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Human Biology

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Submitted By frankmuinde
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1. List and describe the steps of mitosis.
A. Interphase.
At this stage the cell is undergoing metabolic events and activities in preparations for cell division. The chromosomes are not visible at this stage. However, a dark stop (nucleolus) may be seen.
B. Prophase.
The chromosome starts condensing. At this stage the chromosomes become visible. The nucleolus disappears and the centrioles begin moving to opposite ends. From the centromeres, fibers start to extend. Mitotic spindle form.
C. Prometaphase.
Nuclear membrane disappears. Proteins get attached to the centromeres to create kinetochores. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores. The chromosomes start moving.
D. Metaphase.
The chromosomes arrange themselves at the equator of the cell. This will ensure that the chromosomes will separate and each nucleus will have one copy of each chromosome.
E. Anaphase.
The pair chromosomes separate and move in the opposite directions.The separation is due to movement of kinetochore along the spindle fiber. Physical interactions of the polar microtubules also contribute in the movement of the chromosomes.
F. Telophase.
Now the chromatids are located at the poles. Membranes form around the daughter nuclei. The chromosomes are no longer visible under the light microscope. The spindle fibers disperse, and cell partitioning starts.
G. Cytokinesis.
Fiber rings around the center of the cell contract causing the cell to divide into two daughter cells. Each daughter cell has one nucleus.
2. What is the purpose of mitosis and when does it occur? What is the purpose of meiosis?
Mitosis is purposed for growth and repair of the body. Mitosis takes place in somatic cells. Meiosis helps in production of gametes.
3. In what ways is meiosis different from mitosis? Be thorough. CHARACTER | MEIOSIS | MITOSIS | Types of reproduction | Sexual | Asexual | Take...

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