Free Essay

How to Write Literature Review

In: English and Literature

Submitted By nabeelm
Words 5760
Pages 24
Literature Review of Information Technology Adoption
Models at Firm Level
Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins
ISEGI, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal toliveira@isegi.unl.pt mrfom@isegi.unl.pt
Abstract: Today, information technology (IT) is universally regarded as an essential tool in enhancing the competitiveness of the economy of a country. There is consensus that IT has significant effects on the productivity of firms. These effects will only be realized if, and when, IT are widely spread and used. It is essential to understand the determinants of IT adoption. Consequently it is necessary to know the theoretical models.
There are few reviews in the literature about the comparison of IT adoption models at the individual level, and to the best of our knowledge there are even fewer at the firm level. This review will fill this gap. In this study, we review theories for adoption models at the firm level used in information systems literature and discuss two prominent models: diffusion on innovation (DOI) theory, and the technology, organization, and environment
(TOE) framework. The DOI found that individual characteristics, internal characteristics of organizational structure, and external characteristics of the organization are important antecedents to organizational innovativeness. The TOE framework identifies three aspects of an enterprise's context that influence the process by which it adopts and implements a technological innovation: technological context, organizational context, and environmental context. We made a thorough analysis of the TOE framework, analysing the studies that used only this theory and the studies that combine the TOE framework with other theories such as: DOI, institutional theory, and the Iacovou, Benbasat, and Dexter model. The institutional theory helps us to understand the factors that influence the adoption of interorganizational systems (IOSs); it postulates that mimetic, coercive, and normative institutional pressures existing in an institutionalized environment may influence the organization’s predisposition toward an IT-based interorganizational system. The Iacovou, Benbasat, and Dexter model, analyses IOSs characteristics that influence firms to adopt IT innovations. It is based on three contexts: perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. The analysis of these models takes into account the empirical literature, and the difference between independent and dependent variables. The paper also makes recommendations for future research.
Keywords: information technology, diffusion of innovations (DOI) theory, technology-organization-environment
(TOE) framework, interorganizational systems (IOSs), institutional theory

1. Introduction
These days, information technology (IT) is universally regarded as an essential tool in enhancing the competitiveness of the economy of a country. It is commonly accepted today that IT has significant effects on the productivity of firms. These effects will only be fully realized if, and when, IT are widely spread and used. It is crucial, therefore, to understand the determinants of IT adoption and the theoretical models that have arisen addressing IT adoption. There are not many reviews of literature about the comparison of IT adoption models at the individual level, and to the best of our knowledge there are a smaller number at the firm level. This review will fill this gap.
In this study, we review theories for adoption models at the firm level used in information systems (IS) literature and discuss two prominent models, presented in Section 2. The two models reviewed are: diffusion on innovation (DOI) (Rogers 1995); and the technology, organization, and environment
(TOE) framework (Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990), since most studies on IT adoption at the firm level are derived from theories such as these two (Chong et al. 2009). Section 3 presents an extensive analysis of the TOE framework, analysing the studies that used only this theory and the studies that combine the TOE framework with other theories such as: DOI, institutional theory, and the Iacovou et al. (1995) model. In the last section, we present the conclusions.

2. Models of IT adoption
There are many theories used in IS research (Wade 2009). We are interested only in theories about technology adoption. The most used theories are the technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis
1986, Davis 1989, Davis et al. 1989), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen 1985, Ajzen 1991), unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al. 2003), DOI (Rogers
1995), and the TOE framework (Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990). We will develop only the DOI, and
ISSN 1566-6379
110
©Academic Publishing International Ltd
Reference this paper as: Oliveira, T and Martins, M, F. “Literature Review of Information Technology Adoption
Models at Firm Level” The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011, (pp110121), available online at www.ejise.com

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

especially the TOE framework, because they are the only ones that are at the firm level. The TAM,
TPB and UTAUT are at the individual level.

2.1 DOI
DOI is a theory of how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures, operating at the individual and firm level. DOI theory sees innovations as being communicated through certain channels over time and within a particular social system (Rogers 1995). Individuals are seen as possessing different degrees of willingness to adopt innovations, and thus it is generally observed that the portion of the population adopting an innovation is approximately normally distributed over time (Rogers 1995). Breaking this normal distribution into segments leads to the segregation of individuals into the following five categories of individual innovativeness (from earliest to latest adopters): innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards (Rogers 1995).
The innovation process in organizations is much more complex. It generally involves a number of individuals, perhaps including both supporters and opponents of the new idea, each of whom plays a role in the innovation-decision.
Based on DOI theory at firm level (Rogers 1995), innovativeness is related to such independent variables as individual (leader) characteristics, internal organizational structural characteristics, and external characteristics of the organization (Figure 1). (a) Individual characteristics describes the leader attitude toward change. (b) Internal characteristics of organizational structure includes observations according to Rogers (1995) whereby: “centralization is the degree to which power and control in a system are concentrated in the hands of a relatively few individuals”; “complexity is the degree to which an organization’s members possess a relatively high level of knowledge and expertise”; “formalization is the degree to which an organization emphasizes its members’ following rules and procedures”; “interconnectedness is the degree to which the units in a social system are linked by interpersonal networks”; “organizational slack is the degree to which uncommitted resources are available to an organization”; “size is the number of employees of the organization”. (c) External characteristics of organizational refers to system openness.
Individual (leader) characteristics Attitude toward change

Internal characteristics of organizational structure
Centralizaion
Complexity

Organizational innovativeness Formalization
Interconnectedness
Organizational slack size External characteristics of the organization
System openness

Figure 1: Diffusion of innovations (Rogers 1995)
Since the early applications of DOI to IS research, the theory has been applied and adapted in various ways. Some examples are presented in Table 1.

www.ejise.com

111

ISSN 1566-6379

Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011
Table 1: Some studies based on DOI theory (Rogers 1995)
IT Adoption
Material requirements planning (MRP)
IS adoption (uses at least one major software application: accounting; inventory control; sales; purchasing; personnel and payroll; CAD/CAM; EDI; MRP), and extent of IS (number of personal computers and the number of software applications)
Intranet
Web site
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
E-procurement
E-business
E-business

