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How Would Enforcing Electric Cars Impact on Almaty City?

In: Other Topics

Submitted By arcsinus
Words 5833
Pages 24
Running head: THE IMPACT OF ENFORCING ELECTRIC CARS IN ALMATY

First Draft
How Would Enforcing Electric Cars in Almaty Impact on the City?
KIMEP University
December 10, 2013

Table of Content
Abstract 3
Chapter 1. Introduction 4
Chapter 2. Literature Review 8
Chapter 3. Data Collection Methodology 11 Chapter 4. Description of Results 15 Chapter 5. Analysis 20 Chapter 6. Conclusion 22 Bibliography 23 Appendix A 25 Appendix B 26

Abstract
This study addresses the issue of the ecological and economical impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty city. It is important to find positive or negative impact of introduction new alternative as electric vehicle.
The proposition that would be tested is ‘There would be a significant positive impact on the Almaty’s ecological environment and city’s economy from the increased number of enforcing electric cars by residents and non residents of Almaty.’ This research is not trying to give precise economic cost of substitution gasoline cars to electric and solution to air pollution problem, rather to show people the importance of electric cars that saves money and as alternative with positive environmental benefits.
The environmental and expenditure-based approach is implemented in this study to measure the economic and ecological impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty. To support the arguments of ecological impact the interviews and questionnaires result from particular specialist in this area is provided. The results of questionnaire are interesting and peculiar, since answers are different and I have found logical connection between answers on different questions. In this research I tried to make questions to get more specific answers and statistics, and compare our Kazakhstani market with Europe and U.S. markets.
The result of research showed that enforcing electric cars in country should be developed with the big help of our government and automobile distributors in Kazakhstan.
An implication of these findings is that both economical situation and attitude of mind of Kazakhstani citizens, namely cultural background of people should be taken into account to make possible enforcing electric cars.
Chapter 1. Introduction

Part A:
What unites Leonardo DiCaprio, George Clooney, Stephen King, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Matt Damon, Tom Hanks and Al Gore? (VIA Motors) Right! Electric cars. These green celebrities rock environmentally friendly automobiles to show how alternative vehicles can tread lightly on the planet, and at the same time deliver on power and style.
This study addresses the issue of the ecological and economical impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty city. The proposition that would be tested is “There would be a significant positive impact on the Almaty’s ecological environment and city’s economy from the increased number of enforcing electric cars by residents and non residents of Almaty.” The importance of this topic has arisen since the number of vehicles in Almaty is keep increasing yearly that caused the ecological problem of air pollution. According to the Akim’s Administration, main cause of air pollution in the city is emission of substances from transport, namely 80% (Akim’s Administration of Bostandyk District, 2008). Today the amount of cars in the world arises fast and frequently, for example the number of vehicles in 2010 reached 1,05 billion (Sousanis, 2011).By July 1 of 2013 according to the CA-News reports the total number of registered cars in Kazakhstan is 3,650,800. As well according to World Bank Data in 2010 Kazakhstan occupies 66th place by the 219 of road motor vehicles per 1000 people. So, it means that car market is enough developed in our country, and in the near future we will be able to buy electric vehicles. According to Lee and Lovellette (2011, July) electric cars can be divided by system components like a battery for energy, an electric motor, a generator, a mechanical transmission and a power control system. Now there are four main types of electric vehicles: hybrid electric vehicle, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, extended-range electric vehicle, and battery electric vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicles use a small electric battery to addition a standard engine. It increases fuel efficiency by about 25 percent. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is also having the electric motor and the internal combustion engine. It has a larger battery pack, which is charged from the power grid. This battery complements an engine smaller than those that are in hybrid or conventional vehicles. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid both combine an internal combustion engine with a battery and electric motor to increase fuel efficiency. The difference between them is that you can use electricity as a fuel, because plug-ins can recharge from an electric outlet. An extended-range electric vehicle works on the principle charging successively of an internal combustion engine to power an electric generator, the battery system in a linear process — the engine powers a generator, which charges the battery. The last is battery electric vehicles, which are all electric. They do not have internal combustion engine and they have to be plugged into the electric power grid to recharge.
This study took the approach of estimating the ‘macro cost and micro cost’. The macro cost would be considered the total cost that government would face if enforcing electrical cars would be implemented, such as substitution of petrol stations by electric charging stations, duties paid by holders of vehicles and many others. By micro cost would be considered the cost for the vehicle owners, the economic benefit or loss that they will face by substituting with enforcing electric car. However, this study cannot be very precise, it only focuses to identify if there a significant positive impact on economy of Almaty by implementation of enforcing electric cars. The expenditure-based approach is implemented in this study to measure the economic impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty. However, at the same time the research is based on finding ecological benefits from introduction electric vehicle. This research is not trying to give precise economic cost of substitution gasoline cars to electric and solution to air pollution problem, rather to show people the importance of electric cars that saves money and as alternative with positive environmental benefits.
Part B:
To support the arguments the interviews and questionnaires results from particular specialist in this area are provided. In order to answer the research questions, qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted with Dr. Aliya Nurtaeva, who is Associate Professor /Math & Science Coordinator in KIMEP University. Semi-structured interview was on November 25th in KIMEP University. Interview was recorded and notes were taken.This interview gave the valuable information, because her experience and suggestions helped to make the research objective and comprehensive. Questionnaires were distributed during October 11-30 among 43 Almaty citizens, aged from 18-54 through surveymonkey.com. The survey was done to find out. Interview questions and copy of the questionnaire is available in Appendix A and Appendix B respectively. Also I have collected information by case studies and articles. The electronic resources that I have used during this study are Google Scholar, Ebrary and other local resources. Most I used Google, since it was the fastest and easiest way to get information.
Part C:
The research paper contained literature review based on articles has shown that electric car is an alternative for internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicles with economical and ecological benefits. Another output from literature review is to find opinion of people about electric cars, hypothesis of experts, and attitude of society to introduction electric vehicles. The information got from literature review was generally confirmed in description of result, which contains results of questionnaires and interview. The data collection methodology chapter includes overview of the project, state of research methods and sources of data with explanations, details, and comments. The description of results chapter includes a detailed explanation of the field research and methodology of interview and questionnaires. Information got from literature review and description of results were compared and analyzed in the analysis part. This chapter shows reasons and solutions of the problem, gives answers to research questions and discusses limitations, which the report has faced. The conclusion part summarized main points of the report and includes suggestions for future researchers.

