Free Essay

Human Health Risk Assessment

In: Science

Submitted By NEdge001
Words 1686
Pages 7
Human Health Risk Assessment
ENV/420
October 6, 2014

Human Health Risk Assessment

The use of Permethrin and Saccharin are highly argued as dangerous. Both chemicals have been proven to have long lasting effects on the body that in some cases could lead to death. Permethrin is an insecticide. Permethrin common uses are in the battle against mosquitoes. Permethrin has also been used on crops and other forms of vegetation to combat insect destruction (NPIC, 2009). Permethrin also has many other uses that the average consumer or user may be unaware of, they include in dog and cat flea collars, and head lice applications (NPIC, 2009) Saccharin is an artificial sweetener used in beverages such as diet sodas, and it can also be used as a sugar replacement in cookies and cakes. The use of saccharin had a huge push by many vendors when the fight against obesity and the urge for healthy living started to become popular. During the 1970’s Saccharin was labeled by the FDA as possibly causing bladder cancer in rats during testing (NCI, 2014). Upon further testing it was later removed from the list of known agents that would cause cancer and moved to the list of possible cancer causing agents (NCI, 2014). Saccharin was removed by President Bill Clinton from the list of possible cancer causing agents in 2000 but still remains under a cloud of doubt to this day because of all the possible negative effects and the definitive effects experienced by lab rats.

The Environmental Protection Agency has done a vast amount of research on the use of Permethrin and the dangers it presents to humans, insects, and fish. Permethrin is a member of the Pyrethroid family, as such this means that when Permethrin comes into contact with either humans, insects or fish, it will attack the organism nervous system doing a vast amount of damage. Because of these dangers in the agent was only given a limited use permit by the EPA in 1979 and it was only to be used on cotton farms (EPA, 2006). The limited use right was given with the understanding that further research must be done by the EPA in order to understand all the dangers of the toxin. Later, testing of Permethrin proved the agent to be very deadly to fish and other wildlife. An additional amount of crops were eventually allowed to have Permethrin used on them but it was only in a limited form.

Saccharin use and its effects on the body have been explored by the Food and Drug Administration. As noted above, the use of Saccharin did show to cause the formation of bladder cancer in lab rats in the 1970’s. It was because of this fact that the FDA immediately put the artificial sweetener onto a banned list of substances. Upon further review the United States Congress actually over rode the Food and Drug Administration when doubts were put into place in regard to the effects of the artificial sweetener on humans (ENHS, 2005). This overriding of the ban still stands today and many people still use the possibly dangerous sweetener. It is very important to note that Sodium Saccharin still remains on the list of known carcinogens. Sodium Saccharin is an extract in salt form of Saccharin (ENHS, 2005).

Applying the risk assessment to these two chemicals can aid a person in their decision to use either Permethrin or saccharin on a daily basis. The hazards that are present with Permethrin are damage to the nervous system and possible poisoning of crops. There is also the possibility of poisoning of waterways leading to the death of many fish species. Dose response modeling shows us that only very low levels of Permethrin are needed to alter the nervous system or poison water ways. Probability of exposure and damage that could be done by Permethrin is high if not strongly monitored and all aspects of use are not strongly enforced. A scenario that would be realistic and have strong implications would be, a farmer uses Permethrin on his crops. The Permethrin is carried to a local stream by rain water and watering of crops. The Permethrin is then carried by the stream to larger waterways affecting all organisms that come into contact with it. When we apply the same model to the use of Saccharin the data becomes a little less clear. This is due to the fact that there is not clear facts present as to its dangers. Many scientist argue that the results found in the study of saccharin use in rats does not apply to what could happen with humans. However, one must only look to sodium saccharin to see the possibility of danger (ENHS, 2005). The risk associate with Saccharin would be the possible cancer causing ability. The EPA has stated that Saccharin when used in the level of 12 milligrams per one ounce of fluid is safe for use (FDA, 2014). Because the information is still inconclusive about the definite effects of saccharin it is hard to list the exact risk characterization of saccharin. If found to be a carcinogen, it would definitely raise the level of probability of leading to cancer. Many people worldwide use saccharin as a substitute to natural sugars. This would raise the level of exposure and thus raise the amount of people who have come into contact with the possibly dangerous additive. What is alarming is that it is known that certain forms of saccharin are carcinogenic, this coupled with the fact that the FDA research of the additive seems to be stalled leads to great concern and doubt in regard to the safety of use of this additive.