Author(s)
(Cooper and Zmud 1990)
(Thong 1999)
(Eder and Igbaria 2001)
(Beatty et al. 2001)
(Bradford and Florin 2003)
(Li 2008)
(Zhu et al. 2006a)
(Hsu et al. 2006)

2.2 Technology, organization, and environment context
The TOE framework was developed in 1990 (Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990). It identifies three aspects of an enterprise's context that influence the process by which it adopts and implements a technological innovation: technological context, organizational context, and environmental context
(Figure 2). (a) Technological context describes both the internal and external technologies relevant to the firm. This includes current practices and equipment internal to the firm (Starbuck 1976), as well as the set of available technologies external to the firm (Thompson 1967, Khandwalla 1970, Hage 1980).
(b) Organizational context refers to descriptive measures about the organization such as scope, size, and managerial structure. (c) Environmental context is the arena in which a firm conducts its business—its industry, competitors, and dealings with the government (Tornatzky and Fleischer
1990).
Organization

External task environment

Formal and informal linking structures Industry characteristics and market structure
Technology support infrastructure Government regulation

Communication processes
Technological
innovation decision making

Size
Slack

Technology
Availability
Characteristics

Figure 2: Technology, organization, and environment framework (Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990)
The TOE framework as originally presented, and later adapted in IT adoption studies, provides a useful analytical framework that can be used for studying the adoption and assimilation of different types of IT innovation. The TOE framework has a solid theoretical basis, consistent empirical support
(see Tables 2 and 3), and the potential of application to IS innovation domains, though specific factors identified within the three contexts may vary across different studies.
This framework is consistent with the DOI theory, in which Rogers (1995) emphasized individual characteristics, and both the internal and external characteristics of the organization, as drivers for organizational innovativeness. These are identical to the technology and organization context of the
TOE framework, but the TOE framework also includes a new and important component, environment context. The environment context presents both constraints and opportunities for technological innovation. The TOE framework makes Rogers’ innovation diffusion theory better able to explain intrafirm innovation diffusion (Hsu et al. 2006). Thus, the next Section analyses the studies that adopted
TOE framework.

www.ejise.com

112

©Academic Publishing International Ltd

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

3. Empirical literature of the TOE framework
We thoroughly analyse the TOE framework and present an exhaustive description of studies that draw on this theory. Section 3.1 discusses the relevant papers that used only the TOE framework as a theoretical model (Table 2), while Section 3.2 includes some papers that combined the TOE framework with other theoretical models (Table 3).

3.1 Studies that used only the TOE framework
Several authors used only the TOE framework to understand different IT adoptions, such as: electronic data interchange (EDI) (Kuan and Chau 2001); open systems (Chau and Tam 1997); web site (Oliveira and Martins 2008); e-commerce (Liu 2008, Martins and Oliveira 2009, Oliveira and
Martins 2009); enterprise resource planning (ERP) (Pan and Jang 2008); business to business (B2B) e-commerce (Teo et al. 2006); e-business (Zhu et al. 2003, Zhu and Kraemer 2005, Zhu et al. 2006b,
Lin and Lin 2008, Oliveira and Martins 2010a); knowledge management systems (KMS) (Lee et al.
2009). The variables analysed, methods used, data, and context of empirical studies are presented in
Table 2.
Table 2: Some studies based only on Tornatzky and Fleischer (1990)
IT Adoption

Analysed Variables

Methods

Technological context  perceived direct benefits; perceived indirect benefits. EDI

Organizational context  perceived financial cost; perceived technical competence. Factor analysis
(FA), and Logistic regression Organizational technology  complexity of IT infrastructure; satisfaction with existing systems; formalization of system development and management.

Letter with questionnaires was sent;
575 small firms

Author(s)

(Kuan and
Chau
2001)

Hong Kong

Environmental context  perceived industry pressure; perceived government pressure.
Characteristics of the “Open Systems
Technology” Innovation  perceived
Benefits; perceived barriers; perceived
Importance of compliance to standards, interoperability, and Interconnectivity.
Open
systems

Data, and context T-test, FA, logistic regression Face-to-face interview, 89 firms (Chau and
Tam 1997)

Hong Kong

External environment  market uncertainly Technological context  technology readiness; technology integration; security applications.

Web site

Organizational context  perceived benefits of electronic correspondence;
IT training programmes; access to the
IT system of the firm; internet and email norms.

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), and probit model

3155 small and
637 large firms
Portuguese

(Oliveira and Martins
2008)

Environmental context  web site competitive pressure

Web site

Controls  Services sector.
Technological context  technology readiness; technology integration; security applications.

MCA, and probit model E-commerce
Organizational context  perceived

www.ejise.com

113

2626 firms
Portuguese

(Oliveira and Martins
2009)

ISSN 1566-6379

Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011

IT Adoption

Analysed Variables

Data, and context Methods

Author(s)

benefits of electronic correspondence;
IT training programmes; access to the
IT system of the firm; internet and email norms.
Environmental context  web site competitive pressure; e-commerce competitive pressure.
Controls  Services sector.
Technological context  technology readiness; technology integration; security applications.

Internet
Web site
E-commerce

Organizational context  perceived benefits of electronic correspondence;
IT training programmes; access to the
IT system of the firm; internet and email norms.

MCA, and logit model Portuguese

(Martins and Oliveira
2009)

Environmental context  internet competitive pressure; web site competitive pressure; e-commerce competitive pressure.
Controls  Services sector.
Technological  support from technology; human capital; potential support from technology.

e-commerce development level (0-14)

3155 small firms

Organizational  management level for information; firm size.

e-mail survey, online survey and telephone interview during
2006;
156 firms.

FA and OLS

Environmental  user satisfaction; ecommerce security.

(Liu 2008)

Shaanxi, China

Controls  firm property.
Technological context  IT infrastructure; technology readiness.

ERP

Organizational context  size; perceived barriers.

