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Human Resource Management and Psycology

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Cfalberg
Words 1761
Pages 8
Indledning
I denne case vil du stifte bekendtskab med forskellige områder inden for personaleledelse, medarbejderudvikling, kommunikation og organisationskultur. Casen udspiller sig i en fiktiv virksomhed, Banzolan A/S.
Casespørgsmålene kan findes ved at klikke på den nederste af de blå overskrifter ovenfor.
Virksomhedsbeskrivelse
Banzolan A/S er en 8 år gammel, børsnoteret virksomhed med hovedsæde i Brande. Virksomheden beskæftiger 255 medarbejdere. Foruden et etableret samarbejde med en underleverandør af stel til stålborde og stole i Randers, er der etableret et salgssamarbejde med en række trendsættende møbel- og kontorindretningsfirmaer.
Banzolan producerer og udvikler systemløsninger til kontorer og hjemmearbejdspladser med fokus på design, funktionalitet og kvalitet. Salget direkte til private er desuden voksende i virksomheden.

Virksomheden har mærket en stagnation i væksten over de seneste 2 år og har derfor afskediget næsten 20 % af medarbejderne. Da krisen var på sit højeste, vedtog ledelsen i samråd med fagforbundet og medarbejderne en lønreduktion på 10 %, og der har ligeledes været lukket for planlagte medarbejderudviklings-aktiviteter.
Virksomheden har desuden erfaret, at flere af produkterne er blevet kopieret og sendt på markedet til markant lavere priser end det, som produkterne kan produceres for i Danmark. Kopierne er produceret i Litauen.

Over de seneste to år er 3 af de 6 ledere i topledelsen blevet udskiftet. Den nye ledergruppe har et større fokus på beskyttelse af deres design. Det er desuden blevet besluttet, at der i fremtiden skal satses på udvikling af nicheprodukter. Ledelsen overvejer derfor et af følgende på nuværende tidspunkt: * At stoppe produktionen af de produkter, der lettest lader sig kopiere * At opkøbe den litauiske fabrik, hvilket medfører at kvaliteten kommer på højde med de danske produkter, og det fulde sortiment kan bevares

Medarbejderundersøgelse
Der er på baggrund af situationen lavet en medarbejderundersøgelse for at få indblik i, hvilke indsatsområder man skal prioritere fra ledelsens side. Nedenfor beskrives resultaterne i grove træk:
Stressede medarbejdere
Hverdagen er præget af, at man kører med få ressourcer. Arbejdspres og stress nævnes som et gennemgående problem for medarbejderne. De føler, at de har kæmpet hårdt for at vende udviklingen, og at det har været en opslidende proces. Medarbejderne trænger derfor til at se lys for enden af tunnelen og arbejde efter nye positive målsætninger. De mener, at de har vist stor loyalitet og engagement, og de forventer derfor, at deres indsats belønnes i den nærmeste fremtid.
Fremtidsudsigter
Virksomhedskulturen er blevet mærket af lønnedgang og afskedigelser, og der spores derfor en nervøsitet blandt medarbejderne for virksomhedens fremtid såvel som for deres egen. En del af medarbejderne overvejer derfor at søge væk. Den nye ledelse har derfor ikke kun markedsmæssige, men også interne medarbejder- og ledelsesmæssige udfordringer.
Forventninger til ledelsen
Det forventes nu, at ledelsen træder i karakter ved at komme med klare udmeldinger om strategi og retning for fremtiden. I den forbindelse ønsker medarbejderne også veldefinerede ledelsesopgaver og medarbejder/afdelingsopgaver. I den forbindelse giver medarbejderne udtryk for, at de ikke ved, hvad der præcis forventes af dem, og hvad der er ledelsens opgave og ansvar i denne situation.
Ledelsens reaktion
Ledelsen er frustreret over resultaterne. De synes, at de har gjort en stor indsats for at redde virksomheden og føler sig mødt med utaknemmelighed. De mener, at medarbejderne har et urealistisk billede af situationen. De er forkælede, og de er vant til at have det for godt, og derfor har de nu svært ved at indstille sig på nye og mindre privilegerede vilkår. Desuden er de ansat til at følge ledelsens beslutninger, og de skal derfor ikke bruge så meget energi på fremtiden, men blot passe deres arbejde.

