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Human Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Human Development 270


understanding human development wendy dunn the power of habit character strength love caring temperance addiction power point


1859 origin of the species Darwin gene frequency modification generation by generation creates change species- groups reproductive members are compatible

freud 1856-1939 psychoanalysis human nature motivated by innate biological inner dynamics id-primative hedonistic component ego- the conscious reality oriented component super-ego the ego ideal conscious plus morality principle death instinct- destructive aggressive impulses life insticts- impulses having to do with survival food water sex psychological stages oral stages- birth to 1.5 oral gratification anal stage- 1-3 stinginess and stubbornness fixation hung up in stage phallic stage 3-6 erogenous zone shifts to gentiles Oedipus electra complexes latency 5-12 sexual impulses are dormant genital 12 onward primacy of sexual impulses

erik erikson 1902-1994 trust vs mistrust the world is safe autonomy vs shame 1-3 dress toilet move outside family initiative vs guilt 3-6 learn to cope with wider world industry vs inferiority 6-12 goes to school intimacy vs isolation development of sexual intimacy

character learn to be good person choices from habit inhibitions satisfaction

kagan standards for behavior formed in childhood. Guilt anger shame beauty by 4yrs reinforced by family friends peers emotions are at the foundations of attachment. In place by elementary school


skinner 1904 1990 behaviorism stimulus pattern reward interested in nature of reinforcement and response is the behavior observable response is any behavior reinforcement increases likelihood of response continuous reinforcement partial reinforcement – reinforcement does not follow every response periodic reinforcement extinction- reinforcement never follows response skinner box with rats social learning- learning from observing consequences criticism- one way learning strict behaviorism consequences are not necessary

piaget 1896-1980 cognitive developmentalist structuralist- how the mind works schemas- mental structures that process information perception thinking assimilation- input to schemas accommodation- changes in schemas as a result of assimilation sensory motor period birth-2 infant learns through senses simple to complex actions preoperational 2-7 children are ego centric can only see world through their eyes language to form concepts magical thinking conservation tasks concrete operations 7-12 need concrete examples become mental patterns formal operations 12 and on capable of abstract thinking

vygotsky 1896-1944 we learn about the world by learning simple and complex tools guided participation- understanding through expert guidance zone of proximal development- what you can accomplish with expert help shared meanings are critical

31JAN13 before birth advantages of sexual reproduction human mating single births rise of the placentals

is sex necessary non sexual reproduction passes on 100% of genes through asexual reproduction budding sexual reproduction is expensive- castrated men live 13 years longer sexual reproduction speeds evolution through sharing genes sexual reproduction provides defenses against parasites

sowing the seed in most mammals ovulation occurs when the female is maximally attractive and receptive in humans ovulation does not make female attractive females born with eggs
250 million sperm moves a 5 in an hour contractions in vagina

one at a time single births are the rule size determines strategy short lived animals breed sooner and have larger litters r rapid strategy breed rapidly k cautious babies require resource sbefore and after birth slow growth indicates k strategy

rise of placentals laying eggs limits mobility marsupials interest of mom and baby are different placental fertilized eggs uterine wall taps blood vessels

revolt placenta and umbilical cord provide path for oxygen nutrient antibodies hormones problem walking small pelvis bony baby head must fit solution pelvis enlarges joints loosen problems baby too big pelvis too small- lack of vit d calcium sideways or breech surgery roman law 7thc cant burry dead mom until baby cut out to see if its alive c-section criminal because so dangerous forceps salad tongs for pulling baby out early 20th antiseptics forceps blood transfusions induce and caesarian by 1930 switch to hospitals birth dangersou 1 in 150 die
1950 penascillan antibiotcs 1/2000 but for babies 1/30 die no better than century before

Virginia apgar 1909-1974
Colombia anesthesiology board certified
Appalled at care of newborns
Small or blue babies were allowed to die
Apgar scale 1-10
2 pink/ 2 cry/ 2 breathing/ 2 moving/ 2 heart rate over 100

attachment and love imitation and empathy baby sticks tongue out when mom does babies know certain facial expression reflect particular kinesthetic feelings

empathy recognize similarity of your feelings and those of others act as if you are experiencing the mental act make that feeling your own babies may not see dif between their pain and anothers babies feel others pain absorb ethos

emotional development first manage distress and comfort emotional self regulation first year sadness anger disgust fear pleasure
2nd pride shame embarrassment guilt empathy still face experiment 3month not expression then babys behavior deteriorates

temperament inborn characteristic way the baby responds to world easy 60%, moods usually are positive and seldom explosive regular in sleeping eating easily adaptable difficult 10% cries with intensity negative moods irregular routines react to change slowly slow to warm up 15% has positive and neg moods mild moderately regular in routines adjusts over time

theories of love
1 year affection and trust given to few people learn people are different in orphanages bids for affection made but not returned lose ability to love. Skeptical worried withdrawn

