Free Essay

How War Is Presented Between Empire of Youth and Testament of the Sun

In: English and Literature

Submitted By foofoo3105
Words 1730
Pages 7
“Compare how Vera Brittain and JG Ballad present the theme of ‘WAR’ in Testament of youth and Empire of the Sun”

Both the novel and the memoir are set during a war that disrupts the main characters life in a way that allows the reader to experience the raw brutality of war, whether that is physical or emotional. Testament of Youth (ToY) is set in WWI and Empire of the Sun (EotS) in WWII, the 27 year gap between the wars meant there were technological differences such as communication, aircraft and weapon advances. These factors highlight that the later war would have been more sophisticated in both ground and air defence/fighting techniques. This could possibly be why both characters envision the war differently, although there are other factors such as gender, geographical location and political positioning to consider. Ballad writes in a 3rd person emotionally detached manner whereas Brittain’s first person perspective allows us to empathise with her situation. The extracts I will be using to explore the way in which war affects the thoughts and feelings of each protagonist are page 30-33 from EotS where on the eve of pearl harbour Jim investigates Hungjao aerodrome and comes across an old fighter plane. This is when we see his fascination with warfare technology. I will compare it to pages 67-72, chapter 8, in ToY when Vera sees her future fiancé, Roland, receive his awards on speech day at her brothers school and both Roland and her brother are appropriately attired in their OTS uniform.

At the beginning of both extracts, sooth and calming nature is key and is juxtaposed to the violent acts of war that are soon to follow . The grass Jim walks on is described by the noun ‘blades’ that ‘seethed’. Both connote violence, anger and conflict that could symbolise Jim’s feeling and emotions. The fact that the nature at Hungao aerodrome is described in a violent manner yet Jim is not affected by it shows that he does not see the danger of the war. He doesn’t understand that the world is meant to be peaceful, like nature, so instead sees the world as an aggressive place which is reflected by his view of the aerodrome. The use of nature in ToY however, is paradox to that of EotS. Vera describes her summer as ‘radiant’ ‘sunlit’ and ‘shining’. The use of these adjectives makes the reader think of light and happiness as the words connote a carefree and warm summer. Vera's tunnel-visioned view on summer and the way she describes it so positively suggests that she doesn’t currently see the war as a threat to her happiness. We see this through her older and wiser narrative voice that deliberately sets up a sense of foreboding to highlight her innocence at the time.
Vera also speaks of nature from her personal point of view, converse to the ubiquity of it at the aerodrome, where Jim doesn’t seem to notice it nor is he affected by it. Given that the nature is repeatedly described as violent, it illustrates Jim’s inability to rid himself of thinking that violence is normality. Ballad describes Jim as walking through ‘grass that rose to his shoulders’ which symbolically tells us that he is overwhelmed by his emotions and they overpower him, in effect meaning he cannot express them.

The main protagonists come across as very naïve and can be viewed as selfish in parts of extracts. The childhood naivety could demonstrate how they deal with the reality of war. Vera noticed ‘nothing more serious’; her use of the pronoun ‘nothing’ tells us that she disregarded anything that could foreshadow her prosperous naivety. It becomes evident that Vera cannot see past her own experiences, so in her mind, the war is nothing that can duly affect her.
Similarly, Jim’s only experience of war was from a distance. And that’s how he continues to believe it to be. The way in which the war resembles a game to Jim becomes clear when he runs around the airfield saying ‘ta-ta-ta-ta-ta…vera-vera-vera’.We understand Jims child-like innocence despite his boldness in this extract as he doesn’t understand the danger that comes with the conflict he anticipate. When Jim describes the dead as being in a ‘deep dream of war’ it denotes that Jim too dreams of it, it seems apparent that the war would almost be a dream come true for Jim. The adjective ‘deep’ implies that they will not wake up, Jim’s distorted view of death means he compares it to sleep- the dead never really die. He appears to associate war and death to a lost dream. His naivety is clearest in this section of the novel.

Following on from Jim’s naïve view, the reader can explore why Jim sees war in this way, he remembers visiting the battlefield in 1937 with his parents. Ballad describes the scene as ‘parties’ that ‘parked their limousines’ and that the ‘debris of war (were) arranged for them’. He depicts an image of celebration and glamour. The class divide is an obvious factor in Jim’s detachment to the war; the only time he experienced it, it was ‘arranged’ in a way suitable for viewing. He has not yet seen the malicious nature of war as his experience is not first hand, nor was it educated, so he does not fear his reality.

