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Hrm 552

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Caso De EstudioGrigg Vs. Duque
Resumen
El Griggs contra Duke Power Company fue un caso histórico en relación con la discriminación en el lugar de trabajo. Duke Power Company era conocida por discriminar a los negros durante el proceso de contratación sólo por lo que les permite trabajar en el departamento de trabajo que es lo que era la posición mas baja remuneración. Después de la Ley de Derechos Civiles fue aprobada, obviamente, la empresa ya no se puede discriminar legalmente basada en la raza. Sin embargo, la compañía se convirtió en astuto y se requiere un diploma de escuela secundaria para el empleo. Esto, a su vez elimina una gran cantidad de pontenciales empleados negros, porque la mayoría de ellos no tienen el bachillerato. Esto realmente se convirtió en un problema cuando Griggs solicitó un puesto, pero se le negó porque no tenía un diploma de escuela secundaria. Este fue llevado hasta la corte suprema y falló a favor de Griggs por las siguientes razones; En primer lugar, el tribunal dictamió que la discriminación no tiene que ser intencional para estar presente. La discriminación puede ser ilegal, incluso cuando se aplica de manera uniforme a todo el mundo. Por lo tanto, en este caso, a pesar de que los diplomas de la escuela secundaria se requieren para todo el mundo, que dio a los individuos negros una desventja grave y, a su vez limita sus oportunidades de empleo. En segundo lugar, el tribunal dictaminó que las prácticas de empleo debe ser el trabajo relacionado. Si no está relacionado con el trabajo, que puede ser utilizado, pero debe estar directamente relacionada con éxito en el trabajo. El diploma de la secundaria no tiene ninguna relación directa con el éxito del trabajo.
Hechos
Antes la aprobación de la Ley de Derechos Civiles de 1964, Duke Power Co. tuvo una política de segregación de los empleados de acuerdo a la raza. En su planta de Rio Dan, los afroamericanos se les permite trabajar sólo en su departamento de trabajo, lo que constituye la posición más baja que paga la empresa.
Después de la Ley de Derechos Civiles fue aprobada, la empresa cambió sus políticas, la adición de un requisito de un diploma de escuela secundaria o un puntaje mínimo en un test de inteligencia, para las posiciones en las áreas que no sean el Departamento de Trabajo. Esto tuvo el efecto de eliminar un gran número de africanos solicitantes de América para las posiciones de fuera del departamento de Trabajo.

Juicio
La Corte Suprema falló en contra de un procedimiento utilizado por la empresa al seleccionar empleados para la transferencia interna y la promoción de ciertas posiciones, a saber, que requieren una educación de escuela secundaria y algunos resultados de las pruebas de aptitud generales. Africanos solicitantes estadounidenses, menos probabilidades de tener un diploma de escuela secundaria y un promedio de puntuaciones más bajas en las pruebas de aptitud, se seleccionaron a un ritmo mucho menor para estos puestos en comparación con los candidatos blancos.

El Tribunal consideró que en el Título VII de la Ley de Derechos Civiles, si las pruebas de tales grupos de manera desigual impacto de las minorías étnicas, las empresas deben demostrar que tales pruebas son "razonablemente relacionada" con el trabajo que se requiere la prueba. Debido a que el Título VII se pasa de conformidad con el poder del Congreso bajo la Cláusula de Comercio de la Constitución, la prueba de impacto desigual tarde articulada por la Corte Suprema en Washington v Davis, 426 EE.UU. 229 (1976) es inaplicable. (La prueba de Washington v Davis por impacto desigual se utiliza en casos constitucionales de igualdad de protección de la cláusula de prohibición, mientras que el Título VII sobre la repercusión dispar es un mandato legal.)
Como tal, el Título VII de la Ley de Derechos Civiles prohíbe las pruebas de empleo (cuando se utiliza como un factor decisivo en las decisiones de empleo) que no son una "medida razonable de rendimiento en el trabajo", independientemente de la ausencia de la intención real de discriminar. Dado que las pruebas de aptitud involucrados, y la exigencia de diploma de escuela secundaria, eran de amplia base y que no están directamente relacionadas con los trabajos realizados, el procedimiento de Duke Power empleado transferencia fue encontrado por la Corte en violación de la ley.

La historia posterior
Griggs contra Duke Power Co. también sostuvo que el empleador tenía la carga de la producción y prueba de la necesidad de la empresa de una prueba. Sin embargo, en los distritos Cove Packing Co. v Atonio, el Tribunal redujo la carga del empleador a la producción única evidencia de la justificación empresarial. En 1991, la Ley de Derechos Civiles fue modificada para anular la parte de la decisión Cove Wards.
David Frum afirma que antes de Griggs, los empleadores no tienen que separar los errores intencionales de errores no intencionales si se trata por igual a todos los solicitantes por las apariencias.La disidencia de Ginsburg en Ricci vs DeStefano sugiere que la conclusión de Griggs (que el Congreso dirigido más allá del "trato desigual", apuntaba a "impacto dispar", así y proscrito, no sólo las discriminaciones manifiestas, sino también las prácticas que sean justas en la forma, pero discriminatorio en funcionamiento ) ha sido efectivamente anulada por la decisión de Ricci.

Ley de Empleo I. Impacto dispar se define como cuando un empleador no está motivada por una intención discriminatoria. El Título VII prohíbe que un empleador con una práctica de empleo aparentemente neutral que, como un impacto injusto desfavorable sobre los miembros de una clase protegida. La Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos describió por primera vez la teoría del impacto dispar en 1971, la Compañía Griggs contra Duke Power (401 EE.UU. 424). El Título VII también va a confirmar que el impacto dispar "prohíbe no sólo las discriminaciones manifiestas, sino también las prácticas que están en forma justa, pero discriminatorio en la operación." Algunos ejemplos de prácticas que puedan ser objeto de repercusión dispar incluyen la prueba escrita, la altura y los requisitos de peso, los requisitos educativos, y los procedimientos subjetivos, tales como entrevistas. II. Griggs contra Duke Power Company (1971) fue un caso judicial ante el Tribunal Supremo de Estados Unidos el 12 de diciembre de 1970. Empresa Duke Power no permitió que los afro-americanos a los empleados a ser promovido por el Departamento de Trabajo. Empresa Duke Power cumplir esta exigiendo a los empleados a tener un diploma de escuela secundaria con el fin de ser promovido a cabo el Departamento de Trabajo de que en la mayoría de los casos los afroamericanos no tenían.. La cuestión era si la nueva ley prohibió la empresa Duke Power de exigir una educación de escuela secundaria y la aprobación de una prueba estandarizada de inteligencia general, las condiciones de empleo, cuando las normas no se relacionaron significativamente con el rendimiento en el trabajo. Los afro-americanos no estaban calificados por las normas a un ritmo mayor que en gran medida los solicitantes del Cáucaso y los trabajos en cuestión había de antemano sólo se ha llenado por los caucásicos, como parte de una antigua práctica de la discriminación.
Con base en la Ley de Derechos Civiles, cambiaron su política de forma que una de las dos pruebas de equivalencia de escuela secundaria puede estar en el lugar de un diploma de escuela secundaria. III. La decisión 8-0 de la Corte Suprema de Griggs contra Duke Power Company estableció nuevas definiciones de discriminación en el empleo.

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