FA, and Logistic regression Environmental context  production and operations improvement; enhancement of products and services; competitive pressure; regulatory policy.
Technological inhibitors  unresolved technical issues; lack of IT expertise and infrastructure; lack of interoperability. Deployment of B2B ecommerce:
B2B firms versus nonB2B firms

E-business

Organizational inhibitors  difficulties in organizational change; problems in project management; lack of top management support; lack of ecommerce strategy; difficulties in costbenefit assessment.
Environmental inhibitors  unresolved legal issues; fear and uncertainty.
Technology competence  IT infrastructure; e-business know-how.
Organizational context  firm scope,

www.ejise.com

114

Face-to-face interview, 99 firms (Pan and
Jang 2008)

Taiwan

FA, t-tests and discrimination analysis

Confirmatory factor analysis
(CFA), secondorder factor

249 firms
North America and Canada

Telephone interview during
2000; 3552 firms

(Teo et al.
2006)

(Zhu et al.
2003)

©Academic Publishing International Ltd

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

IT Adoption

Analysed Variables

Methods

firm size.

modelling, logistic regression, and cluster analysis
(CA)

Environmental context  consumer readiness; competitive pressure; lack of trading partner readiness.

Data, and context European
(Germany, UK,
Denmark,
Ireland, France,
Spain, Italy, and
Finland)

Author(s)

Controls (industry and country effect)
Telephone
interview during
2002, 624 firms across 10 countries Technological context technology competence. E-Business usage Organizational context  size; international scope; financial commitment. Environmental context  competitive pressure; regulatory support.

CFA, secondorder factor modelling, and
SEM

e-Business functionalities  front-end functionality; back-end integration.

E-Business initiation E-Business adoption E-Business routinization Technological context technology readiness; technology integration.
CFA, and structural equation modelling (SEM)

Organizational context  firm size; global scopes; trading globalization; managerial obstacles.
Environmental context  competition intensity; regulatory environment.

Developed
(Denmark,
France,
Germany,
Japan,
Singapore, U.S.) and developing
(Brazil, China,
Mexico and
Taiwan)
countries
Telephone
interview during
2002, 1857 firms across 10 countries Developed
(Denmark,
France,
Germany,
Japan,
Singapore, U.S.) and developing
(Brazil, China,
Mexico and
Taiwan)
countries

(Zhu and
Kraemer
2005)

(Zhu et al.
2006b)

Technological context  technology readiness; technology integration; security applications.

E-business

Organizational context  perceived benefits of electronic correspondence;
IT training programmes; access to the
IT system of the firm; internet and email norms.

T-test, FA, and
CA

External diffusion of use of ebusiness
KMS

www.ejise.com

(Oliveira and Martins
2010a)

UE27 countries

Environmental context  web site competitive pressure

Internal integration of e-business Telephone interview during
2006, 6964 firms across 27 countries Controls  Services sector.
Technological context  IS infrastructure; IS expertise.
Organizational context  organizational compatibility; expected benefits of e-business.

CFA, and SEM

e-mail survey during 2006;
163 large firms

(Lin and
Lin 2008)

Taiwan
Environmental context  competitive pressure; trading partner readiness.
Technology aspect  Organizational IT

115

Not empirical work

Not empirical

(Lee et al.

ISSN 1566-6379

Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011

IT Adoption

Analysed Variables

Methods

competence; KMS characteristics
(compatibility, relative advantage and complexity). Data, and context work.

Author(s)
2009)

Chinese

Organizational aspect  top management commitment; hierarchical organizational structure.
Environmental aspect  With external vendors; among internal employees.

3.2 Studies that used the TOE framework combined with other theories
Some authors used the TOE framework with other theories to understand IT adoption (Thong 1999,
Gibbs and Kraemer 2004, Hsu et al. 2006, Zhu et al. 2006a, Li 2008, Soares-Aguiar and Palma-DosReis 2008, Chong et al. 2009, Oliveira and Martins 2010b). In Table 3 we can see that DOI, institutional theory, and the Iacovou et al. (1995) model were used in combination with the TOE framework to better understand IT adoption decisions.
Studies combining the TOE framework and DOI theories include the following. Thong (1999) joins
CEO characteristics from DOI to the TOE framework. Chong et al. (2009) add innovation attributes
(relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity) from DOI and an additional new factor in the adoption study called information sharing culture characteristics to the TOE framework. Zhu et al.
(2006a) combined relative advantage, compatibility, cost, and security concern from DOI with the TOE framework. Wang et al. (2010) add relativeve advantage, complexity, and compatibility from DOI to the TOE framework. Additional theories include those listed below.

3.2.1 Institutional theory
Institutional theory emphasizes that institutional environments are crucial in shaping organizational structure and actions (Scott and Christensen 1995, Scott 2001). According to the institutional theory, organizational decisions are not driven purely by rational goals of efficiency, but also by social and cultural factors and concerns for legitimacy. Institutions are transported by cultures, structures, and routines and operate at multiple levels. The theory claims that firms become more similar due to isomorphic pressures and pressures for legitimacy (Dimaggio and Powell 1983). This means that firms in the same field tend to become homologous over time, as competitive and customer pressures motivate them to copy industry leaders. For example, rather than making a purely internally driven decision to adopt e-commerce, firms are likely to be induced to adopt and use e-commerce by external isomorphic pressures from competitors, trading partners, customers, and government.
Several recent studies have taken an institutional approach to e-commerce or EDI diffusion and assimilation (Purvis et al. 2001, Chatterjee et al. 2002, Teo et al. 2003). It is well known that mimetic, coercive, and normative institutional pressures existing in an institutionalized environment may influence organizations’ predisposition toward an IT-based interorganizational system (Teo et al.
2003). Mimetic pressures are observed when firms adopt a practice or innovation imitating competitors (Soares-Aguiar and Palma-Dos-Reis 2008). Coercive pressures are a set of formal or informal forces exerted on organizations by other organizations upon which the former organizations depend (Dimaggio and Powell 1983). Normative pressures come from dyadic relationships where companies share some information, rules, and norms. Sharing these norms through relational channels amongst members of a network facilitates consensus, which, in turn, increases the strength of these norms and their potential influence on organizational behaviour (Powell and DiMaggio 1991).
Some studies combine the TOE framework with the institutional theory (Gibbs and Kraemer 2004, Li
2008, Soares-Aguiar and Palma-Dos-Reis 2008). The institutional theory adds to the environmental context of the TOE framework external pressures, which include pressure from competitors and pressure exerted by trading partners.