However, Roland's experience with war is vastly the opposite. He ‘took the OTC very seriously’ as he wants to join the army. The adverb of manner ‘seriously’ tells us that he is intent on joining the army and that he is either brave, informed but stupid or oblivious to the threat the war poses. Vera mentions the ‘prescience’ of the masters and their ‘deliberate solemnity’, which could suggest Roland’s situation, is the latter. This indicates his experience with war is of a middle class detached nature. Wars experience with the middle class is much distanced; demonstrating that they do not believe war is as catastrophic as the numerous plights from other countries have made out.

A key theme apparent in both novels is the sudden transition from imagination to reality, representing the protagonist’s need to grow up swiftly if they are to survive the war. Jim ‘rested his balsa model on the engine cowling…and lowered himself into the metal seat’. This is the figurative moment that he starts to realise what the war is about and that the war can be dangerous, but still a child, he does not believe that the danger will affect him. The verb ‘rested’ lets us know that it is only temporary; his childhood innocence and naivety, represented by his balsa plane, is ready to be picked back up at any time. The verb ‘lowered’ proposes that he is in a more serious mind set as he prepares himself for what he perceives as the reality of war. Vera also experiences this shift in mentality. When she watched Roland in the awards ceremony she ‘did not feel inclined to tease him anymore’ this emblematic moment describes that she too understands that she vulnerable to the danger and changes war will bring to her life. The verb ‘tease’ is very light hearted and whimsy, implying that previously she hadn’t perceived the war as a threat to hers and Roland’s blossoming relationship but the adverb ‘anymore’ tells us that she is not accustoms to the significance of the role Roland plays now. Roland and his friends are going away to camp having being donned the ‘three musketeers’. There is a sense of British camaraderie in the sense that they’re all going together. War is displayed here as a joint effort and that unity will get you through the best and worst of times. Contrarily, Jim sees war as an act of solitude as he himself is experiencing it on his own. He ‘machine gunned flitting insects’, reiterating the way that Jim envisions the war as a game. It communicates to us that if he was not facing the world on his own then he would have a much more serious mentality about the coming war.

Jim sees the Japanese as the stronger force, as does Roland’s head teacher: on speech day he quoted the samurai Bushido code that states that ‘if a man cannot be useful to his country then he is better off dead’. Japan wasn’t an enemy to the British Empire in WWI and the idea of death before dishonour was a key focus of British patriotism. It is heavily ironic because Japan was part of the axe of power and we were fighting against them. It conveys that they see war as a politically fought battle where the outcome is pre-determined, all that is left is to physically brawl it out.

In Vera Brittain- A Life, from her perspective we see the war presented as self-indulgent and remotely selfish as she cannot see past her middle class experience. This is demonstrated when she sees ‘nothing more serious’ about her summer; her vision is censored.
In the Empire of the Sun however, Jim sees the war as a time of ‘excitement’. The adjective ‘excitement’ demonstrates that his perception of the war is deluded and naïve. We see that the war from both accounts is not seen in all its treacherous glory, instead viewed in a blurred privileged display.

Ballad, typical of many late twentieth century writers, keeps a distance between his protagonist (Jim) and the reader. We are never really told how Jim feels because it appears Jim forces himself not to feel. This could be the way Ballad informs us that war took away his capacity to feel emotion. He provides descriptions of Jim’s actions, even the things he thinks about, without ever truly exploring his feelings; “He remembered the swirling grass at Hungjao Aerodrome, and tried to imagine the slipstreams of the Brewster Buffaloes. He turned to the transport aircraft parked by the perimeter road.” The lack of feelings here displays Ballads 3rd person emotionally detached narrative.
Brittain, on the other hand, goes to great lengths to enable us to imagine how it felt to go through these experiences; “War possessed one’s personality the moment that one crossed the sea, making England and all the uninitiated marooned within its narrow shores seem remote and insignificant.”