The practical implications of the risk assessment lead to the use of caution and restraint in regard to the use of both agents. Permethrin has been proven to be toxic and can lead to many possible negative outcomes including the poisoning of humans and waterways. Caution and very precise monitoring should be used to ensure that this dangerous chemical is not mis-used or allowed to come into contact with wildlife that it is not intended for. In a scenario where this chemical must be used it would require the application team as well as monitors to ensure that subsequent areas are not being affected and causing second and third order effects. It is my opinion that no matter the controls that are put into place that second and third order effects cannot be avoided. The practical implications in regard to the use of saccharin are a little different. Because the evidence is still out in regard to how dangerous the additive is it is hard to form an educated opinion. It is easy to say that the additive is safe and it is easy to say that it isn’t. The fact remains that science and effective application of the scientific method is the only thing that can tell us the true effects of saccharin. Therefore, if someone were to continue to use the additive then I would venture to say that it would be at their own risk.

When historical data is looked at we see very clear facts about the use of Permethrin. All data in regard to its use shows that it is dangerous and we as a society should be very cautious in its use if not outlawing its use all together. There are just too many possible negative outcomes that could and will come into play when it is applicated to crops for use as an insecticide. Historical data in regard to saccharin should provide us a sense of caution. Early tests of saccharin showed that the additive caused cancer of the bladder in rats. Later tests showed that rat bladders and human bladders were different and thusly would not process or store the saccharin in the same way. It is with this knowledge though that we the consumers should utilize a sense of caution. If we as consumers know that an additive can and does cause such a negative effect in an animal than it is probably a safe assumption that there will be some negative aspect that will be discovered at a later time. The data regarding the study or saccharin in rats does directly correlate to human consumption of saccharin. It should serve as an alarm or beacon that warns us of possible dangers that could lie ahead for humans if they decide to consume such products.

The effects of Permethrin and Saccharin are not the same. Permethrin has been proven beyond the shadow of doubt to have harmful effects on the nervous system of animals and humans. It has been proven that if measures are not put into place that Permethrin can find its way into the food we eat and the water we drink. Every step must be taken to ensure the safety of our food and drinking water as well as the protection of our natural resources. The jury is still out on saccharin. Saccharin was shown to cause cancer in lab rats but scientists stated that the same effects would not be felt by humans, this is due to rats and humans bodies processing the additive in different ways. The negative effects felt by rats coupled with the ongoing research being done by agencies such as the Food and Drug administration should lead to a level of caution. Caution and thought should be given before the ingestion of this sugar substitute.

References:
ENHS. (2005). Saccharin. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/saccharin/fda.html

Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Permethrin Facts. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/permethrin_fs.htm

National Cancer Institute. (2009). Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer. Retrieved 5 October 2014 from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial-sweeteners

NPIC. (2009). Permethrin. Retrieved 5 October 2014 from: http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/PermGen.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=180.37

Similar Documents

Free Essay

High-Risk Family Assessment Snd Health Promotion

...High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Mary Ann Bennett University of Phoenix NUR/542 Melinda Church August 6, 2012 High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Assessing health needs is a fundamental nursing skill. Unfortunately, many nurses only associate the assessment process to the individual patient they are caring for and fail to assess and address the needs of the entire family. Performing a family assessment is vital, especially when working with high risk individuals and groups. High risk families can be defined as those families with a higher than expected risk for developing a particular disease or injury in association to their lifestyle, environment, habits, or socio-economic conditions. Post active-duty war veterans are a group that is at high risk for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which can lead to physical, psychological, and social problems. These problems not only affect the veteran but also strongly alter the health and lifestyle of the entire family. The objective of this paper is to present the health profile and behaviors of PTSD veterans, describe assessment models and theories that are applicable to the patient and family, and identify Healthy People 2020 objectives that relate to this high risk group. In addition, the paper will present nurse intervention strategies based on health promotion and prevention as well as the role of advanced practice nurses as case managers. Health......

