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Human Growth and Development Review Sheet

In: Social Issues

Submitted By manwar
Words 2040
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CHAPTER 1 1. The pattern of movement that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. Each of us develop: * Party like some individuals i.e. with those whom we share similar genetic makeup example our parents, siblings. * Partly like no other individuals i.e. the genetic recombination and environment factors which makes us unique. * Partly like all other individuals with those whom we share similar gender, age, and other such physiological factors. 2. Development includes Growth and Decline (see page 5) * Consider a 75 year old man, his goal will not be able to improve his golf swing, but to maintain his independence and to play golf at all. 3. Traditional vs Life-Span Approach (see page 2) * Traditional Approach suggests that, most if not all changes occur from birth to adolescence (infancy), no change in adulthood and decline in old age. * Life-Span Approach suggests that we undergo changes throughout the course of our life, i.e. all stages of life, from birth till death. 4. Life Span vs. Life Expectancy * Life Span is the longest recorded age a human has lived, which is to be 122 years. Life Span has not changed since the beginning of recorded history. * Life Expectancy is the average number of years an individual born in a particular year/era is expected to live. Life Expectancy has gone up by 30 years in the 20th century. 5. Characteristics of Life Span Perspective are it is: lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multi-disciplinary, contextual and involves growth, maintenance, regulation and loss. (pages 3-5) 6. Context refers to a specific setting in which development occurs, which are influenced by many factors. There are primarily three types of influences: * Normative Age-graded influences – Similar for individual in a particular age group. Examples, those in their teens, middle aged, old etc. * Normative History Graded influences – Associated with history, common to a particular generation. Examples those who were growing up during the WW or 9-11. * Non normative life events: Unusual occurrences that had major impact on a person’s life. Example, death in family. 7. Culture vs. Gender: * Culture is the behavior pattern or belief system and all other products that are passed down from generation to generation. * Gender is the psychological or sociocultural dimension of being a male or female. 8. Development can be: * Biological – Changes in an individual’s physical nature. * Cognitive – Changes in an individual’s thought process, intelligence and language. * Socio-emotional – Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions and personality. 9. Conception of Age could be: * Biological – age in terms of biological health. * Psychological – mental age or level of maturity as compared to others of the same chronological age. 10. Nature vs. Nurture * Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance * Nurture is to its environmental experience 11. Stability vs. Change * Stability is what you inherit i.e. heredity and some early life experience * Change or Plasticity is able to occur and occurs throughout one’s life. 12. Continuity vs. Discontinuity * Continuity refers to gradual cumulative changes; quntitative example seed to a tee. * Discontinuity refers to distinct stages; qualitative example metamorphosis. 13. Theory vs. Hypothesis * A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that help explain phenomena and make prediction * A hypotheses are specific assertion and predictions that can be tested. 14. Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytical Theory is primarily unconscious and strongly attached with emotions. It has 5 stages (see page 15) * Oral > Anal > Phallic > Latency > Genital (psychosexual stages) 15. Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory suggests that environment (society thus social) too has a great impact in human mind and development. Has eight stages of development: * Year 1 – Trust vs. Misrust (Infancy) * Years 1-3 – Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Infancy) * Years 3-5 – Initiative vs. Guilt (Early Childhood) * Years 6-Puberty – Industry vs. Inferiority (Middle Childhood) * Years 10-20 – Identity vs. Identity Crises (Adolescence) * Years 20-40 – Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood) * Years 40-60 – Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) * Years 60 on – Integrity vs. Despair. (Late Adulthood) 16. Piaget Theory is classified under Cognitive Theory suggests how a child thinks and not how much a child knows determines its stage of cognitive development, which are: * Sensorimotor > Preoperational > Concrete Operational > Formal Operational 17. Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory is classified under Cognitive Theory maintains that cognitive development occurs under the influence of social and cultural interaction. 18. Skinner’s Operational Conditioning falls under Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory suggest that development can be described in terms of behavior learned through interaction with the environment. 19. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory that behavior, environment and cognitive factors are important in understanding development. 20. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory focuses on five environmental systems; microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem and chronosystem. 21. Definition * Descriptive Research aims to Observe and Record Behavior. * Correlational Research’s goal is describe the strength of relationship between two or more events or characteristics. * Experiment is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believe to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated (variable), keeping all other factors same (constants). 22. Independent vs Dependent Variable: * Independent variable is a potential cause, it can be manipulated independently of other factors to determine its affect. * Dependent Variable changes in an experiment in response to the independent variable.