Chapter 2. Literature Review
At the contemporary period of time everybody think about innovative technologies, discoveries that happens everyday, future technologies that already exist and their implementation and their use in our daily life. Electric car is innovation technology, which is developing rapidly and its market is also growing very fast. Today, almost all big automobile concerns have at least one electric model of car, which has already being produced or will be made in few years. So, articles that provided are about electric cars as future technology, alternative for normal cars, and advantages of electric vehicles in terms of cost, emission, etc.
The ten articles that were used for this report were similar in many ways. For instance, most addressed the finding advantages and disadvantages of electric cars, and also the impact of introduction them. Three authors Rony Argueta (2010), Philippe Crist (2012) and Henry Lee (2011) compared electric cars with internal combustion engine vehicles, and hybrid cars. All writers reported differences between electric cars and other types of vehicles in terms of ownership cost, fuel/electricity cost and attributes of them such as size, power, mileage, and reliability. Argueta (2010) compare more technical characteristics and price between cars, while Lee (2011) and Crist (2012) make deep investigation in micro and macro costs of introduction electric vehicles (EV). Crist (2012) and Lee (2011) argue about increasing the market of EV in France and US respectively, and say about conditions in which it may happen. They make assumptions when market of electric cars will be more and broader than market of cars with internal combustion engine.
Similar analysis was done by National Automobile Dealers Association (2013) (NADA), which also compared costs of using electric cars. NADA has found cost disadvantages of EV because of depreciation of them. The actual price depreciation of electric cars is twice more than actual depreciation of internal combustion engine vehicle and hybrid cars, NADA (2013) explains:
In dollar terms, this means a plug-in EV worth $20,000 in 2012 is predicted to lose $9,792 of its value by the end of 2014, while similarly priced gasoline and hybrid vehicles are expected to lose $5,573 and $6,455, respectively, over the same period.
The two articles based on the market of electric vehicles in North America, mostly in US, Melissa Burden (2013) “California is gateway to electric car market” and the article of Trevor Curwin (2011) titled “Electric-Vehicle Sales Move Out of First Gear” already say about the impact of enforcing electric cars for last years. Their research shows how many EV and electric cars charging stations are already exists. Burden’s and Curwin’d articles are very relative to each other: both of them make future projection based on today’s facts. They say that for the last several years in US market there is high demand for electric cars and it is growing significantly year by year, but it is not enough because automakers sell their cars in the same regions. So, it means that they cannot introduce electric vehicles in other markets, and the reason of small sales is that automakers should invest more in electric technologies.
The article “Environmental impacts and impact on the electricity market of a large scale introduction of electric cars in Europe” by Florian Hacker (2009) is different because it focuses on market introduction and environmental impacts. Hacker says about business models for the enforcing and operations of electric cars, considering energy supply, charging time, charging infrastructure, and limited driving range. Also Hacker (2009) says about policy issues as innovation process and its barriers. Hacker (2009) argues that introduction electric cars can decrease emissions, but it increases the supply and demand for electricity, and it influences on energy production.
Thiel (2012) made a survey in six countries of European Union: France, Germany, Spain, UK, Italy and Poland. Thiel (2012) interviewed about 600 drivers from each country. The results of his survey is interesting, because people see the benefits of EV such as low emissions and low level of noise, but say that they are expensive and range is too small and it is too long to recharge them.
Sousanis (2011) in his article “World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units” provided me with a lot of necessary general information about electric cars, actually with statistic about how many, where and when electric cars have been existed. According to Via Motors the trend of using electric cars in spreading. Many Hollywood celebrities and politicians have been driving on electric vehicles several years because of ecological benefits of them.
All the articles are very similar, because authors raise similar questions, they make future projection and assumptions of introduction electric cars in different markets, and analyze the business models based on attitude of drivers in particular regions. They have found advantages and disadvantages of enforcing electric cars not only from one perspective, but also from other sides of view. Their findings were similar, but each of them made deep investigations in different fields. Some articles were about the comparison, some about the market, but not all of them have said about impact of introduction electric vehicles. Hacker (2009) says about the environmental impact and results of introduction EV in market. Lee (2011) and Crist (2012) have found the impact micro and macro economy. Sousanis (2011) and Via Motors provided me with general information about electric vehicles and some needed statistics for my research.