Words: 2137 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Risk Assessment

...Practical Risk Assessment The following example is an activity that could be carried out at work – but which most people will do at home – changing a lightbulb. I have chosen this as it is an example of an activity that most people can relate to, wether we live in a house or a bungalow. The fluorescent light is on the ground floor of an office block. It is four o’clock on a December afternoon and must be changed. Assume there are no controls in place other than those listed below. The ladder has to be placed in one of the fire escape routes for the room. Hazards Use this box to list all the hazards identified in the activity. The tick box list includes some of the more common hazards that may be encountered when doing your risk assessment. It also provides space to allow you to add your own. In this example we have identified a number of hazards that could be present in this activity. The main ones are concerned with electricity cuts burns working at height working in the dark. These should be written in the hazards section of the form, you will see that we have identified some of the problems associated with those hazards. Those at risk All those exposed to the risk should be listed here. It is important to list everyone who could be harmed as all may influence how you may intend to control the risks. You may decide that you require different controls for others not carrying out those activities. Current Control Measures Use this box to list the......

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Paper

...High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Paper Shova Rajbhandari NUR/542 April 23rd, 2012 Tracy Kramer MSN, RNC, FNP High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Paper For High risk family assessment: Intravenous Drug users (IDUs) family is chosen Common health issues /profile among members or families from this high-risk group: Drug abuse involves the regular taking of a deleterious or noxious quantity of any drug, prescribed or illicit over a period of time (Freidman, 2003). Those people who become severely drug dependent most often need specialized treatment in order to recover. A wide range of treatment is available through private sector and public sector. Recovery treatment centers usually incorporate the family into treatment plan, which makes it more effective in their treatment of the substance abuser. > HIV positive IDU and family members > IDU has a wide range of coinfections, coinfections, comorbidities and injecting related health issues. The common health problems in this IDU family are: • Infection with blood borne viruses, including hepatitis B, C and D (delta) leading to liver diseases • Bacterial infections: tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, • Alcohol dependence and alcohol-related liver disease • Poly substance dependence • Psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. • Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) • Local soft tissue and vascular injuries, including skin abscesses......

Words: 1504 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Risk Assessment

...McBride Financial Risk Assessment Information Systems Security Risk Management McBride Financial Risk Assessment Overview The purpose of Risk Assessment is to identify potential risks that could impact the operation of the business of McBride Financial Services. This will analyze the approaches to be implemented for omission of avoidable risks and the minimization of the risks that are unavoidable. In this quest, team B has chosen Sioux Falls office of McBride Financial Services, which will involve a risk assessment overview of several different topics. The discussions will be the use of toxic chemicals in the vicinity of business, public transportation facilities that might handle the carriage of dangerous or hazardous substances, any potential targets of criminal activities and potential targets of terrorist activity. Toxic Chemicals Chemicals are a necessary part of any work location. They can be used in work processes, for cleaning, and other functions. Chemicals can be found in solid, dust, liquid, and gas or vapor forms. "Industrial chemicals can be described by the physical form of the chemical (that is, whether it is a dust, fume, vapor, gas, etc.)." (Chemicals in the Workplace) The company needs to identify all the chemicals used at the McBride facility. The individual chemical components should be listed for a safety review. Material Safety and Data Sheets (MSDS) will be obtained and stored onsite for all chemicals used. MSDS is available for all......

