Premium Essay

How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Theta526
Words 6125
Pages 25
How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims


How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims On March 3, 2006, Sergeant Blaire Smith was discharged from the Navy after spending eighteen months in Iraq. While Sergeant Smith was serving time in his deployed location, he was captured and a near death experienced occurred when he was threatened with beheading by his captors. Years later he began seeing flying horses and reported hearing voices from the television that were in a foreign dialogue. It was recommended he see a psychiatrist when family members realized that the foreign dialogue he heard came from the television when it was not turned on. The symptoms that Blaire had were similar to what many other veterans of wars experienced. The doctors treating Sgt. Blaire Smith were familiar with the different types of symptoms he was experiencing and they immediately diagnosed him with Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder (also known as PTSD). PTSD is a common anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a terrifying event in which a deadly physical harm occurred (Pastorino & Doyle- Portillo, 2010, P. 585).
History of PTSD
After many years of dealing with the various symptoms of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder clinicians and psychologist have worked together to develop treatments that help reduced the symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms include depression, anxiety, re-current nightmares, and hopelessness. Though it took years for medical doctors to recognized PTSD, surviving veterans have been rewarded with intensify treatment that is master towards their individual needs. Many of the veterans who displayed PTSD from flashbacks had exhibit depression where first given psychological therapy to help them face the trauma that they had experienced during combat. Many…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Homeless Veterans

...Because of the painful memories and the new reality of homelessness that dawn on them they turn to alcohol and drugs. Coupled with all the problems these homeless veterans experience social problems such as isolation. For this reason, they have no one to share their pains with and, therefore, they rarely receive help for treatable conditions such as addiction (Center for American Progress, 2008). Economic stressors are a root cause of homelessness for American veterans. The skills acquired from their military service, for many, fail to translate to job marketable skills or experience. Subsequently, female homeless veterans are less likely than male homeless veterans to secure jobs (Alker, 2009). That being said, it does not help that many veterans may come from disadvantaged families that are unable to undergird them as they return to civilian life. Additionally, the existing economic stressors tend to render homeless veterans without access to proper health care. They, therefore, continue to suffer from physical, psychological, and neurological diseases (Williamson & Mulhall, 2009). If left untreated for a long time some of these medical conditions may prove to be fatal. The most common medical condition among veterans is traumatic brain injury. Closed head wounds are especially dangerous because they cannot be identified at a glance, and they may end up causing brain disorders (Williamson & Mulhall, 2009; Jaycox & Tanielian, 2008). Psychological disorders are......

Words: 2411 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Pyschoanalatic Counseling

...Psychoanalytic Therapy Chuck Hessen Individual, Group & Family Counseling May 22, 2012 For this paper, I have chosen to write about Psychoanalytic Therapy. I hope to share with you my thoughts of how Freud’s theory resonates with me and has throughout my lifetime. Sigmund Freud was known as the originator and the father of psychoanalysis. Freud's theory on sexuality was also very profound and unique. His beliefs were that our behaviors are determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological instinctual drives and these evolve during the first 6 years of life. The aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to make the unconscious motives, the conscious, because it is only then can we exercise choice. Many of his insights into the human mind, which seemed so revolutionary at the turn of the century, are still part of the foundation on which other theorists have and still build and develop upon. Freud realized that those who sought to change themselves or others must face realistic difficulties. Although others before and during his time had begun to recognize the role of importance in unconscious mental understanding, some of his ideas were met with antagonism and resistance. Freud believed deeply in the value of his discoveries and rarely simplified or exaggerated them for the sake of popular acceptance. Psychoanalysis has continued to grow and develop as a general theory of human mental functioning, always......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Treatment of Cbt Did