www.ejise.com

116

©Academic Publishing International Ltd

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

3.2.2 Iacovou et al. (1995) model
Iacovou et al. (1995) analysed interorganizational systems (IOSs) characteristics that influence firms to adopt IT innovations in the context of EDI adoption. Their framework is well suited to explain the adoption of an IOS. It is based on three factors: perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure (see Figure 3). Perceived benefits is a different factor from the TOE framework, whereas organizational readiness is a combination of the technology and organization context of the
TOE framework. Hence, IT resources is similar to technology context and financial resources is similar to organizational context. The external pressure in the Iacovou et al. (1995) model adds the trading partners to the external task environmental context of the TOE framework as a critical role of
IOSs adoptions.
Organizational
readiness

Perceived benefits
Perceived benefits of innovations Financial resource
IT resources
Adoption
of innovation External pressure
Competitive pressure
Trading partner power

Figure 3: Iacovou et al. (1995) model
Hsu et al. (2006) used the DOI theory, the TOE framework, and the Iacovou et al. (1995) model to explain e-business use. Their model proposed four constructs (perceived benefits, organizational readiness, external pressure, and environment). Organization readiness, is consistently used in all three frameworks in the literature. Environment is from the TOE framework. Perceived benefits and external pressure are from the Iacovou et al. (1995) model.
Oliveira and Martins (2010b) used the TOE framework, and the Iacovou et al. (1995) model to explain adoption of e-business by firms belonging to European Union (EU) countries, by comparing the effect across two different industries: telecommunications and tourism. Their model proposed comprises three dimensions (perceived benefits, technology and organizational readiness, and environmental and external pressure). The perceived benefits dimension comes from the Iacovou et al. (1995) model. The technology and organizational readiness is a combination of TOE from the Tornatsky and
Fleischer (1990) framework and organizational readiness from the Iacovou et al. (1995) model. The environmental and external pressure is also a combination from both earlier studies.
Table 3: Some studies that combine Tornatzky and Fleischer (1990) with other theoretical models
Theoretical
Model

IT Adoption

Analysed variables
CEO characteristics  CEO's innovativeness; CEO's IS knowledge. TOE and
DOI

Uses at least one major software application: accounting; inventory control; sales; purchasing; personnel and payroll; CAD/CAM;
EDI; MRP.

www.ejise.com

IS characteristics  relative advantage of IS; compatibility of
IS; complexity of IS.
Organizational characteristics  business size; Employees' IS knowledge; information intensity.

117

Methods
T-tests,
FA, discriminatory analysis, and partial least squares
(PLS)

Data, and
Context
Letter with questionnaires sent during
2005,
166 small firms; Author(s)

(Thong
1999)

Singapore

ISSN 1566-6379

Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011

Theoretical
Model

IT Adoption
Number of personal computers and software applications

Analysed variables

Methods

Data, and
Context

Author(s)

Environmental characteristic  competition. Innovation attributes  relative advantage; compatibility; complexity. TOE and
DOI

Collaborative commerce (ccommerce)

Environmental  expectations of market trends; competitive pressure. Information sharing culture  trust; information distribution; information interpretation.

FA, and
OLS

e-mail survey;
109 firms

(Chong et al. 2009)

Malaysian

Organizational readiness  top management support; feasibility; project champion characteristics
Relative advantage
Compatibility
Costs
E-Business
usage
TOE and
DOI

E-business impact Security concern
Technological context  technology competence.
Organizational context
organization size.

CFA, secondorder factor modelling, and SEM

Environmental context  competitive pressure; partner readiness. Technology  relative advantage; complexity; compatibility.
TOE and
DOI

RFID

Organization  top management support; firm size; technology competence. FA, and logistic regression

Environment  competitive pressure; trading partner pressure; information intensity.
Technological context  relative advantage; complexity; compatibility. TOE, DOI and institution al theory

E-procurement

Organizational context  financial slacks; top management support.

FA, and logistic regression

Environmental context  external pressure; external support; government promotion.
Technology context 
Technology resources
TOE and
Institution
al theory

www.ejise.com

Scope of ecommerce use

Organizational context  perceived benefits; lack of organizational compatibility; financial resources; firm size.

118

FA, and
OLS

Telephone interview during 2002;
1415 firms across 6 EU countries European
(Finland,
France,
Germany,
Italy, Spain, and U.K.)

e-mail survey;
133 firms
Taiwan;
manufacturing firms Telephone interview during 2006;
120 firms;
50-2000
employees
China;
manufacturing firms Telephone interview during 2002;
2139 firms

(Zhu et al.
2006a)

(Wang et al., 2010)

(Li 2008)

(Gibbs and
Kraemer
2004)

3 sectors
(manufacturing

©Academic Publishing International Ltd

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

Theoretical
Model

IT Adoption

Analysed variables

Methods

Environmental context  External pressure; government promotion; legislation barriers.
Controls  countries (Brail,
China, Denmark, France,
Germany, Japan, Mexico,
Singapore, Taiwan, and U.S.A.); industries (distribution, finance, and manufacture).

Data, and
Context
, distribution, and finance);
10 countries
(Brazil, China,
Denmark,
France,
Germany,
Japan,
Mexico,
Singapore,
Taiwan, and
U.S.A.)

Author(s)

Technological context 
Technology competence; IT expertise; B2B know how.