Chapter 3. Data Collection Methodology
This study addresses the issue of the ecological and economical impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty city. The proposition, which have been tested, is “There would be a significant positive impact on the Almaty’s ecological environment and city’s economy from the introduction and increasing the number of enforced electric cars”. The importance of this topic has arisen since the number of vehicles in Almaty is keep increasing yearly that caused the ecological problem of air pollution.
The environmental and expenditure-based approach is implemented in this study to measure the economic and ecological impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty. To support the arguments of positive ecological impact the interviews and questionnaires result from particular specialist in this area is provided.
This study used the approach of estimating enforcing electric cars “macro and micro cost”. The information from literature review would be used to estimate macro cost, since number of EU countries and United States has available data about the cost that government spent on implementation enforcing electric vehicles. However, should be considered that the difference in technology and infrastructure between Kazakhstan and developed countries is a big gap.
The variables that are included in the macro cost are the following: 1) Substitution of petrol stations by electric charging stations; 2) Custom dues paid by owners of vehicles; 3) Subsidies 4) Taxes
Through synthesizing the information gained from survey/interview and literature review I would try to estimate the micro cost. The table of expenditures was used in order to design questionnaires, as well standard templates for interviews.
Table 1: Expenditure variables The cost | Measure (expenditure) | Micro | 1) Ownership cost (the cost of the vehicle) 2) fuel and electricity cost 3) technical characteristics or attributes: * vehicle use * battery life of electric vehicle * mileage * power * reliability * emissions |