...Malcolm MacFarlane, M.A. A Systemic Approach to the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder S. Pais Systemic Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder SHOBHA PAIS Department of Family Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Although dissociative identity disorder (DID) continues to be questioned by some clinicians, those who work with this population understand the complexity of this disorder. Most often DID clients undergo predominantly individual psychotherapy to help them integrate their fragmented parts or personalities usually taking an average of 5 to 7 years. Although there is limited literature on the use of systemic therapy with DID clients, family therapy approaches can be used to conceptualize the treatment of the DID client and their family members. This article discusses how individual psychotherapy from a systemic perspective can be applied to treat DID while family systems therapy can be used to help educate the client’s family about DID, the process of treatment, as well as how to recognize and become prepared for any symptoms of recurrence. The internal family systems model of therapy with a DID client is discussed through a case example. KEYWORDS dissociative identity disorder, family therapy, internal family systems approach Dissociative identity disorder (DID), which was formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), is a disorder in which an individual has the presence of two or more identities or personality......

Words: 7725 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Literature Review – Trauma Felt by a Counselor

...LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review – Trauma Felt by a Counselor Marie C Klemens Walsh University Abstract The purpose of this research is to identify that a counselor can be a victim of trauma, as well as their client. By taking care of oneself in a physical, mental and spiritual manner, they are preparing for a potentially well maintained professional life as a counselor. Knowledge and acceptance of these traumatic occurrences, is the first part of healing. The literature that I had obtained provided the reader, with great knowledge pertaining to the subject matter of vicarious traumatization and counter transference. By identifying both of these subjects as different forms of trauma, I also learned that they have similar qualities. With the knowledge that I am basing this research on and further exploration of this subject matter, counselors can be more prepared for their future. Literature Review - Trauma Felt by a Counselor The counseling profession is based on the realism as a powerful, but yet private relationship between a counselor and a client, but with ethics being a factor, all efforts are centered on being impartial and having good intentions (Jaffe & Diamond, 2011). Because of the tight relationship between a counselor and his or her client, it is humanly impossible that a client and a counselor will not endure feelings and reactions towards each other (Jaffe & Diamond, 2011). Trauma is the occurrence in which an individual is......

Words: 3156 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Child Issue

...for Trauma and Stress REVISED SEPTEMBER 2006 under the direction of Joel McClough, Ph.D., Director of the Families Forward Program, Institute for Trauma and Stress by Anita Gurian, Ph.D. Dimitra Kamboukos, Ph.D. Eva Levine, Ph.D. Michelle Pearlman, Ph.D. Ronny Wasser, B.A. Permission is granted for reproduction of this document by parents and professionals © 2006 1 C A R I N G F O R K I D S A F T E R T R A U M A , D I S A S T E R A N D D E A T H Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ........................................................5 SECTION I: REACTIONS TO DISASTER AND TRAUMA CHAPTER 1: CHILDREN’S REACTIONS TO DISASTERS AND TRAUMA CHAPTER 6: MEDIA EXPOSURE AND TRAUMATIC EVENTS: HOW MUCH MEDIA COVERAGE IS TOO MUCH? Introduction ..................................................................7 Traumatic stress reactions in children ............................7 Age guide to children’s reactions ..................................8 A note on trauma and bereavement ..............................9 CHAPTER 2: IDENTIFYING CHILDREN AT RISK Age guide to children’s reactions to news about war, terrorism and natural disasters ....................22 Identifying at-risk behaviors specifically related to terrorism and war ........................................23 Tips for media exposure ..............................................23 CHAPTER 7: ADDRESSING TOUGH TOPICS AND QUESTIONS: TALKING TO YOUR CHILDREN ABOUT TRAUMATIC......

Words: 33045 - Pages: 133

Premium Essay

Mental Health Ati

...traditional nonpharmacological therapies, psychobiologic disorders, psychopharmacological therapies, special populations, and psychiatric emergencies. Chapters within these units conform to one of four organizing principles for presenting the content: ● Nursing concepts Procedures Disorders Medications ● ● ● Nursing concepts chapters begin with an overview describing the central concept and its relevance to nursing. Subordinate themes are covered in outline form to demonstrate relationships and present the information in a clear, succinct manner. Procedures chapters include an overview describing the procedure(s) covered in the chapter. These chapters will provide you with nursing knowledge relevant to each procedure, including indications, interpretations of findings, nursing actions, and complications. Disorders chapters include an overview describing the disorder. These chapters cover data collection, including risk factors, subjective data, and objective data, and patient-centered care, including nursing care, medications, teamwork and collaboration, and therapeutic procedures. Medications chapters include an overview describing a disorder or group of disorders. Medications used to treat these disorders are grouped according to classification. A specific medication may be selected as a prototype or example of the characteristics of medications in this classification. These sections include information about how the medication works, its therapeutic uses,......