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Who Is the Enemy? an Analysis of the Ironic Third Person Limited Narration in Empire of the Sun

..."Who is the enemy? An analysis of the ironic third person limited narration in Empire of the Sun" Thesis: "How does Ballard utilize irony to convey the idea that there may be more than one way to look at things (show Jim's competing and unexpected perspective towards the Japanese and Chinese). Quotes: “The world is round and the place which may seem like the end may also be only the beginning.” ~Ivy Baker Priest “The enemy is anybody who's going to get you killed, no matter which side he's on.” ~Joseph Heller, Catch-22 “I had the blues because I had no shoes until upon the street, I met a man who had no feet.” ~Denis Waitely "If you want total security, go to prison. There you're fed, clothed, given medical care and so on. The only thing lacking... is freedom." ~Dwight D. Eisenhower Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one. ~Albert Einstein “Not for the first time Jim realized that the Japanese, officially his enemies, offered his only protection in Shanghai.” (P.60) Here are the page numbers: 60, 78, 103, 113, 126, 180, 283, 286, 296, 304, 309, 330. Enemies are your best friends? In J.G. Ballad’s Empire of the Sun, Jim’s perspective on the Japanese and the Chinese respectively is sharply at odds with the general opinions of other characters. In general, Ballard shows that many of the books’ characters regard the Chinese more positively than the Japanese. The Japanese as a cruel occupying force are shown to be despised by......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Assess the Relationship Between War-Fighting and Nation-Building.

...Building and War-fighting in Historical Perspective 4 Post Cold War Approaches to Nation-building: The Case of the United States: 6 Nation Building and War fighting: A Snapshot of the Record 8 Germany and Japan: misleading historical lessons, specious claims: 9 CONCLUSION 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAR-FIGHTING AND NATION-BUILDING. Nothing is, and will remain in such short supply in the greater majority of the polities of the world’s ‘countryside’, as a sense of political community; and yet no such crucial term as ‘nation building’ has of recent been subjected to so much trivialisation and casual usage. This essay attempts to lay out what it is that nation building entails, as a background to assessing whatever linkage it may have with war fighting, causally or by coincidence. I outline existing schools of thought on nation building and demonstrate that it bore a clear relationship with war fighting especially in the dusk of the extensive empires of Western Europe. I argue that the United States had a much rosier experience by virtue of its geographical isolation, and of being constituted by an immigrant population, and as such, it may the least qualified actor to enforce nation building however construed. The essay points out the prevailing fallacy of conflating short-term post-conflict reconstruction with protracted nation building and state making and concludes by asserting that, recent ‘successes’ in war fighting and......

Words: 4569 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Kfc Sun Zi Art of War

...Content Chapter 4: Disposition of the Army Sun Zi said: In antiquity those who were excelled in warfare result that they would not be defeated and then waited for opportunities to defeat the enemy. Positioning means that importance to defend the existing position lead you to move in advance on your opponents and how you must recognize for the opportunities to defeat the enemy. As indicate in business application, according to the Product Life Cycle there are 3 stages. According to the above as Sun Zi said, this is the first stage of the Product Life Cycle. If your company would like to come out a new product wait for the good opportunity and see the external environment such as government policy, competitor’s strategy, consumer behaviour, trend, supplier and more. The manager of the company have to do some research about the current market, collect more information, build up connection, build up strong financial background, build up internal culture and Research and Development in order to succeed in the future. The vital action is being well prepared before the opportunity coming. In this stage, when an established company comes out with a new product and the product may invest a lot of research and development capital. However the investor might not getting good returns or feedback when compare with the effort they are putting. In other words, this also show an indication that the company to rest and do another well preparation before they start over again for the...

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

American Dream and How It Is Presented "live off the fatta the lan'" is a recurring motif in the story (13). They build their dream up to such an extent that even if they managed to "roll up a stake" and buy a piece of land, their lives there would likely have never lived up to the ideal they envisioned in their heads (47). In fact, George admits that their dream was destined to fail: "I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed we'd never do her" (90). He remarks, because Lennie "[...] usta like to hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would" (90). Their very act of striving for the impossible is Steinbeck's way of showing how unattainable the American Dream had become for many Americans, especially during the time period of the Great Depression. While a century prior it seemed anyone could come to America, work hard, and see a tangible gain, the story of Lennie and George shows how things changed. They worked hard, but everything that they did always benefited others. While they received pay and lodging for their labor, they never had a place to call their own. Steinbeck ultimately demonstrates that working hard will not help people achieve either the financial success or emotional fulfillment they desire. Characters like Candy and Crooks, who have seemingly worked hard their entire lives, have gotten nowhere and are forced to be content with simply having a roof over their heads and three meals a day—though those privileges may be revoked at any time once the men are no longer deemed......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Critical Essay Sun Tzu - the Art of War