Also, my research is addressed to find ecological impact on the city, because main cause of air pollution in the city is emission of substances from transport, approximately 80% (Akim’s Administration of Bostandyk District, 2008).I tried to find possibility and probability of enforcing electric cars, the reasons of disproving air pollution in city and how electric cars can change the air pollution situation.
The surveys were divided into two parts:
Part 1: Profile information, this part gives the information about owning/not owning a vehicle, the type of vehicle driven, the average mileage that owner drives per day, the type of driving. This part of questionnaire gives brief profile information about interviewers to track the differences in spending patterns by different parameters. It will help to understate why would one person to choose to substitute or not the petrol car by enforcing electric car.
Part 2: Overview, this part mainly focuses on the interviewer’s judgment of enforcing electric cars and substituting petrol cars by it.
The target population is43 Almaty city residents. By using free online sources the data was collected. I have asked different residents in terms of occupation, age and gender to have broader practical information.
The interview was conducted with expert in Almaty city. Her responses and comments were recorded and added into analysis part of this study. I was planning to ask one expert in environmental field and the second in car market sphere, but I did not find expert who could know very good electric vehicles market. So, my expert was Dr. Nurtayeva, who is the teacher of the subject Environmental Studies in KIMEP University. Dr. Nurtayeva knows very well about environmental benefits of using electric cars in Almaty, because she has experience in this field not only in Kazakhstan, and also in the US. I was looking for the second interviewee, who knows very well Kazakhstani car market and electric vehicles, but unfortunately I did not find him or her because electric car market is new for Kazakhstan and it is not developed.
The data sources will be credible, because I interviewed Dr. Nurtaeva, who has very good experience and knowledge about my study. The strengths are that my interviewee is professional on her spheres and gave very broad comment about electric cars and the problem of air pollution in Almaty city.
During the period when the survey was conducted no respondent was pressured or made to feel obligated to participate in the survey. All respondents volunteered to participate in this survey. Even with probability of respondents to give false answers, generally the public responses can be trusted and relied to do further analysis of collected data. During the data collection phase many challenges are arising, since there are many limitations. Initial idea of questionnaire was to ask 100 people characterized by age, gender, and occupation proportionally to get results and compare answers between these groups of people, but it is difficult to get 100 answers. Moreover it is hard to get results in proportion order. During the period of taking interview I have had a lot of limitation, for example my interviewee Dr. Nurtaeva had a lot of work from then end of October and was very busy when I started to collect practical material for research, because of period of midterm exams and other work. Finally, I have taken interview only 25th of November.

Chapter 4. Description of Results
This study addresses the issue of the ecological and economical impact of enforcing electric cars in Almaty city. The proposition that would be tested is “There would be a significant positive impact on the Almaty’s ecological environment and city’s economy from the increased number of enforcing electric cars by residents and non residents of Almaty.” The importance of this topic has arisen since the number of vehicles in Almaty is keep increasing yearly that caused the ecological problem of air pollution. The survey that I implemented for this study aims to get statistics to find possibilities and probabilities of introduction electric vehicles as alternative, make future projection, and to learn willingness of people to face this impact based on answers from questionnaire. More than 40 people have answered the questionnaire. I have asked different people in terms of age, gender, and occupation through online sources. My interviewee was Dr. Nurtayeva, who is teaching an Environmental Studies at KIMEP.
Part A:
In the quantitative part there were 43 people, who answered the provided questionnaire, 27 were students of our university and other 16 people were my relatives and friends. The process of conducting questionnaire started on 11th of October and ended on 30th of October. The asked people were divided into two groups: students, who are young generation under 25, and people who are older than 40, who is from past generation. I tried to divide people because it could show the different opinions of people from different generations because of cultural background, level of education, understanding the innovative technologies of temporary world. The problem during period of collection data was finding people, whose age was between 26-39 to enfold more info. The questionnaire contained both open and closed questions. Basically, they were about opinions of people to enforcing electric cars in Almaty, also about their interests and willingness to get them. The first question was about interest in owning electric car, and 90% of participants said that they would like to have electric vehicle. However, the second question was about attributes and micro expenditure variable of cars such as cost, efficiency, power, and emissions. The preference of people is power, 60% preferred power in car, 30% of participant selected cars in terms of efficiency, and last 10% made choice because of the cost, and nobody chose because of low emissions. One of points of questionnaire was to know how much students are ready to pay for an Electric Conversion. An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehicle_conversion). Some people said that they do not know affordable price and cannot answer to this question, others answered differently ranging from 0$ to 30000$ dollar, but most of answers were indicated between 10-15 thousands dollars. To measure effectiveness of enforcing electric cars I have asked two questions, which are based on the daily distance and type of driving. Table 2 and Table 3 below shows the percentage of how many kilometers a day people travel and which ways they use or prefer.
Table 2: Daily driving in the city
Table 3: Daily mileage

Participant answered very different to the question about their current car, 30% of people do not have car, 60% use internal combustion vehicles, 10% have diesel cars and nobody had hybrid vehicle. To the question about environment conscious 70% of people answered said that they are environmentally conscious, other 30% said no. According to the Chart 1 below half of people would accept a local establishment positively if they sold and converted electric vehicles. Other half was more neutral to this question.