TOE and
Institution
al theory

Electronic procurement systems
(EPSs)

Organizational context  firm size; firm scope.
Environmental context  trading partner readiness; extent of adoption amongst competitors; perceived success of competitor adopters. T-test, and logistic regression

Controls  Industry effects.
Perceived benefits  perceived of innovations. DOI, TOE and Iacovou et al. (1995) model External pressure  trading partners’ pressure; government pressure. CFA, and
SEM

Environment  regulatory concern; competition intensity.
Controls  Industry effects.
Perceived benefits  perceived benefits and obstacles of ebusiness.
TOE and
Iacovou et al. (1995) model E-business adoption Technology and organization readiness  technology readiness; technology integration; firm size.
Environment and external pressure  competitive pressure; trading partner colaboration.
Controls  country and industry effects. Portugal

(SoaresAguiar and
PalmaDos-Reis
2008)

Telephone survey during
2002; 294 firms Organizational readiness  firm size; technology resources; globalization level.
E-business
use: diversity, and volume.

e-mail survey;
240 large firms

FA, and logistic regression

U.S. market
(manufacturing
, wholesale/retai l distribution, banking and insurance. Telephone interview during 2006;
2459 firms
2 sectors
(Tourism, and
Telecommunic
ations); 27 EU countries. (Hsu et al.
2006)

(Oliveira and Matins
2010b)

4. Conclusions
This paper made a review of literature of IT adoption models at the firm level. Most empirical studies are derived from the DOI theory and the TOE framework. As the TOE framework includes the environment context (not included in the DOI theory), it becomes better able to explain intra-firm innovation adoption; therefore, we consider this model to be more complete. The TOE framework also has a solid theoretical basis, consistent empirical support, and the potential of application to IS adoption. For this reason an extensive analysis of the TOE framework was undertaken, analysing

www.ejise.com

119

ISSN 1566-6379

Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011

empirical studies that use only the TOE model, and empirical studies that combine this model with the
DOI theory, the institutional theory, and the Iacovou et al. (1995) model, and concluding that the same context in a specific theoretical model can have different factors.
In terms of further research, we think that for more complex new technology adoption it is important to combine more than one theoretical model to achieve a better understanding of the IT adoption phenomenon. References
Ajzen, I. (1985) From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior, Berlin, Springer.
Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior, "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes", Vol.
50, pp 179-211.
Beatty, R.C., Shim, J.P. and Jones, M.C. (2001) Factors influencing corporate web site adoption: A time-based assessment, "Information & Management", Vol. 38, No. 6, pp 337-354.
Bradford, M. and Florin, J. (2003) Examining the role of innovation diffusion factors on the implementation success of enterprise resource planning systems, "International Journal of Accounting Information
Systems", Vol. 4, No. 3, p p205-225.
Chatterjee, D., Grewal, R. and Sambamurthy, V. (2002) Shaping up for e-commerce: Institutional enablers of the organizational assimilation of web technologies, "MIS Quarterly", Vol. 26, No. 2, pp 65-89.
Chau, P.Y.K. and Tam, K.Y. (1997) Factors affecting the adoption of open systems: An exploratory study, "MIS
Quarterly", Vol. 21, No. 1, pp 1-24.
Chong, A.Y.L., Ooi, K.B., Lin, B.S. and Raman, M. (2009) Factors affecting the adoption level of c-commerce: An empirical study, "Journal of Computer Information Systems", Vol. 50, No. 2, pp 13-22.
Cooper, R.B. and Zmud, R.W. (1990) Information technology implementation research - a technological diffusion approach, "Management Science", Vol. 36, No. 2, pp 123-139.
Davis, F.D. (1986) A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems:
Theory and results, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Davis, F.D. (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology,
"MIS Quarterly", Vol. 13, No. 3, pp 319-340.
Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. and Warshaw, P.R. (1989) User acceptance of computer-technology - a comparison of
2 theoretical-models, "Management Science", Vol. 35, No. 8, pp 982-1003.
Dimaggio, P.J. and Powell, W.W. (1983) The iron cage revisited - institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields, "American Sociological Review", Vol. 48, No. 2, pp 147-160.
Eder, L.B. and Igbaria, M. (2001) Determinants of intranet diffusion and infusion, "Omega-International Journal of
Management Science", Vol. 29 (3), pp 233-242.
Gibbs, L.J. and Kraemer, K.L. (2004) A cross-country investigation of the determinants of scope of e-commerce use: An institutional approach, "Electronic Markets", Vol. 14, No. 2, pp 124-137.
Hage, J. (1980) Theories of organizations: Forms, process and transformation, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Hsu, P.F., Kraemer, K.L. and Dunkle, D. (2006) Determinants of e-business use in us firms, "International Journal of Electronic Commerce", Vol. 10, No. 4, pp 9-45.
Iacovou, C.L., Benbasat, I. and Dexter, A.S. (1995) Electronic data interchange and small organizations:
Adoption and impact of technology, "MIS Quarterly", Vol. 19, No. 4, pp 465-485.
Khandwalla, P. (1970) Environment and the organization structure of firms, McGill University, Montreal, Faculty of
Management.
Kuan, K.K.Y. and Chau, P.Y.K. (2001) A perception-based model for edi adoption in small businesses using a technology-organization-environment framework, "Information & Management", Vol. 38, No. 8, pp 507521.
Lee, O.K., Wang, M., Lim, K.H. and Peng, Z. (2009) Knowledge management systems diffusion in chinese enterprises: A multistage approach using the technology-organization-environment framework, "Journal of Global Information Management", Vol. 17, No. 1, pp 70-84.
Li, Y.H. (2008) "An empirical investigation on the determinants of e-procurement adoption in chinese manufacturing enterprises". 2008 International Conference on Management Science & Engineering
(15th), California, USA, Vols I and II, Conference Proceedings, pp 32-37.
Lin, H.F. and Lin, S.M. (2008) Determinants of e-business diffusion: A test of the technology diffusion perspective, "Technovation", Vol. 28, No. 3, pp 135-145.
Liu, M. (2008) "Determinants of e-commerce development: An empirical study by firms in shaanxi, china". 2008
4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, Dalian,
China, October, Vols 1-31, pp 9177-9180.
Martins, M. and Oliveira, T. (2009) "Determinants of e-commerce adoption by small firms in portugal",
Proceedings of the 3rd european conference on information management and evaluation. Gothenburg,
Sweden, September, pp 328-338.
Oliveira, T. and Martins, M.F. (2009). "Deteminants of information technology adoption in Portugal", ICE-B 2009:
Proceedings of the international conference on e-business, Milan. Italy, July, pp 264-270.
Oliveira, T. and Martins, M.F. (2010a) Firms patterns of e-business adoption: Evidence for the european union27, "The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume", Vol. 13, No. 1, pp 47-56.