... * Sun Tzu Sun Tzu is traditionally believed to be the author of The Art of War. This was an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. His work is thought to have had a considerable impact on Asian, and in particular Chinese, history and culture. The recognition of The Art of War grew during the 19th and 20th centuries and has continued to influence not only Asian culture and politics but western society as well (Cultural China, 2010).The Art of War, written during a period of constant war among seven nations seeking the full control of China, discusses how important it is for an organisation, in this case an army, to be controlled, organised and ready to exploit enemy’s weaknesses. The purpose of the text is to demonstrate that structure within an organisation and mutual philosophies shared i.e. confidence, solidity and even patience can give an organisation the best opportunity to succeed in the task ahead, in this case a war. The Art of War perceives that high leadership control is the most influential component to a firm’s success, similar theories can be shown today. For example, Fiedler’s Contingency theory suggests that a good task structure and strong leader-member relations bond forms an environment where a leader has high control of a situation and greater potential to be successful (Ornstein, A 2011). Traditional accounts describe Sun Tzu as a heroic general of the King of Wu (lived c. 544—496 BCE). Victories for Sun Tzu were what......

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Relationship Between the Earth and the Sun

...The relationship between the earth and the sun With a radius 110 times that of Earth and a mass 330,000 times greater, the sun reigns as the center of the solar system. The gravitational pull of the fierce, stormy ball of gas holds earth orbit, and its emissions power the Earth-atmosphere systems on which our lives depend. As the source of almost all the energy in our world, it holds the key to many of our questions about Earth and sky. Everybody is wondering about the environmental changes that take place throughout the year and from place to place over Earth’s surface. In the late years, people wondered why it got much warmer during summer than in winter and why some days were long whereas those in the other seasons were much shorter. These questions and many like them are probably as old as the earliest human thoughts, and the answers to them help to provide the understanding of the physical geography of the world. Physical geographers’ concerns take them beyond planet Earth to a consideration of the sun and Earth’s position in the solar system. Geographers examine the relationship between the sun and Earth to explain such earthly phenomena as the alternating periods of light and dark that is referred to as day and night. Other relationships between the Earth and sun also help to explain seasonal variations in climate. Although the universe and solar system are not strictly within the province of physical geography, an acquaintance with each can be......

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How to Tell a War Story

...How to Tell a True War Story from The Things They Carried In a true war story, if there's a moral at all, it's like the thread that makes the cloth. You can't tease it out. You can't extract the meaning without unraveling the deeper meaning. And in the end, really, there's nothing much to say about a true war story, except maybe "Oh." True war stories do not generalize. They do not indulge in abstraction or analysis. For example: War is hell. As a moral declaration the old truism seems perfectly true, and yet because it abstracts, because it generalizes, I can't believe it with my stomach. Nothing turns inside. It comes down to gut instinct. A true war story, if truly told, makes the stomach believe. This one does it for me. I've told it before - many times, many versions - but here's what actually happened. We crossed that river and marched west into the mountains. On the third day, my friend Curt Lemon stepped on a boobytrapped artillery round. He was playing catch with Rat Kiley, laughing, and then he was dead. The trees were thick; it took nearly an hour to cut an LZ for the dustoff. Later, higher in the mountains, we came across a baby VC water buffalo. What it was doing there I don't know - no farms, no paddies - but we chased it down and, got a rope around it and led it along to a deserted village where we set up for the night. After supper Rat Kiley went over and stroked its nose. He opened up a can of C rations, pork and beans, but the baby......

Words: 2159 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

How to Start Youth Ministry

...what they can become NOT who they are. 5. You have to be ok with divine assignment. * You cannot be whoever you want to be. * Success is doing what you were supposed to do. * Successful is doing the best with what God have given you. 6. Paul was into restoring relationships. * We must know how to restore lost and broken relationships. * Letters to Timothy possibly could have been for John Mark BUT He bailed on Paul. * In the End Paul wanted to restore his relationship with John Mark. Grab my books and letters and bring John Mark. How to build and relate to teams Andrew Damazio, Dylan Jones, Ashish Joy Building teams is not enough we need to nurture them. Reasons why certain church leaders don’t build teams. * Because they are insecure. * Because they don’t value others gifts. If you wanna be honest with yourself, ask a student what they think of your youth ministry. * Prideful, want to take all the credit. How to build teams: * Before you go after a person, you have to know what you want. * You have to be personable. * Never make a position public. People do not respond. Don’t make it general. How we relate to your team: * You need to have your leaders best intention at mind. * Build deep relationships with your leaders, not shallow ones. * Have specific roles for leaders, set them up for a win. * Allow the leaders to share their heart with you. Be open to input. * Understand the......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Does “Anthem for Doomed Youth” and “Dulce Et Decorum Est” Present Wilfred Owen’s Thoughts and Feelings Towards the War?