Chart 1: Acceptance of electric vehicles
Ultimately, by surveying above-mentioned people; it was discovered that all of them have different points of view about electric cars, but most of participant answered positively to enforcing electric cars in Almaty.
Part B:
Interviewing Dr. Nurtaeva improved my research, because she is an expert and could professionally say about hypothesis and comment on questionnaire results. Dr. Nurtaeva told me about reasons of problem and gave solutions. In addition, provided me with several hypotheses and assumptions. She said that the air in Almaty is polluted because city is located near to mountains and air is like a “sandwich”, where hot airflow is between cold airflows. The hypotheses about enforcing electric cars are very similar to my assumptions. First, she said that electric cars with 0 emissions are existed more than internal combustion energy vehicles, but they were started to develop only several years ago, because previously petrol companies did not give to improve this market not to lose sells of oil and gas, and now it is developing fast because oil resources will be finished during the next fifty years. Second, electric cars are the lowest emission vehicles in the world, actually they make 0 emissions. If we convert consumption of energy engine into liters of petrol, it will be much less. To produce electricity we have to burn coal, which also pollute the air, but totally it will be less than emissions of gasoline cars. Third, she arisen the problem of recharge stations, because it takes long time to recharge battery of electric car. Dr. Nurtaeva’s gave solution of this problem, today automobile companies produces cars that can be recharged at home through rosettes and in the city by parking station. Next step is about cost and price, she explained why people do not buy electric cars and even now do not buy hybrid cars in Kazakhstan. Using electric and hybrid cars are much cheaper in long term, but the price is higher. Economic situation in Kazakhstan is not stable and high, and people not always can have enough amount of money, that’s why people prefer to buy gasoline car with the same technical characteristics as electric or hybrid vehicles and spend less money. People would buy electric cars if government subsidize, decrease taxes and subtract duties. Her next assumption is about petrol and diesel fuels, and the age of cars; she said that standards of oil are very low, about ten years ago it was euro-2, now it is euro-3, but it makes more emissions than high standards of oil. In addition, old cars produce more emissions than new cars, and old ones existed a lot in Almay, so government should remove old vehicles. Finally, Dr. Nurtaeva said that people do not buy them because of education level and cultural background of people in our country. People do not understand ecological and economical benefits of using electric vehicle, because of low level of education and small amount of educated people. According to Dr. Nurtaeva people in our country like “ponty”, and buy luxury cars, which produce a lot of emissions instead of buying electric car. So, it can be changed only by the next generation, which is more sensible and understand benefits.

Chapter 5. Analysis The results of questionnaire are interesting and peculiar, since answers are different and I have found logical connection between answers on different questions. For example, 30% of participants answer that they do not have car now and 30% of people on the question how many kilometers they travel per day say less than 50. I think here there is connection, and my theory can be explained as you drive less when you do not have car, because your travel is not so comfortable and time saving. So, people who do not have cars usually drive to university/work and go back, because moving to particular place consumes more time and money. Another point is that 90% of participants of questionnaire are interested in owning electric car; another 10% do not want to have it. To the question would people accept local government if they sold and converted electric cars, most of participants answered positively, and 10% said that they would not accept it. In case of environmentally conscious 70% of people answered that they are environmentally conscious, and 30% said no. However, in question about preferences in cars, 60% prefer powerful cars, 30% select efficiency, 10% said cost, and nobody answered that they choose because of low level of emissions. It is ridiculous because more than half said that they are environmentally conscious, but nobody prefer attributes of a car, which are good for environment. There are several interesting and very different results, 40% of people do not know how much they would pay for new electric car, and I think it happens because most of people know only the concept of electric vehicles and not more. However, someone is ready to pay 90000$, another will not pay more than 10000$ the results are based on preferences and interest of participants, so it can be different because of environmental side and economical side.
I tried to make questions to get more specific answers and statistics, and compare our Kazakhstani market with Europe and U.S. markets. First of all, after the questionnaire I can make several finding, which are going to be very interesting and discursive. According to academic articles that I used in this study, preferences of people in Europe and U.S. are absolutely different. Participant of my questionnaire, as I said before, prefer powerful cars, then efficiency of cars, and they do not pay attention to cost and emission. In Europe and U.S. the trend is changing to have hybrid and electric cars, so their preferences are changed because of ecological issues. So, people are ready to sacrifice environment for their personal interests. This is the problem of cultural background. In our country people do not treasure environment.
I have analyzed answers of Dr. Nurtaeva, and understand the basic reason of difficulty of introduction electric cars in Kazakhstan. The main problem is that our country is developing, and level of education, level of life, economic position of people is different from European countries and United States where people have more money to consume, higher level of education and life. Government should provide conditions to use electric vehicles such as recharging stations for electric cars and reduction taxes and removing custom dues. After that people will see real economical benefits of buying electric vehicles. The ecological situation will be changed only when people will get the point of high understanding and thinking. Increasing education level and changing cultural background by next generation will give basis to existence new trends.