Words: 83801 - Pages: 336

Premium Essay

Unit 11

...background check on: • The nature of the offence • Its relevance of the post, position or profession in question • How long ago the offence took place • The individuals age at the time • Whether it was an isolated offence or part of a pattern of offending • What is known about the person conduct and character prior to or since the offence Police Act 1997: Ensures that physical and sexual abuse towards young old or mentally ill us not explained by careers and those in high positions of trust, employers can achieve this by taking up and checking references as well as proper supervision whose criminal record should not be open to the general public. The potential employer to other user of the information who has a legitimate reason to know about criminal convictions or other police information. The Sexual Offenders Act 1976: This act covers sexual abuse and protection of vulnerable individuals; it gives a list of sex offenders and exploitation and designed to be fair and non-discriminatory. The act covers different types of sexual offenders such as: • Sexual activity with a child • Causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity • Engaging in a sexual activity in the presence of a child • Causing child to watch a sexual act • Position of trust • Care workers causing or inciting sexual activity with or without a mental disorder. Care Standards Act 2000: This act brings significant benefits for people......

Words: 5328 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay


...#10 When Dying, People Pass through a Universal Series of Psychological Stages 3 A REMEMBRANCE OF THINGS PAST Myth #11 Human Memory Works like a Tape Recorder or Video Camera, and Accurate Events We’ve Experienced Myth #12 Hypnosis Is Useful for Retrieving Memories of Forgotten Events Myth #13 Individuals Commonly Repress the Memories of Traumatic Experiences Myth #14 Most People with Amnesia Forget All Details of Their Earlier Lives 4 TEACHING OLD DOGS NEW TRICKS Myth #15 Intelligence (IQ) Tests Are Biased against Certain Groups of People My th #16 If You’re Unsure of Your Answer When Taking a Test, It’s Best to Stick with Your Initial Hunch Myth #17 The Defining Feature of Dyslexia Is Reversing Letters Myth #18 Students Learn Best When Teaching Styles Are Matched to Their Learning Styles 5 ALTERED STATES Myth #19 Hypnosis Is a Unique “Trance” State that Differs in Kind from Wakefulness Myth #20 Researchers Have Demonstrated that Dreams Possess Symbolic Meaning Myth #21 People Can Learn Information, like New Languages, while Asleep Myth #22 During “Out-of-Body” Experiences, People’s Consciousness Leaves Their Bodies 6 I’VE GOT A FEELING Myth #23 The Polygraph (“Lie Detector”) Test Is an Accurate Means of Detecting Dishonesty Myth #24 Happiness Is Determined Mostly by Our External Circumstances Myth #25 Ulcers Are Caused Primarily or Entirely by Stress Myth #26 A Positive Attitude Can Stave off Cancer 7 THE SOCIAL ANIMAL Myth 27 Opposites Attract: We Are Most Romantically......

Words: 130018 - Pages: 521

Premium Essay


...Psychoanalysis, was born on 6th May 1856 in Freiberg to a middle class family. He was born as the eldest child to his father’s second wife. When Freud was four years old, his family shifted and settled in Vienna. Although Freud’s ambition from childhood was a career in law, he decided to enter the field of medicine. In 1873, at the age of seventeen, Freud enrolled in the university as a medical student. During his days in the university, he did his research on the Central Nervous System under the guidance of German physician `Ernst Wilhelm Von Brucke’. Freud received his medical degree in 1881and later in 1883 he began to work in Vienna General Hospital. Freud spent three years working in various departments of the hospital and in 1885 he left his post at the hospital to join the University of Vienna as a lecturer in Neuropathology. Following his appointment as a lecturer, he got the opportunity to work under French neurologist Jean Charcot at Salpetriere, the famous Paris hospital for nervous diseases. So far Freud’s work had been entirely concentrated on physical sciences but Charcot’s work, at that time, concentrated more on hysteria and hypnotism. Freud’s studies under Charcot, which centered largely on hysteria, influenced him greatly in channelising his interests to psychopathology. In 1886, Freud established his private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous diseases and soon afterwards got to his fiancée Martha Bernays, who came from a well-known Jewish......