CHAPTER 2 1. Natural Selection is a process by which those individuals that are best adapted are the ones to survive and reproduce. 2. Survival of the Fittest suggests the ones that survive are the fittest and are better adapted to their world than non-survivor. Fit refers to the ability to bear offspring’s that are viable i.e. can survive and reproduce themselves. 3. Chromosomes are thread likes structures made up of DNA. Genes are units of hereditary information. 4. Mitosis is a process of cell division that gives rises to two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the mother cell (all cells except Gametes). Meiosis is a process which gives rise to four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells, with the chromosomes having undergone genetic recombination (sex cell production). 5. Fertilization is the fusion of male gamete (sperm) with the female gamete (egg), process resulting in the formation of zygote. 6. Females and males both have 23 pairs of chromosome, the 23rd pair for females are XX, and while in males are XY. Chromosome Y is what makes a male gender. 7. Genotype refers to an individual’s genetic makeup/composition. Phenotype refers to the physical expression of the genetic makeup, i.e. observable characteristics. Dominant gene is the one that always exert its influence. Recessive gene can only exert its influence in a homozygous pair of recessive genes. 8. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder having one extra copy of the chromosome 21. 9. Heredity Environment Correlation suggests your genetic makeup directly impacts your environment unlike Epigentic Correlation which is bi-directional. Of three types: * Passive Genotype Environment Correlation – Biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide the rearing environment for the child. * Evocative Genotype Environment Correlation – Child’ characteristics evoke a certain type of environment from its parents. * Active Genotype Environment Correlation – Children determine its own suitable environment based upon their likes and dislikes. 10. Three periods of Pre-Natal Development are: * Germinal Period – 0-2wks, creation of fertilized egg, cell division, attachment to the uterine wall. Blastocyst, trophoblast form during this period. * Embryonic Period – 2-8wks, rapid cell division, body part develops (organogenesis) from three layers: endoderm forms digestive, respiratory system, mesoderm forms circulatory system, bones, muscles, and ectoderm forms nervous system, sensory receptors, ears. * Fetal Period – 8wks to 9 months/birth, development of the fetus in size and shape. At birth American Baby weighs 7.5 pounds and is about 20 inches long. 11. The Brain – Neural Tube develops out of ectoderm. Neural Tube defects/failure to close may cause anencephaly or spin bifida. 12. Teratogens – all substance that can cause birth defects or negatively alter cognitive or behavioral outcomes. 13. The Birth Process 14. Postpartum Period lasts up to six weeks post child birth or until the mothers body returns to the pre pregnancy state. Involution – process by which mother’s uterus returns to pre-pregnant size.

CHAPTER 3 1. Cephalocaudal vs. Proximodistal Growth * Cephalocaudal – sequence in which growth starts at the top of the head (cephalic) and progresses down. * Proximodistal – sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards extremities. 2. The Brain: * Cerebral Cortex – covers the forebrain, wrinkled cap. * Two Hemispheres * Four main lobes – Frontal, Parietal, Temporal and Occipital * Lateralization – Specialization of function in one hemisphere or another. * Neuron – cells of the nervous system, cell body, axon, dendrite, myelin sheath and synapses. 3. Reflexes – reaction to stimuli, it is involuntary, allows infants to respond adaptively to their environment. 4. Sensation vs. Perception * Sensation – occurs when information interacts with the sensory receptors. * Perception – it is the interpretation of what is being sensed. 5. Habituation vs. Dishabituation: * Habituation – Decreased responsive to a stimuli after repeated exposure to the stimulus. * Dishabituation – Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulus. 6. Piaget’s Theory – see chapter 1. 7. Equilibrium vs. Disequilibrium * Equilibrium – a process by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next. * Disequilibrium – Cognitive conflict, a child is often facing counter examples of existing schemes. 8. Attention and Joint Attention: * Attention - Focusing of mental information on select information/task. * Joint Attention –Individuals focusing on the same object or event and involves the ability to track another person’s behavior. 9. Memory – it is the ability to retain information over time. 10. Overextension vs. Under extension: * Overextension – tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the words meaning. * Under extension – the tendency to apply a word to narrowly.

CHAPTER 4 1. Emotion – feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him/her especially for his/her wellbeing. Involves individual communication with the world. In Infancy stage, emotion is the primary way of communication. 2. Emotions can be classified as positive (pleasant) or negative (unpleasant). Early emotions (first 6 months) shown are joy, surprise, interest, anger, disgust and fear. Self-conscious emotions such as guilt, jealousy, pride, shame, embarrassment and empathy don’t appear until the second half of the first year. 3. Emotions are influenced by both biological foundations and by personal experiences. Basic emotions such as happiness, surprise, anger and fear are same across cultures. 4. Crying, Smile and Fear: * Crying is the most important mechanisms newborns have for communicating, can be sub-divided into – basic cry (hunger), anger cry (when ignored, demands not met) and pain cry (physical pain). * Smiles can be two types: Reflexive smile, which is independent to an external stimuli (new-born babies, sleep smiling). Social smile, in response to an external stimuli (4 months and older). * Fear one of the earliest emotions shown by babies, appears first at 6 months of age and peaks at 18 months. Abused babies can show fear as early as 3 months. 5. Crying when caregiver leaves is called Separation Protest. This behavior peaks around about the same age (12-15months) in babies of different socio-cultural/ethnic groups. 6. Social Referencing – Reading and responding to emotional cues of others. Towards the end of the first year, an infant will seek these cues from parent’s w.r.t exploration of unfamiliar environment. It improves after second year. 7. Temperament – an individual’s behavior style and characteristic way of emotionally responding. See notes for classification. 8. The match between temperament and environmental demands with which a child must cope is referred to as Goodness of Fit. 9. Attachment – A close emotional bond between two people. Sigmund Freud suggested that infants develop attachment to person or object that can provide oral satisfaction. * Securely attached babies – caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment * Insecure avoidant babies – avoid their mothers, thus showing insecurity. * Insecure and resistant babies – cling to the caregiver, then resist fighting against closeness. * Insecure disorganized babies – disorganized and disoriented. 10. Social Context – The Family 11. Socialization that is bi-directional is called Reciprocal Socialization. * Children socialize parents just as parents socialize children.

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