Chapter 6. Conclusion Electric car is the innovational technology of the future that already exists, and it is developed very rapidly last years because of ecological and economical benefits that are very necessary for contemporary world. Today electric cars are the best alternative for usual gasoline cars, because the have new engine that use energy without producing emissions. In addition, the costs for electric cars are much less than for internal combustion engine cars, because it consumes less electricity than gasoline cars consume petrol.
The aim of my research was implementation electric vehicle in Almaty, and finding its impact on the city in terms of economical and environmental benefits. The paper showed that enforcing electric cars would be the big problem, because people do not understand its advantages. Also, the economy is not in good position to introduce them in our country.
The result of research showed that enforcing electric cars in country should be developed with the big help of our government and automobile distributors in Kazakhstan. Government should explain benefits and attract people to use them by reducing the taxes and custom dues for them. Automobile distributors should introduce models of electric cars, since now there is no any official seller of electric cars.
However, the results of research are limited and there is enough space for future research. A limitation of this study is that the numbers of participants were relatively small, and sample represented only small part of the citizens, mostly students. Also, in our country there are no so many specialists with big experience in the field of electric cars, its market and implementation.
An implication of these findings is that both economical situation and attitude of mind of Kazakhstani citizens, namely cultural background of people should be taken into account to make possible enforcing electric cars.
Bibliography
Akim’s Administration of Bostandyk District (2008, May). Almaty is facing the environmental problems. Retrieved September 18, 2013, from http://bostandyk.almaty.kz/page.php?page_id=160&lang=3&news_id=1938
Argueta, R. (2010, March). A Technical Research Report: The Electric Vehicle. University of California Santa Barbara. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/holms/Writing_2E-_EV_Technical_Research_Report.pdf.
Burden, M. (2013, September). California is gateway to electric car market. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.nada.com/b2b/NADAOutlook/NewsPress.aspx.
Crist, P. (2012, April). Electric Vehicles Revisited – Costs, Subsidies and Prospects. Discussion Paper No. 2012-O3.Retrieved October1, 2013, fromhttp://www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/DiscussionPapers/DP201203.pdf.
Curwin, T. (2011, November). Electric-Vehicle Sales Move Out of First Gear. Retrieved October10, 2013, fromhttp://www.cnbc.com/id/44716862.
Lee, H. & Lovellette, G. (2011, July). Will Electric Cars TransformThe U.S. VehicleMarket? Discussion Paper #2011-08
Energy. Technology Innovation Policy Discussion Paper Series.Retrieved September 30, 2013, fromhttp://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/Lee%20Lovellette%20Electric%20Vehicles%20DP%202011%20web.pdf.
National Automobile Dealers Association (2013). Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Market Analysis and Used Price Forecast.Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.nada.com/b2b/NADAOutlook/NewsPress.aspx.
Sousanis, J. (2011, August). World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units. Retrieved September 16, 2013, from http://wardsauto.com/ar/world_vehicle_population_110815.
Thiel, C., Alemanno, A., Scarcella, G., Zubaryeva1, A., Pasaoglu, G. (2012). Attitude of European car drivers towards electric vehicles: a survey. Retrieved October1, 2013, fromhttp://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/111111111/26995/1/eur%2025597%20scientific%20report%20on%20ev%20attitudes_online.pdf.
VIA Motors. Green Celebrities who Drive Electric Cars & Electric Vehicles. Retrieved October September 17, 2013, fromhttps://www.pinterest.com/viamotors/green-celebrities-who-drive-electric-cars-electric/.
Zimmer, W., Hacker, F., Harthan, R., Matthes, F. (2009, July). Environmental impacts andimpact on the electricity market of a large scale introduction of electric cars inEurope.ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/4 July 2009.Retrieved October 1, 2013, from https://dspace.ist.utl.pt/bitstream/2295/636341/1/.