...How does “Anthem for Doomed Youth” and “Dulce et Decorum Est” present Wilfred Owen’s thoughts and feelings towards the war? Wilfred Owen was born in Oswestry on 18th March 1893. After school, he became a teaching assistant and in 1913 went to France for two years to work as a language tutor. In 1915 he returned to England to enlist in the army and was commissioned into the Manchester Regiment. After spending the remainder of the year training in England, he left for the western front early in January 1917. He was diagnosed with shellshock after experiencing heavy fighting and was evacuated to England to recover at Craiglockhart War Hospital near Edinburgh in June. Anthem for Doomed Youth and Dulce et Decorum est were written in 1917, during Owen’s time at Craiglockhart. Here, he was able to write some of his best work. He also met the poet Siegfried Sassoon here, who was already a well-established poet. Sassoon agreed to look over Owen's poems, gave him encouragement and introduced him to literary figures such as Robert Graves. Owen conveys his feelings towards the war through the many poems he wrote, especially while being treated at Craiglockhart. His poems give the reader a sense of what it was like to be a militant during conflict. His poetry is characterised by powerful descriptions of the conditions faced by soldiers in the trenches. His poems are sometimes violent and realistic, challenging earlier poetry which communicated a pro-war message. His first-hand experience...

Words: 2313 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

How Far Did the Roman Empire Stabilise Between 312 and 324ad

...‘To what extent did the Emperor Constantine reunite the Roman Empire between 312AD to 324AD?’ On the 28th October 312, Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus and Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius collided on a broad plain in front of the Milvian Bridge. The outcome of this fight would determine who the next Augustus of the Western Roman Empire would be. Maxentius, the current Emperor was facing down the usurper at Rome’s door, the young Constantine. The 40,000 hard-bitten legionnaires of Constantine had fought down through Italia and the 100,000 of Maxentius’s auxiliary and untested forces to the gates of Rome itself. Backed by his sudden belief in Christianity, Constantine and his Cavalry exterminated rank upon rank of Maxentius’s men, and routing the majority of those remaining in a panic, causing the Milvian Bridge to collapse beneath them, marking the unforeseen end to the final battle of the civil war for the Western Roman Empire. The general Constantine had won his greatest military victory. He was now sole ruler of the Western Roman Empire, and he had achieved this through his new found faith, support from the men who loyally followed his footsteps from Britain to Italy and his deep understanding of the political arena. But to what extent did his own success and prowess led to the unification of the Eastern and Western Empires by the time of his death? When Constantine the Liberator entered the great City of Rome, he passed through a blizzard of flowers and......

Words: 1748 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Testament of Youth Book Review

...Book Review of Testament of youth: An autobiographical study of the years 1900-1925 Name School Class Book Review of Testament of youth: An autobiographical study of the years 1900-1925 The book Testament of Youth, written by Vera Brittain is Vera Brittain's very own story regarding her life experiences. At first glance this book was not related to military history. However, when I began researching World War I or the “Great War,” there were several instances that Brittain’s name was mentioned regarding the description of the casualties of this war. This book was seemingly based upon ambition and the “American Dream.” However, after indulging in the memoirs of this autobiography, this book became intriguing to me because it remains powerful and impressive illustration of the agony she felt as well as the many soldiers that gave their lives in the “Great War.” In fact, this book is a first-hand account of the damage that the weapons of World War I caused, as seen from the eyes of Vera Brittain. Regardless of being born into a family of a wealthy paper mill owner and having stakes in the business, she wanted to become self-sufficient and wanted to make a life for herself. Therefore, she attended college to become a nurse. On that note, this book started out like a book about the life a woman born into money. However, this book is filled with military content and was chosen to illustrate the other side of the military, which encompassed death, heartache and the......