1) Med udgangspunkt i ledelses- og motivationsteorierne skal du analysere og forklare Banzolans problemer. Max. 4000 tegn inklusiv mellemrum.
Den oplevede krise for virksomheden Banzolan og håndteringen af denne, har haft en indvirkning på virksomhedskulturen, eftersom medarbejderne føler sig utrygge ved den situation de selv og virksomheden Banzolan står i. Faren ved denne utryghed er, at medarbejderne ifølge Maslows Behovspyramide ikke er på et stadie, som fordrer til innovation og omstillingsparathed. Grunden til dette er, at medarbejderne har oplevet, at der for nylig er foretaget lønnedgang, foruden en relativ stor nedskæring af medarbejdergruppen. Ifølge Maslows Behovspyramide er medarbejderne på stadiet omhandlende tryghedsbehov, og har behov for, at der igen skabes tryghed, for at kunne komme på et stadie, hvor der er mulighed for åbenhed og modtagelighed. Først når der igen opnås en passende løn, sikre ansættelsesforhold og gode relationer til kollegaerne igen, som på nuværende tidspunkt kan opleves som konkurrenter om de resterende stillinger, vil medarbejderne igen tage reelt ansvar for arbejdet og dermed præstere på optimalt niveau, dette ifølge Herzbergs to-faktor teori.

Denne utryghed og demotivation blandt medarbejderne, er med til at ændre virksomhedskulturen hen imod en mere og mere asymmetrisk magtbalance, hvilket gør at der opleves en større ulighed blandt medarbejderne og ledelsen. For sidstnævnte gør dette arbejdet endnu mere besværligt, da det kræver en stor indsats at komme i øjenhøjde med medarbejderne grundet asymmetrien, og dermed have følelsen af medarbejdere i stedet for blot at have arbejdere. I arbejdet mod at foretage vigtige valg for virksomheden, hvor ledelsen om nogen har behov for omstillingsparate medarbejdere, er det derudover en udfordring, at struktureringsbehovet i denne virksomhedskultur er stigende, hvilket vil betyde at situationerne hurtigt synes uoverskuelige, hvorfor der føles/er behov for mange beskrevne processer og procedurer, hvilket udgør en langsommelig forandringsproces. Som beskrevet ovenfor, vil medarbejderne i en situation som denne, komme til at anskue hinanden som konkurrenter om de tilbageværende stillinger, hvorfor individualismen er stigende i virksomheden kultur. Dette er ligeledes udfordrende for Banzolan, som gerne skal have hele virksomheden med i de forestående forandringsprocesser, og dermed ikke har behov for, at de ansatte modarbejder hinanden i denne proces, for at man som individ fremstår tydeligt. Dette vil ligeledes blive tydeligt når det vurderes i hvilken udstrækning virksomheden er præget af værdinormer såsom selvhævdelse eller omsorg for andre, og medarbejdernes indbyrdes afhængighed. En vurdering der i denne situation vil afspejle en stigende materialisme og faldende humanisme.

Grunden til det er hændt som beskrevet ovenfor, er Banzolans forestående ledelse, og dennes evne til at håndtere en svær situation for virksomheden. Helt grundlæggende har Banzolans ledelse en tilgang til medarbejderne, som kan beskrives ud fra teorien om transaktionel ledelse. Ledelsen har derfor en forventning om, at når virksomheden udbetaler løn til de ansatte medarbejdere, så har disse pligt til at yde deres bedste uden videre. Annulleringen af de planlagte medarbejderudviklings-initiativer bekræfter ligeledes dette, eftersom det er medvirkende til at medarbejderne ikke individualiseres, og der tages dermed ikke hensyn til unikke kompetencer eller unikke behov. Den stigende asymmetriske magtbalance skyldes ledelsens management tilgang, også kaldet autoritær ledelse, hvor det betragtes som ledelsens opgave, at dirigere medarbejderne, træffe valg om virksomhedens nye retning og effektuere disse valg. Ledelsens tilgang til medarbejderne kan ligeledes anskues ud fra McGregors X-teori, hvilken kendetegner sig ved mistillid til mennesket. Medarbejderen er dermed ikke i stand til at administrere frihed under ansvar, og har ingen interesse i at opnå dette. Medarbejderne vil dermed, ud fra dette menneskesyn, udelukkende præstere, så længe ledelsen styrer medarbejderne med hård hånd.

2) Lav en skitse til, hvordan Banzolan kommer på rette kurs igen. Brug evt. kapitlet om medarbejderudvikling og HRM-modellen. Max. 4000 tegn inklusiv mellemrum.
Banzolans ledelse skal turde at lede ud fra menneskesynet beskrevet i McGregors Y-teori. Denne beskriver, at medarbejderen netop ønsker at arbejde, da det er ligeså naturligt som leg og hvile. Derudover ønsker medarbejderne ansvar og er i stand til at kontrollere sig selv under en målsætning. Y-teorien bygger på, at såfremt vilkårene er optimale, og kun hvis dette er tilfældet, vil medarbejderne gå aktivt og konstruktivt til forandringerne hos Banzolan.