Words: 155674 - Pages: 623

Premium Essay


...successful negotiation is often affected by social and cultural problems (Beck & Earl 2000:157±162). This complex transition partly defines the pastoral problems that the educator has to deal with in the Senior Phase (Grades 7 to 9) and the Further Education and Training Phase (Grades 10 to 12) of schooling (ELRC 2004:A-51). The pastoral role of the educator is new territory for South African educators and many may feel reluctant and ill-equipped to engage in such an activity. It is worth noting, however, that while the practical activities of the educator's pastoral role in dealing with learners' problems have yet to be fully formalised, discussion about them is very important within the educational community. Scholars such as Bradley and Dubinsky (1994:61±62) and Conger and Petersen (2004:36) see the educator's pastoral role as merely instrumental, that is, picking up problems as they arise and responding pragmatically to them. But, according to Francis and Kay (1994:81±82) and Frankel (1998:98), the danger of this approach is that many problems go unnoticed, and there may also be little or no attempt by the school to deliver values education within the curriculum. According to McLaughlin (2004:21±22), all aspects of schooling, including this pastoral role, involve providing a good deal of implicit and explicit values education alongside the formal curriculum and, this author argues, the pastoral role is an opportunity for encouraging not only cognitive and affective......

Words: 100366 - Pages: 402

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...included notions about the role of the unconscious in behavior, childhood sexuality, and how the mind was governed (id, ego, and superego). But despite the opposition, Freud eventually attracted a group of followers that included well-known theorists 1856–1939 AUSTRIAN PHYSICIAN, PSYCHIATRIST VIENNA UNIVERSITY, M.D., 1881 1 4 5 S i g m u n d S c h l o m o F r e u d social relationships are patterned after his or her early family relationships. BIOGRAPHY Early years Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in a small town in Freiberg, Moravia, located in what is now the Czech Republic. Freud’s father Jacob was 40 when Freud was born, 20 years older than Freud’s mother Amalie. The patriarch of a large family, Freud’s father had already been married twice, with two grown boys from his first marriage that were now older than Amalie. The dynamics of his extended family left their impression on Freud in his first years of life. In 1860 the family settled in Vienna where Sigmund, as he came to call himself, received an education emphasizing classical literature and philosophy. Little did he know that this education would eventually serve him well in developing his theories and conveying them to a wide audience. Sigmund was the first child of Jacob and Amalie Freud. About a year and a half after Sigmund’s birth another son, Julius, was born. Years later, Freud recounted memories of being extremely jealous of Julius after his arrival and admitted to having a......

Words: 21427 - Pages: 86

Premium Essay

Job Cover Letter

...your priorities, and, deep down, they're probably the measures you use to tell if your life is turning out the way you want it to. When the things that you do and the way you behave match your values, life is usually good – you're satisfied and content. But when these don't align with your values, that's when things feel... wrong. This can be a real source of unhappiness. This is why making a conscious effort to identify your values is so important. How Values Help You Values exist, whether you recognize them or not. Life can be much easier when you acknowledge your values – and when you make plans and decisions that honor them. If you value family, but you have to work 70-hour weeks in your job, will you feel internal stress and conflict? And if you don't value competition, and you work in a highly competitive sales environment, are you likely to be satisfied with your job? In these types of situations, understanding your values can really help. When you know your own values, you can use them to make decisions about how to live your life, and you can answer questions like these: • What job should I pursue? • Should I accept this promotion? • Should I start my own business? • Should I compromise, or be firm with my position? • Should I follow tradition, or travel down a new path? So, take the time to understand the real priorities in your life, and you'll be able to determine the best direction for you and your life goals! Tip: Values are usually......