www.ejise.com

120

©Academic Publishing International Ltd

Tiago Oliveira and Maria Fraga Martins

Oliveira, T. and Martins M.F. (2010b) Understanding e-business adoption across industries in European countries, ,"Industrial Management & Data System", Vol. 110, No. 9, pp. 1337-1354.
Oliveira, T. and Martins, M.F.O. (2008) "A comparison of web site adoption in small and large portuguese firms",
ICE-B 2008: Proceedings of the international conference on e-business, Porto, Portugal, July, pp 370377.
Pan, M.J. and Jang, W.Y. (2008) Determinants of the adoption of enterprise resource planning within the technology-organization-environment framework: Taiwan's communications, "Journal of Computer
Information Systems", Vol. 48, No. 3, pp 94-102.
Powell, W. and Dimaggio, P. (1991) The new institutionalism in organizational analysis, Chicago, Univ. of
Chicago Press.
Purvis, R.L., Sambamurthy, V. and Zmud, R.W. (2001) The assimilation of knowledge platforms in organizations:
An empirical investigation, "Organization Science", Vol. 12, No. 2, pp 117-135.
Rogers, E.M. (1995) Diffusion of innovations, Fourth Edition ed., New York, Free Press.
Scott, W.R. (2001) Institutions and organizations, 2 ed. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.
Scott, W.R. and Christensen, S. (1995) The institutional construction of organizations: International and longitudinal studies Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.
Soares-Aguiar, A. and Palma-Dos-Reis, A. (2008) Why do firms adopt e-procurement systems? Using logistic regression to empirically test a conceptual model, "IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management",
Vol. 55, No. 1, pp 120-133.
Starbuck, W.H. (1976) Organizations and their environments, Chicago, Rand McNally.
Teo, H.H., Wei, K.K. and Benbasat, I. (2003) Predicting intention to adopt interorganizational linkages: An institutional perspective, "MIS Quarterly", Vol. 27, No. 1, pp 19-49.
Teo, T.S.H., Ranganathan, C. and Dhaliwal, J. (2006) Key dimensions of inhibitors for the deployment of webbased business-to-business electronic commerce, "IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management",
Vol. 53, No. 3, pp 395-411.
Thompson, J.D. (1967) Organizations in action, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Thong, J.Y.L. (1999) An integrated model of information systems adoption in small businesses, "Journal of
Management Information Systems", Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 187-214.
Tornatzky, L. and Fleischer, M. (1990) The process of technology innovation, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B. and Davis, F.D. (2003) User acceptance of information technology:
Toward a unified view, "MIS Quarterly", Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 425-478.
Wade, M. (2009) Resource-based view of the firm [online]. http://www.fsc.yorku.ca/york/istheory/wiki/index.php/Resource-based_view_of_the_firm [Accessed
10/03/2010]
Wang, Y.M., Wang, Y.S. and Yang, Y.F. (2010) Understanding the determinants of RFID adoption in the manufacturing industry, "Technological Forecasting and Social Change", Vol. 77, pp. 803-815.
Zhu, K., Dong, S.T., Xu, S.X. and Kraemer, K.L. (2006a) Innovation diffusion in global contexts: Determinants of post-adoption digital transformation of european companies, "European Journal of Information
Systems", Vol. 15, No. 6, pp 601-616.
Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. and Xu, S. (2003) Electronic business adoption by european firms: A cross-country assessment of the facilitators and inhibitors, "European Journal of Information Systems", Vol. 12, No. 4, pp 251-268.
Zhu, K. and Kraemer, K.L. (2005) Post-adoption variations in usage and value of e-business by organizations:
Cross-country evidence from the retail industry, "Information Systems Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp 6184.
Zhu, K., Kraemer, K.L. and Xu, S. (2006b), The process of innovation assimilation by firms in different countries:
A technology diffusion perspective on e-business, "Management Science", Vol. 52, No. 10, pp 15571576.

www.ejise.com

121

ISSN 1566-6379

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How to Write Literature Review

...Guidelines for Literature/Review Proposal DUE APRIL 9, 2008 Introduction The introduction to the literature review/proposal orients the reader to the problem under study and has three parts. First, you need to provide a statement of the problem. This statement sets out the general reasons that the research area is important. You might indicate the prevalence of the problem, its relevance or cost, its importance to theory, the relative absence of knowledge, some contradictory research, etc. Prevalence statistics, knowledge gaps, contradictory research, the need for theory testing, presence of puzzling anomalies, etc. help to make your case here. Secondary sources (books, chapters, review articles) or tertiary sources (newspapers, magazine articles) can be helpful in making a general case for research in his area. However, do not rely on tertiary sources to make your case. I expect you will use a majority of primary sources with a limited (small) number of secondary/tertiary sources. The second section of the Introduction sets out the purpose of the proposed study. This can be brief and simply clarifies how your proposed study will address the problem you have identified. The third part of the Introduction is a statement of the research question (or hypotheses). Write your research question according to the guidelines for good research questions discussed in class. Parts one and two set the stage for the research question. Recommended length: 1 - 2 pages Review of Literature......

