripture in the Life of the Church nn. 131-133 IN BRIEF......

Words: 141872 - Pages: 568