05FEB13 character habits of mind that lead us to be decent habits inhibitions satisfactions how do habits function what makes an addiction
Eugene pauley
Viral encephalitis immediate memory gone
Unconscious learning. Learning neighborhood is unconscious experience.
Basil ganglia and habit
Stoes habits while other parts of brain are asleep
Brain converts a sequence of actions into automatic routine chunking
Hundreds of chunks eaveryday are in use simple to complex
Habits form so brain can save effort
Brain tries to make sequence into habit
Efficient brain saves energy so it can auto pilot
Brain looks for cues chooses a pattern reward appears
Cue triggers automatic mode, routine can be mental physical emotional reward
This loop becomes automatic
Conscious habits
Not destiny
Habits never disappear
Fiddle with cues pattern reward
Habits are necessary to get through the day
Unconscious habit
Everyone is interested in habit
Perspective on the world 1. I me mine 1st person singular is a perspective knowledge only I have about my thoughts feelings subjective 2. We ours us 1st person plural is about shared social world subjective 3. He she it 3rd person singular objective
Changing perspectives
Shift from I to we is important to interested in group productivity couples military

Images are 1st person things thoughts feelings beliefs only known to individual subjective
Images are about present here now
Integrating sensory data into the world
Resolve and connect fragmented poorly coordinated experiences
Define who we are
Biological cultural cognitive

Temple grandem autistic
Think in pictures. Always a particular image cannot integrate image
Can picture each image because they don’t blend ex all dogs

Imagination in blind and deaf
Voobrazheni- into image making only with the acquisition of culture language does it become possible for blind deaf to separate self from the world doing so they create gap in order to be able to reflect upon world images from touch sound and not just sight

socioprioception expands view of imagination includes imagination as gap filling the importance of the temporal dimension of thought and action

7FEB13 take survey describe in terms of how you react to top six
2-3 pages

novelty perceiving what others don’t see willingness to take ideas to the limits see sublime in ordinary –delay judgment

cloninger 3 factors exploratory excitability impulsiveness

Zuckerman scale

Knowledge seeking
Thrill seeking
Experience seeking



7MAR13 thrill seeking identify routine experiment with rewards isolate the cue make a plan

cues tone of voice facial expressions closeness time location exam chapters 1 4 5 6 and notes posted

chaper 6 physical development through elementary school girls are taller than boys heavier and stronger too
25% of 6th graders are wearing glasses
25% entering elementary school are obese already- African americans more if you have one obese parent odds child will be are 40% if 2 obese parents chance child will be is 80% obesity then asthma cause of illnesses among kids
African Hispanics and whites asthma
Leading cause of death car accidents
Mental illness 20% of kids
Autism is increasing but we don’t know why
Autism has been dropped as an illness and is now part of other illnesses
Depression 10-15% kids suffer
Depression is an absence of feeling
2% bipolar
1 in 10000 suffer depression
30% time in school is instructional intelligence and social class relationship Herb Gentes and sam something
Alfred binet what is the nature of intelligence ask kindergarten teacher
Mental orthopedics what activities will strengthen this persons intelligence
Mental age chronological age
change ways people think about mental development sam and herb iq is connected to social class top 10% class= top 10% in iq= 50%chance bottom 10%class= top 10% iq= 1% chance

go over slides pay attention to concepts listed

puberty begins at 9 for girls and 12 for boys age 6 brain 95% of adult size reaches peak at 10.5 for girls and 14,5 for boys corpus collosium connects sides of brain grow 4-20 boy brain 10% bigger but volumn decreases due to pruning corpus collosium white coordinates

operant conditioning social learning assimilation and accommodation schema chapter 2 shaping reinforcement for good behavior- skinner behavior modification self concept

chapter 4 plasticity habituation marasmus kwashiorkor weaning perception sensorimotor period object permanence imitation adaptation receptive language productive language telegraphic speech lad language acquisition device

personality temperament imprinting avoidant attachment synchrony trust vs mistrust stranger anxiety social referencing prosocial behavior empathy child neglect empathy chapter 6 myelination lateralization conservation private speech zone of proximal development


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