Ved at lægge noget værdi og tid i den enkelte medarbejder, kan ledelsen være med til at sikre, at der igen opleves tryghed i ansættelsen. Dette er, ifølge Maslows Behovspyramide og Herzberg to-faktor teori, med til at gøre, at medarbejderen kommer nærmere sig et stadie, hvor denne igen kan opnå motivationen, til at tage ansvar og gennem præstation give værdi tilbage til virksomheden.

Der er ingen tvivl om, at ovenstående fordrer, en ændring af Banzolans HRM tilgang. Banzolan børhave langt mere fokus på medarbejdergruppen og dermed at anerkende de kompetencer virksomheden besidder heri. HR-strategien for Banzolan kan med fordel have udspring i Harvard-modellen, hvor der netop ligges vægt på medarbejderinvolvering og belønning, hvilket både kan være i form af økonomi eller employability. Udover Harvard-modellen, som beskriver virksomhedens tilgang til HRM, er det vigtigt for Banzolan, at forankre HRM-strategien sammen med forretningsstrategien, jævnfør HRM-modellen. Det vil sige, at for at skabe den brændende platform for forandringsprocessen i virksomheden, skal ledelsen gennemtænke HRM-strategien indenfor forretningsstrategien, ifht. eksterne påvirkninger, både politiske, samfunds- og markedsmæssige. Derudover skal der formuleres en klar vision og målsætning, således der er en retning at bevæge sig mod, med klart formulerede og målbare målsætninger. Når strategien først er nået hertil, skal der tages beslutninger om klare HR-initiativer, for netop at være i stand til at fuldføre målsætningerne. Dette kræver at der efterfølgende beskrives en projektplan med delmål for alle initiativerne. Endeligt skal der tages stilling til, hvilke kritiske succesfaktorer HR-strategien har, for at dette skal lykkes.

Når der arbejdes med HRM ud fra Harvard-modellen, betragtes medarbejderne som en reel ressource for virksomheden, hvilket ofte benævnes blød HRM. Der gøres dermed en indsats for at frigøre den kreative og selvstyrende side i medarbejderen, for at flytte denne ud af fastlåste arbejdsopgaver. Dermed vil Banzolan opleve en større dynamik og fleksibilitet blandt medarbejderne, og disse har dermed mulighed for at udvikle sig og benytte flere af de kompetencer de mener at besidde. Denne tilgang vil ligeledes gøre, at medarbejderne kan få lov til at udvikle sig uafhængigt af kollegaerne, hvilket er med til at mindske den interne konkurrence.

Fokusset på det enkelte individ, kan netop gives gennem medarbejderudviklings-initiativer, hvor det er muligt at fremstille systematiske karriereplaner. Dette vil gøre, at ledelsen kan kortlægge medarbejdernes ønsker, og ikke mindst evner, og sammenholde dette med virksomhedens behov. Dermed kan ledelsen ydermere skabe et overblik over fordelingen af virksomhedens metakompetencer, intraorganisatoriske, operative og unikke kompetencer. Medarbejderne vil på denne måde opnå employability ved individuel kompetenceudvikling, og Banzolan vil have nemmere ved at fastholde medarbejderne. Fordelingen af virksomhedens kompetencer skal benyttes til, at implementere den forestående strategiske kompetenceudvikling, for at være i stand til at gennemføre forandringsledelse i forbindelse med en ny strategi for Banzolan. Banzolan overvejer netop hvilken vej virksomheden skal gå, hvormed det er altafgørende at ledelsen er skarp på, hvilke kompetencer virksomheden allerede har. Dette både for at opnå inspiration til nye forretningsområder, og ligeså for at klarlægge hvilke kompetencer virksomheden mangler, for at kunne fuldføre den nye strategi.

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Interpretation of Dreams

...The Interpretation of Dreams Sigmund Freud (1900) PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION Wheras there was a space of nine years between the first and second editions of this book, the need of a third edition was apparent when little more than a year had elapsed. I ought to be gratified by this change; but if I was unwilling previously to attribute the neglect of my work to its small value, I cannot take the interest which is now making its appearance as proof of its quality. The advance of scientific knowledge has not left The Interpretation of Dreams untouched. When I wrote this book in 1899 there was as yet no "sexual theory," and the analysis of the more complicated forms of the psychoneuroses was still in its infancy. The interpretation of dreams was intended as an expedient to facilitate the psychological analysis of the neuroses; but since then a profounder understanding of the neuroses has contributed towards the comprehension of the dream. The doctrine of dream-interpretation itself has evolved in a direction which was insufficiently emphasized in the first edition of this book. From my own experience, and the works of Stekel and other writers, [1] I have since learned to appreciate more accurately the significance of symbolism in dreams (or rather, in unconscious thought). In the course of years, a mass of data has accumulated which demands consideration. I have endeavored to deal with these innovations by interpolations in the text and footnotes. If these additions do...

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