Words: 1405 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How to Write a Literature Review

...How to write a literature review What is a literature review? The aim of a literature review is to show your reader (your tutor) that you have read, and have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. This work may be in any format, including online sources. It may be a separate assignment, or one of the introductory sections of a report, dissertation or thesis. In the latter cases in particular, the review will be guided by your research objective or by the issue or thesis you are arguing and will provide the framework for your further work. It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches. It should be a synthesis and analysis of the relevant published work, linked at all times to your own purpose and rationale. According to Caulley (1992) of La Trobe University, the literature review should: • compare and contrast different authors' views on an issue • group authors who draw similar conclusions • criticise aspects of methodology • note areas in which authors are in disagreement • highlight exemplary studies • highlight gaps in research • show how your study relates to previous studies • show how your study relates to the literature in general • conclude by summarising what the literature......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How to Write a Literature Review

...How to write a Literature Review: Step 1: Read a lot. Sounds simplistic, but the fact is that you do have to read a lot, and read with care and purpose. There are things that you can do within the process to make your life easier, and the purpose of this short document is to point some of them out. Hopefully, this will help. However, there is no substitute for good, thorough, and hard work. When you start your reading, start broadly. If you have an area you are interested in, such as computers in education, multi-media, distance education, web-based instruction, or some other specific concentration, start your reading in those areas. Course assigned reading will help, but you will have to branch outwards and inwards. Don’t be afraid to follow an area that seems not to be related to your area. You are trying to define your interests. Allow yourself the freedom to do that. Here are some tips on how you might branch out, and/or focus in: A. Look carefully at the references. Should the author raise a salient point that interests you and they happen to cite somebody, look up the citation and read the original source. The original source will have its own references, follow these. Repeat as necessary. B. Read from tangentially related fields. Don’t be afraid to look outside of the literature in IT to other areas. Educational Psychology, Human Resources, Computer Science, and Communications Studies are but a few of the related fields with important......

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Literature Review

...Literature Review Handout Liberty University Online Writing Center Handout Description A review of literature is a critical analysis of a portion of the published body of knowledge available through the use of summary, classification, and comparison of previous research studies, reviews of literature, and journal articles (“How to Write a Literature Review”, 2012). This handout discusses the reasons for writing a literature review and presents its various requirements. It examines what a literature review is, as well as what it is not; it distinguishes between the literature review and the annotated bibliography. Like many academic writing assignments, there is not one universal standard for writing a literature review. Its format can differ from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. There is, however, an overall structure that is commonly used across various disciplines, and this format is examined in more detail. The handout concludes with some helpful “tips and tricks” for preparing a literature review. Disclaimer: The content of a literature review may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. The literature review content recommended in this handout is that which is most commonly included. If in doubt about what you should include in your literature review, please consult your professor. Literature Review Handout Defining a Literature Review ...

Words: 2913 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Manager

...What is a literature review? A literature review provides an overview of published sources on a topic. Your review needs to be a critical analysis of these published sources (literature). This is done through summary, classification and comparison of the ways different information is presented by the different sources.
The number of sources that you will be required to review will depend on what the literature review is for, and how advanced you are in your studies. It could be from five sources at undergraduate level to more than fifty for a doctoral thesis. Your lecturer will advise you on this. Why do we write literature reviews? At university you may be asked to write a literature review either as a separate assignment (undergraduate level), or as an introduction to a research report or thesis (postgraduate level). A literature review: gives an overview and provides comprehensive knowledge of what has been written on a particular topic conveys to your reader what ideas and knowledge have been published on a topic — what has been said, who the key writers are, what the prevailing theories and hypotheses are, and what questions are being asked summarises and synthesises the arguments and ideas of others and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of these ideas and arguments provides a solid background for a research paper’s investigation. A literature review is not: an annotated bibliography a list of available sources a list describing or summarising one piece...

Words: 871 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Chapter

...Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature Writing Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature 04 NOV A literature review is designed to identify related research, to set the current research project within a conceptual and theoretical context. The second chapter should… start with a brief introductory paragraph concerning the researcher’s exploration of related literature and studies on the research problem; state the main coverage of said chapter; should be organized thematically to confirm to the specific problems; should synthesize evidence from all studies reviewed to get an overall understanding of the state of the knowledge in the problem area; should be limited within the last ten years; should include a clinching statement showing how the related materials had assisted the researchers in the present study at the last part. How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature; Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc. Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing. How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature Group the sources according to their common dominators (approaches, objectives or any specific chronologies); Give the examples of how to sort out these groups. Use quotations, evidences, data...

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fraternity

...RESEARCH A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.  The characteristics of a good research problem. SMART S-Specific M-Measurable A-Attainable/Achievable R-Realistic T-Time Bomb/Time Conscious The characteristics of a good research problem. 1. The topic should be of good interest to you. 2. Useful for the concerned people in a particular field 3. Progress Novelty 4. Invites more complex designs / more variables 5. Time-bounded 6. Does not carry ethical or moral impediments Review Related Literature Literature means writings and a body of literature refers to all the published writings in a particular style on a particular subject.  In research, a body of literature is a collection of published information and data relevant to a research question.  The research question. Often referred to as the research problem, the research question provides the context for the research study and reveals what the researcher is trying to answer.  The paper must answer clearly, "What is the problem?" and "Why do I care?" At the same time, stating the problem precisely limits the scope of the research project by focusing on certain elements. It lets you show why those variables are important.  The statement of......

Words: 1544 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Undertaking a Literature Review in Marketing

...Introduction By general agreement and on the basis of first hand experience, the review of literature in most student research (and some professional academic research too) is clumsy, naive, turgid, confusing and often down right dull. But given the central importance the literature review holds in our academic writing tradition, and its pivotal role in the academic assessment of research why are we still executing them so badly? Specifically, why do students find them so difficult to write? And academics find them so disheartening to read? There is no shortage of guidance in how to undertake a literature review. Comprehensive guides to business research such as Gill and Johnson (1991) or Cooper (1989) contain some guidance. More comprehensive are the general thesis guides such as Dunleavy (2003), Teitelbaum (1998), Baker (2003), or Evans (1996). There are also many specific guides to undertaking a literature review such as Baker (2000), Rowley and Slack (2004) or Hart (1999). Indeed, any competent trawl of the internet will generate innumerable guides and resources from universities around the world. The issue it seems is not the lack of guidance, but how such guidance is translated into the finished product. As a consequence this article focuses upon how to write the literature review, some techniques that can be used to ^ Correspondence: Mark Gabbott, Department of Marketing, Monash University, P.O. Box 197, Caulfield East Melbourne, Vic 3145, Australia, Tel: 00 61 3......