Words: 2674 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Paper

...High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion Paper Corey Hollmann University of Phoenix NUR/542 6/30/2014 Danielle Patrick High-Risk Family Assessment and Health Promotion-Suicidal Ideation Suicide and ideation to commit this final act, is a grave public health concern that is multifaceted and responsible for significant family risk. Suicide is a behavior that has worldwide resulted in nearly one million fatalities annually. Suicide is commonly an act driven by impulsivity and followed by thoughts of hopelessness and doom. In the United States, firearms, particularly handguns, are the most common means of suicide. Despite extreme notoriety, suicide and suicidal ideation remained stigmatized and hidden behind shadows of shame. Acts of deliberate self-harm and unsuccessful attempts remain largely underreported (Fleischmann et al., 2008; Freedenthal, 2007). Summary of Suicide Risk Health Profile The incidence of suicide has remained a significant health risk across multiple demographics, cultures, and sexes. In between the years 1999 and 2008, the suicide rate increased 10.5% and from 10.5 to 11.6 people per 100,000 population. Male's record rates that are four times greater than females while non-Hispanic whites recorded 14.1 suicides per 100,000 (National Vital Statistics System, 2008). Suicide is a behavior that exudes complexity that is characterized by methods to potentiate intentional termination of one's own life. The World Health Organization (WHO) has...

Words: 2022 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Risk Assessment

...Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Holly Regan SCI/275 August 3, 2014 Stacy Murphy Risk Assessment The chosen case study from the text is in relation to human exposure to asbestos and the health risks this chemical compound imposes. According to Shultz (2012), low levels of asbestos exposure, even for short periods of time, can cause lung cancer among asbestos insulation workers with a death rate four times the expected rate. Lung cancer in asbestos workers who smoke is ninety-two times greater than in those who don’t, providing a vivid example of synergism. (The ratio of the number of observed to the number of expected deaths times 100) Asbestos is a combination of minerals that are native to the environment comprised of silicate compounds which are resistant to heat, chemicals, fire and conducts no electricity. There are two major groups of asbestos minerals, serpentine and amphibole. The serpentine group contains Chrysotile, which is the most mined and commercially used in North America since the 1800’s. Asbestos is used in the building and construction industry for insulation and roofing, the shipbuilding industry to insulate steam and hot water pipes, and the automotive industry for brake and clutch pads; among many other categorical uses, (The National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, 2009). The factors of acceptable risk for the chemical asbestos are 1) acceptable if risk is not greater than those created by......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Risk Assessment

...Security Management RISK ASSESMENT Information systems have long been at some risk from malicious actions or inadvertent user errors and from natural and man-made disasters. In recent years, systems have become more susceptible to these threats because computers have become more interconnected and, thus, more interdependent and accessible to a larger number of individuals. In addition, the number of individuals with computer skills is increasing, and intrusion, or “hacking,” techniques are becoming more widely known via the Internet and other media. Arisk assessment is not about creating huge amounts of paperwork , but rather about identifying sensible measures to control the risks in your workplace. You are probably already taking steps to protect your employees, but your risk assessment will help you decide whether you  have covered all you need to. Think about how accidents and ill health could happen and concentrate on real risks – those that are most likely and which will cause the most harm. For some risks, other regulations require particular control measures. Your assessment can help you identify where you need to look at certain risks and these particular control measures in more detail. These control measures do not have to be assessed separately but can be considered as part of, or an extension of, your overall risk assessment. Although all elements of the risk management cycle are important, risk assessments provide the foundation for......

Words: 3691 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Family Health Risk Assessment

...Family Health Risk Assessment Athena Farella RN, CVN NURS 3200 Professional Nursing Practice: Health Promotion in the Community Kean UniversityProfessor Denise Van Sandt – Smith MSN, RN Professor Ruth Gorrell MSN, RN Professor Keddi Koovits, MSN, RN Abstract The B family lives in Marlboro, New Jersey. They are a family of four leading a very busy daily routine. Through changes in family structure, work routines along with an increase in daily activities of the children Mr. and Mrs. B family express concerns about finding ways to incorporate nutrition, health and exercise into their daily routines. They are meeting with a nurse through in home visits to learn ways to promote a healthy diet and lifestyle. The B family, through education, health promoting behaviors and following proper nutrition guidelines have begun to reduce their risk of heart disease and obesity. Family Health Risk Assessment Identifying Data The B family is a middle class nuclear family living. Their family was a traditional nuclear family after the births of their children with Mr. B working and Mrs. B staying home with the children, but is considered slightly less than traditional as Mrs. B has returned to work. The B family is a dual-parent family living in a middle class suburban neighborhood in Marlboro, N.J. Both parents work full time outside of the home with Mr. B traveling frequently for work. Both children attend public schools and are bussed to and from school daily. Mrs...

