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Human Resource Managemen

In: Business and Management

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Int. J. of Human Resource Management 18:1 January 2007 147– 158

HRM practices in Egypt: the influence of national context?

Mike Leat and Ghada El-Kot
Abstract In this paper we present the findings of a study which collected data on a range of HRM practices normally used in 58 Egyptian organizations operating in Egypt. The range of practices is concerned with job descriptions, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, performance appraisal and employment security.
We examine and discuss these practices in the Egyptian context. The dimensions of the Egyptian environment which we examine include: the socio-cultural context, Islam, the vocational education and training system and elements of the economic and legal environment. The practices and approaches being used by the sample organizations appear to be the product of both culture bound and culture free influences. The main contributions of the study are that it provides much needed information on the HRM practices and approaches being adopted by Egyptian-owned organizations in the early part of the 21st century and provides support for the influence of national context on the HRM practices pursued by indigenous organizations.
Keywords

Egypt; HRM practices; Islam; institutional context; culture.

Introduction: HRM practices and national context
Against a background of the increasing internationalization of business, globalization of markets and cross-national activity by multinational organizations there has been an increasing interest in whether, how and why HRM policies and practices vary between countries. Rosenzweig and Nohria (1994) suggested that HRM was the area of management most likely to be subject to national differences. Much of this interest has focused on aspects of national contexts in order to understand and explain the particular
HRM policies and...

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