Words: 8854 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Report Guidelines

...Writing a Research proposal and Tips for Literature Review By: Shantiram Dahal 1. Background Human being is the unique product of the nature. In comparison with the other animals, they have most developed nervous and mental system which is very helpful to produce sounds and symbols (letters and numbers) that make possible the communication and recording of their questions, observations, experiences and ideas. To satisfy the curiosity and solving problems of daily life they involve in investigation. In modern times the complexities of human beings are increasing. To reduce such complexities, they have to conduct different research activities. Research is the essential part of graduate and post graduate program. Without conducting any academic research the objectives of the course will not be fulfilled. But conducting research is not as easy as we thought. It is a systematic investigation to acquire new knowledge, information's, facts, appropriate solution to a problem, deduce theory and generalization. It helps scholars to expand the area of knowledge and further study. There are various micro steps should be followed by the teachers for effective academic research. Before conducting research, the researcher have to submit the research proposal for approvable. When the research proposal is approved by the department then the research should be conducted consultation with the research guide. 2. Research proposal The preparation of research proposal is...

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Literature Research

...Literature Research Literature reviews are completed by students to learn the proper format for setting up their own research projects. The following is information gleaned on what a literature review is, why it is conducted, and how to understand completing one . Additional information on how to write a review is covered as well. A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits into the larger field of study. A literature review may consist of simple a summary of key sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem. The analytical features of a literature review might: * Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, * Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, * Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on......

Words: 887 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Econ

...collecting data that gives the opportunity to test the hypothesis that you develop. You are encouraged to structure your paper in four parts: introduction, literature review, body, and conclusion. A brief abstract of no more than 100 words should precede your paper. Introduction Identifying a significant and well formulated question is the single most important part of the research process and the most difficult as well. A good research question has to be concise (remember, you are writing a 15-page paper, not a book), feasible and important. Choosing a research question requires balancing importance and feasibility. Feasibility means tractability for theoretical research and data availability for empirical research. Whenever you come up with an idea for a research question, always try to think about a critic sitting in front of you asking “Why should I care about this?” Consider this question to be a first filter for your research question. Identify a well-defined research question. The introduction is where you (1) present the research question, (2) motivate why it is important and briefly outline (3) how you go about answering it and (4) what your key results are. Be sure to be clear how your research question relates to material learned in Econ 196, and why the existing literature may not answer the question adequately. To write a successful introduction, you will need to have read and understood previous academic work by economists (or other social scientists) that......

Words: 1405 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Knowledge Management

...when they moved from high school to university. There is more reading, more lab time, and more writing. The ideas, discussions, and questions are at a higher level. There’s a reason that not everyone does this! Entering your studies with a clear purpose and sense of direction, informed by a thorough understanding of new responsibilities and expectations, can help you to adapt better to the new demands of Masters and Ph.D. level research, organization, presentation, and writing. Perfectionism. Many academics would characterize themselves as perfectionists. To a certain extent, this is a healthy trait that promotes self-awareness and hard work. However, perfectionism can also be crippling as it can make you feel as if you can’t write a paper or make a comment unless it is absolutely brilliant. Remember, you are a student, not an expert. You are discovering new terms, concepts, and areas of study. Your first draft or class presentation will never be perfect, so don’t put too much pressure on yourself. The Counselling Centre offers excellent support for perfectionism. For more information, visit the Centre’s web site at: http://www.trentu.ca/counselling/ Your Key Responsibilities Common Challenges in Graduate Studies Finding Balance. It is easy to be pulled in one direction only to leave other responsibilities neglected. You may have research commitments in the lab, but you also need to complete course work, outline your proposal, and have a life! Or......

Words: 3573 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Literature Review

...For a literature review, is usually in the of single research reports, statistics, texts about specific topics, specialist websites news media and other front line accounts of events .These reports may be by academics and other field researchers such as journalists .Literature can also include audio, film and videotexts scripts, commentaries and credits. Category selection is the Structural dimensions and related analytic categories are selected, which are to be applied to the collected material. Structural dimensions form the major topics of analysis, which are constituted by single analytic categories. And the material evaluation is analysed according to the structural dimensions. This should allow identification of relevant issues and interpretation of results. For the material analysis mentioned above provides a detailed description of the process in the analytic of literature review, while it includes a feedback circle for the collected material resources only such as a circle that might be needed for the overall process. For the material analysis provides a detailed description of the process and the structural dimensions and related analytic categories which allow classification of the reviewed literature can be derived deductively or inductively. In a deductive...

Words: 978 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Literature Review - Aging

...Critical Review and Analysis of the Literature (30%) (This assignment is submitted through the WebCT assignment dropbox. Please check the deadlines listed in the course schedule located on the home page for due dates.) This term paper (3,000 words, double-spaced, 12-point font) is a critical analysis of a topic area within the field of gerontology. The paper is to be based on a review of gerontological literature. Statements made in the paper should be supported by references to published peer-reviewed academic journal articles, book chapters, and books. Your paper must go beyond the material found in your course readings—you are expected to refer to at least 10 to 12 additional academic sources directly related to your topic. All references should follow the American Psychological Association style. Please visitAPA for the citation style to be followed for the reference list. Failure to reference properly will be penalized. The following is a list of suggested topics. The purpose of this list is to give you some direction and make you aware of related possibilities. If you wish to write on a topic not included in this list, you must check with the tutor-marker about your proposed topic by the end of week 5. Writing on another topic requires that you demonstrate to the tutor-marker and course supervisor that you have a clear understanding of what you propose to do and that you have verified that sufficient research is available on the topic to enable you to write a paper......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literacure Rewiew

...THE LITERATURE REVIEW: A FEW TIPS ON CONDUCTING IT What is a review of the literature? A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography—see the bottom of the next page), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review lets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas: 1. information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies. 2. A literature review must do these things: a) be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing b) synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known c)...

Words: 961 - Pages: 4