Words: 923 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Women Are Presented in 'in Cold Blood'

...gender roles at the time. Bonnie Clutter is presented as a fragile, damaged individual who was once happy and prospective. During her domestic role she is deeply depressed; this shows how such a life can affect oneself. Capote presents Flo Buckskin as a woman who conformed to some female ideals in 1950s Modern America but similarly negatively affected by the culture in which she existed. Through her, Capote presents how heritage can cause a lack of opportunity , especially for a woman during this time. Nancy Clutter is presented as a girl with many prospects. He uses an asyndetic list of concrete noun phrase to show the reader her accomplishments ‘a straight A student, the president of her class’ and the honorifics such as ‘president’ and ‘leader’ imply that even at such a young age she was successful. Capote also presents how Nancy fulfilled her gender role of the time by servicing others; this is seen in the way she ‘would willingly have taught Jolene’, the adverb ‘willingly’ before the proper noun phrase highlights her conformity to the female ideal. The abstract noun phrase ‘felt it her duty to be available’ again emphasises her self-effacing sense of duty to others. We see how in Modern America her own freedom and desires are presented as less important than her need to be ‘available’. Nancy Clutter has characteristics that were associated as commonly female attributes. The concrete noun phrase ‘beauty routine’ highlights how she was concerned with physical......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Sun Tzu Infulence in the Civil War

...The Importance of Sun Tzu’s Art of War Justin James History 305 Dana Chandler November 11, 2011 According to the definition found in Webster, war is a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or different groups within a nation or state. Throughout the ages there have been countless numbers of wars that have taken place for many different reasons in our world as we know it, whether it be to be for a political reason or to conquer neighboring lands. Along with wars comes philosophers and strategist that attempt to study all of their opponents moves and motives to ultimately gain the upper hand on their opponent. Possibly the most successful strategist known in history was a man that was known best by the name Sun Tzu. Sun Tzu authored what is known today as the greatest military strategic guide known in history which is used as guides to not only be successful in the military but also the corporate world as well as every day life. Many generals have used these strategic guides in order to be victorious in their conquests. However there also have been many generals that have failed to use these strategies correctly or did not use them altogether and ended up paying the ultimate price for refusal of doing so. The most notable general to do so was the Confederate’s general General Robert E Lee. During the battle of Gettysburg if Lee would have followed only a fraction of the rules and guid......

Words: 1747 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Struggle Between Love and War

...The Struggle Between Love and War While both the Capitol of Panem and the twelve Districts fought against life and death, the Capitol focused on entertainment for society while the twelve Districts fought for survival. Just as the conflict theorists believe, the Capitol and twelve Districts were in a struggle between good and evil. The Capitol represented the macro-level analysis for the main setting of The Hunger Games. Whereas, District Twelve represented the micro-level analysis as one of the poorest Districts. The Capitol was a government that chose participants from different Districts to compete against the powers of evil. The Capitol was structured to enforce rules, which created resentment and resistance between the twelve Districts that were fighting. However, some of the participants tried to change the rules of the Capitol for their own survival. The Capitol forced the players to fight to the death of another while the citizens of the society watched for entertainment. District twelve produced two of the stronger players, who were both well trained for fighting. The main female character, Katniss, portrayed love when she volunteered in place of her sister, who was the actual chosen participant. The male participant, Peeta, chose to stay in the games and fight to protect Katniss, even though someone tried to volunteer to go in his place. In the......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How to Fight a Price War

...If you find yourself facing a price war, you'll need to understand how it started in order to respond effectively. Often the best counterattack does not. involve a retaliatory price How by Akshay R. Rao, Mark E. Bergen, and War ^ 1 I 1^ f Scott Davis N THE BATTLE TO CAPTURE THE CUSTOMER, companies use a wide range of tactics to ward off competitors. Increasingly, price is the weapon of choice - and frequently the skirmishing degenerates into a price war. Creating low-price appeal is often the goal, hut the result of one retaliatory price slashing after another is often a precipitous decline in industry profits. Look at the airline price wars of r992. When American Airlines, Northwest Airlines, and other U.S. carriers went toe-to-toe in matching and exceeding one another's reduced fares, the result was record volumes of air travel-and record losses. Some estimates suggest that the overall losses suffered hy the industry that year exceed the combined profits for the entire industry from its inception. Price wars can create economically devastating and psychologically dehilitating situations that take an extraordinary toll on an individual, a com- HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW March-April 2000 107 How to Fight a Price War pany, and industry profitability. No matter who wins, the comhatants all seem to end up worse off than before they joined the battle. And yet, price wars are becoming increasingly common and......

Words: 5496 - Pages: 22