Words: 31007 - Pages: 125

Premium Essay


...children who are denied even the most minimum of needs like food, love, nurturance, stability, security, and stimulating learning environment that will allow for their healthy development. Many Filipino children are rushed into maturity because early on in their lives, they are forced to contend with difficult problems and to take on adult roles and responsibilities. Media and popular and academic literature, more than any other time, has brought to our attention the plight of children, be they street children or not, who perform adult roles and who are in need of the basic components of a healthy family life. 2 Bautista, Roldan & Garces-Bacsal Reports of child abuse are also on the rise. Often, abused children have to deal, on their own, with the fear and pain brought on by parents, relatives, significant others, or complete strangers. Such realities repudiate Da Silva’s idealized view of children (in Torres 1990), as persons who “needs adult protection for physical, psychological, and intellectual development until able to become independently integrated into the adult world.” CATEGORIES OF ABUSED CHILDREN Abused children come in different forms: the physically and sexually abused, street children, child laborers, child domestic workers, and youth offenders. It is not often that an abused child belongs to a single, clearly labeled category. Needless to say, these categories are by no means exclusive and may overlap. For instance, a......

Words: 49490 - Pages: 198

Free Essay


...Palma. Mariama Diallo, Laura-Lee Atkinson-Hope, and Sayoni Maitra contributed significant research, writing, and editing, and Kaitlin Juleus designed the report. The law firm Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP contributed considerable legal research and analysis. ABOUT SANCTUARY FOR FAMILIES Sanctuary for Families is dedicated to the safety, healing and self-determination of victims of domestic violence and related forms of gender violence. Through comprehensive services for our clients and their children, and through outreach, education and advocacy, we strive to create a world in which freedom from gender violence is a basic human right. Based in New York City, Sanctuary offers clinical, legal, shelter and economic empowerment services to more than 10,500 adults and children each year. We also seek to address the systemic barriers that perpetuate the cycle of violence by engaging in public outreach and education, and advocating for legislative and policy change. Sanctuary’s Center for Battered Women’s Legal Services is the largest provider in the United States of legal services exclusively for victims of gender violence. Website | Facebook | Twitter | PO Box 1406 Wall Street Station New York, NY 10268 212.349.6009 © 2013 Sanctuary for Families EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report documents the rising prevalence of female genital mutilation (“FGM”) in the United States. It examines......

Words: 16896 - Pages: 68

Free Essay


...osteoporosis; Arthur knew that all of the following factors would contribute to osteoporosis except  A. Hypothyroidism B. End stage renal disease C. Cushing’s Disease D. Taking Furosemide and Phenytoin. 5. Martha, The old woman was now Immobilized and brought to the emergency room. The X-ray shows a fractured femur and pelvis. The ER Nurse would carefully monitor Martha for which of the following sign and symptoms?  A. Tachycardia and Hypotension B. Fever and Bradycardia C. Bradycardia and Hypertension D. Fever and Hypertension SITUATION: Mr. D. Rojas, An obese 35 year old MS Professor of OLFU Lagro is admitted due to pain in his weight bearing joint. The diagnosis was Osteoarthritis. 6. As a nurse, you instructed Mr. Rojas how to use a cane. Mr. Rojas has a weakness on his right leg due to self immobilization and guarding. You plan to teach Mr. Rojas to hold the cane  A. On his left hand, because his right side is weak. B. On his left hand, because of reciprocal motion. C. On his right hand, to support the right leg. D. On his right hand, because only his right leg is weak. 7. You also told Mr. Rojas to hold the cane  A. 1 Inches in front of the foot. B. 3 Inches at the lateral side of the foot. c. 6 Inches at the lateral side of the foot. D. 12 Inches at the lateral side of the foot. 8. Mr. Rojas was discharged and 6 months later, he came back to the emergency room of the hospital because he suffered a mild stroke. The right side of......

Words: 53501 - Pages: 215