Words: 7426 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Risk Assessment

...Risk Assessment The city council of Genericville faces a challenging decision that could impact the city both economically and environmentally for years to come. Genericville’s main source of income is from tourism, which is being threatened by the increasing mosquito population and the West Nile Virus. The councilors have been asked to vote on a proposed plan to deal with this increasing threat. On one hand, the decision can be made to spray a potentially harmful chemical on the neighboring wetlands to reduce the threat of the spread of the West Nile Virus; on the other hand, a plan can be enacted that calls for a thorough educating of the Genericville population on how to avoid contact with mosquitoes and reducing their breeding grounds. After performing a risk assessment for human exposure to malathion, the proposed chemical, the risk of not taking action against the mosquito population was much higher than the risk associated with spraying malathion. Based on the information presented by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, malathion has no direct links to be a carcinogen. Malathion is not known to cause birth defects in humans under common use (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, 2005). In laboratory tests, the chemical has been proven to cause some minor irritations of the eyes and skin as well as complications with respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. These effects are a result of contact with airborne vapors,......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Risk Assessments

...Risk Assessment Tammie Clayton SCI/275 June 17, 2015 Richard Dunsheath Risk Assessment The case study I chose was “Asbestos: How great a Danger”? Asbestos is the generic name for several naturally occurring silicate mineral fibers. These fibers which are used as a heat insulator can easily be dislodged and may be inhaled in the lungs, where they remain for life (Bateman, 2011). They produce three disorders: pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Asbestos is referred to as a unique fiber. Asbestos is used as a heat insulation on ceiling and pipes in factories, schools and other buildings and sprayed on walls. It has also been used in things such as brake pads, brake linings, hair dryers etc. Everything we do puts humans and the environment at risk. The acceptability of risk is also influenced by perceived benefit. Asbestos underwent a complicated road from being an industrial commodity and must have, to being a huge risk, being one of the most dangerous fibers. There has been a call for a total ban on the use of asbestos due to the current health risk. Asbestos use is seen as not acceptable, controlled use is not possible and safer substitutes are available. In this case study, the benefits do not outweigh the cost. One may save money using asbestos, but the cost to seek healthcare for the individual affected is far more costly. In expressing...

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Family Health Risk Assessment

...Family Health Risk Assessment: Friedman Family Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V October 19, 2014 Introduction As nurses, we are concerned with not only and individual’s health, we are concerned with a family’s health. How a family interacts with health matters greatly influences how an individual will address their own health care issues. This paper uses Gordon’s Functional Health Pattern as the context for a family health assessment and interview that was conducted with an adult son of a Long Island, Jewish family. A series of thirty-three questions were asked, three to each corresponding area. Gordon’s Functional Health Pattern is comprised of eleven “functional health patterns that help organize a family health risk assessment.” (Edelman & Mandle, 2014). The eleven areas are noted to be as follows: 1. Health Perception/Health Management 2. Nutrition/Metabolic 3. Elimination 4. Activity/Exercise 5. Sleep/Rest 6. Cognitive/Perception 7. Self Perception 8. Roles/Relationships 9. Sex/Reproduction 10. Coping/Stressors 11. Values Beliefs (Edelman & Mandle, 2014). Brian F. Family/Values Brian F. is the youngest adult son of a Long Island, New York, Jewish family that includes his father, mother, and two older siblings. Brian’s sister, Robin is the first-born and 6 years older than Brian, followed by his brother, Jason who is 4 years older than Brian is. Brian’s mother, Patty, was a......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Mih527 Introduction to Environmental Health and Risk Assessment