Appendix A
Interview questions: 1) How much can you save or lose on using an electric car? 2) Where batteries can be recharged? 3) How much do electric vehicles cost in average? 4) What do you think about Electric Conversion? (An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). 5) Will electric cars improve air condition in the city? 6) Will people buy electric cars in Almaty if government subsidizes electric cars?

Appendix B 1. Would you be interested in owning an Electric Vehicle? * Yes * No2. Do you have a car? * Yes * No3. How many kilometers a day do you travel to work/university/etc, round-trip? * Less than 50 km * Between 50-100 km * More than 100 km * I do not have a car * Your answer |
4. Is the most of your daily driving in the city, on the highway or mixed? * Mostly City Driving (Stop & Go: traffic jams and a lot of traffic lights) * Mostly Highway (All Go: Al-Farabi street, between cities/from outside of the city) * Equal amounts of Both (50/50) | | |
5. What type of Vehicle do you currently drive? * Petrol * Diesel * Hybrid * Currently don't have one | * Other (please specify) |
6. How much would you pay for a "New" Electric Vehicle?
7. How much would you pay for an "Electric Conversion"? (An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle)
8. How likely would you be to accept a local establishment if they sold and converted electric vehicles? * Very Likely * Somewhat Likely * Possibly * Maybe * Not Really * Never ever |
9. What do you prefer in car? * Cost * Efficiency * Power * Emissions * You answer |
10. Do you think you are environmentally conscious? * Yes * No

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...Salas Who killed the electric car ? Environmental issues Who Killed the Electric Car is a documentary which unfolds a complex set of events around the development and demise of the modern electric car. The story stems from California from the early 1990s to 2006. Everything begins to unfold with a brief history of the first electric cars created in the early twentieth century. These electric vehicles were killed off nearly 100 years ago as gas/petroleum powered internal combustion engine cars became cheaper. The worsening problems of gas/petrol cars are illustrated: smog, high child asthma rates, CO2 emissions and global warming. 1987 when General Motors and the Sun Racer, won the World Solar Challenge, a solar electric car race in Australia. General Motor's CEO, Roger Smith challenged the same design team to build a prototype practical electric car which became known as the 'Impact' when announced in 1990. The project expanded to small scale production vehicles with the aim that it would give GM several years lead over any competitor car companies.The Californian Air Resources Board (CARB) saw this as a way to solve their air quality problem and in 1990 passed the Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV Mandate specified increasing numbers of vehicles sold would have to be Zero Emission Vehicles. 'For the car companies, there was......

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Who Killed the Electric Car

...develop a fully functional and affordable electric powered car. The resulting vehicles were high powered, zero emission, but could only run for approximately 100 miles on a charge, which is sufficient for most day to day driving. Because they knew that the technology was feasible and because of the global warming phenomenon resulting from the uncontrolled burning of fossil fuels, California state regulators passed the Zero Emission Vehicle Mandate in 1990, requiring all auto makers to offer for sale in the state zero emission vehicles. The electric car was the most promising technology at the time. It was argued that they were more environmentally friendly than conventional vehicles, even if the electricity was produced through burning coal. Under pressure from all the auto makers who sued the California Air Resources Board, the mandate was revoked in 2003. Despite lessees who loved their electric vehicles, all the auto makers repossessed their electric vehicles and refused to re-lease or sell the vehicles even to their existing users. Many forces seemed to be working against making electric vehicles available, despite technology itself making their production and operation feasible. "In 1996, electric cars began to appear on roads all over California. They were quiet and fast, produced no exhaust and ran without gasoline........... Ten years later, these futuristic cars were almost completely gone." 'Who Killed the Electric Car' is a documentary which unfolds a complex...

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