...The concept of risk is the probability of an unwanted event which may or may not occur. Risk assessment is the overall process of identifying all the risks to and from an activity and assessing the potential impact of each risk. BBC News website, Radioactive warning on Fife beach read at [1] on 14 May 2006 - Sepa has been carrying out a risk assessment at the bay and now wants a detailed investigation to be carried out. The determination of the potential impact of an individual risk by assessing both the likelihood that it will occur and the impact if it should occur, and then combining the result according to an agreed rule to give a single measure of potential impact. In order to determine the risks, a risk assessment can typically be completed in four basic steps. The four basic steps are: hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification is the process when scientists examine peer-reviewed studies of effects in humans, and laboratory animals, to determine the types of health problems a chemical can cause. Furthermore in this step there is an evaluation of the nature and strength of the evidence of causation between a chemical and its effect. In exposure assessment, scientists estimate the amount, frequency, and duration of exposure to a chemical. They often use environmental monitoring data and mathematical models to estimate exposures. Scientists also evaluate the route of exposure and any other......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Risk Assessment

...Risk Assessment SCI/275   Malathion is something that is being taken into consideration by the City Council of Genericville it is an insecticide spray that will help to control the West Nile Virus and the further spread of the virus. This is a risk assessment on the use of a spray called Malathion in the city of Genericville. There are several steps that are involved in this first is hazard identification and that is the effects that it will have on the health of the humans who are going to be exposed to the spraying of the Malathion. The second is what is called dose response; this is the amount on spray that would be needed to cause any health effects. The third deals with the exposure to all the humans and also based on the total amount of spray that was used and also how long the exposure to the insecticide will last. The final step is what I would call risk characterization which would be used to help determine that if any or certain humans that live in the city would be prone to any health risks that would associated with the use of Malathion. The result of this assessment is that the city of Genericville should really use the insecticide spray called Malathion to help in reducing the spread of the West Nile Virus. There are many sides to this and they include the social, economic, and the political sides of any arguments that have to be considered with the use of the insecticide spray. The West Nile Virus is a very huge concern in the area and that is......

Words: 1146 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Risk Assessment

...Risk Assessment A risk assessment is something that is produced to help carry out a risk assessment of what might cause harm to the service users and what needs to be carried out in order to avoid the risks from taking place . It is something by law that is expected for all the workplace to carry out. This links in with the HSAWA as every workplace when opening up a business they need to follow the rules and regulation in order to keep the environment safe as well as the employees. When creating risk assessments it’s about producing a table of which identifies all the possible hazards that could take place in the workplace. Every workplace must produce a risk assessment and by creating this you are pointing out all the risk that could take place but also putting in place steps to prevent it from happening. The process of doing risk assessments is to identify hazards and state what they are but also analysing the hazard as to what risks are involved with that hazard and what harm it could bring. Finally, stating the steps that need to be taken in order to eliminate or to control the hazard from occurring. Doing a risk assessment is really important they form an essential part because doing a risk assessment is the key to a good occupation because they help they help to create awareness of the hazards and risks. The aim of having a risk assessment is the process of trying to remove hazards and remove the risk that it accompanies and adding precaution to stop the risks from......

Words: 2044 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Risk Assessment

...World Health Organization Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Geneva WHO/EDM/PAR/2001.2 DISTRIBUTION: GENERAL ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Teacher’s Guide to Good Prescribing World Health Organization Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Geneva, Switzerland Authors Hans V. Hogerzeil1 (Editor) Karen I. Barnes2 Rob H. Henning3 Yunus E. Kocabasoglu3 Helene Möller4 Anthony J. Smith5 Rob S. Summers6 Theo P.G.M. de Vries7 with contributions from Hannelie Meyer, Sule Oktay, Budiono Santoso and Sri Suryawati 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WHO Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, Geneva, Switzerland WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Policy, Information and Safety Monitoring, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmacotherapy Teaching and Training, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Groningen University, Groningen, The Netherlands WHO, South African Drug Action Programme, Pretoria, South Africa WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmacotherapy Teaching and Training, Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical School, Newcastle, Australia WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmacy Curriculum Development and Rational Use of Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Medical University of Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Acknowledgements The......

Words: 9416 - Pages: 38