Free Essay

Human Rights Violations in Russia

In: People

Submitted By More4ka
Words 3639
Pages 15
Marina Kumskova
Professor Austin LaGrone
ENG 101
April 15, 2013

Human Rights violation’s in the Russian Federation. There is no single, universally accepted definition of democracy. In fact, there is no universal model of what democracy should be. The emphasis varies in accordance with the history of a country, its culture and the strength of its civil society, and conditions under which democratic institutions were introduced. One consequence is that countries that use the term “democratic” to describe their governing systems can range from Western European nations to China and the former Soviet Union to autocracies in the Middle East and Latin America. Democratic systems can be minimalist democracies in which the citizens mainly do not have the right to vote but enjoy few other freedoms. Other are the democracies that would expand the conception of democracy to full participation in all civic institutions. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, “recognition of the dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world”. Speaking of the Eastern Europe, one can trace the development from minimalist democracy to dictatorships. The most popular example of dictatorship in the Eastern Europe is Belarus. The US Department of State repeatedly criticized the regime enacted by Aleksandr Lukashenko, who has been steadily consolidating his power through authoritarian means. Belarus has been called “ the last remaining dictatorship in the heart of Europe” by the US Secretary of State. The UN Human Rights Council 2007 Report notes that “the situation of human rights in Belarus constantly deteriorated” ( Severin, 2007, p.7 ). Is Belarus the only dictatorship in the Eastern Europe? Russia seems to have changed radically in the last few years. Under its energetic young president Vladimir Putin, Russia’s political system and economy appear finally to have stabilized. The conventional explanation for Vladimir Putin’s popularity is straightforward. In the 1990’s, under post-Soviet Russia’s president Boris Yeltsin, the state seems to have had various problems: the economy shrank, the population suffered. Since 2000, under Putin, “order seems returned, the economy has flourished and the average Russian is living better than ever before” ( McFaul, Stoner-Weiss, 2008, p. 68). People seem to buy it. Nearly third of Russians would like to see him become president for life. Does it seems like the policy of Aleksandr Lukashenko? It is for me. Putin brings the country to authoritarian model by “the right PR company”. Obviously, he just made people to love him by authoritarian control of media. His narrative based almost solely on a spurious correlation between autocracy and growth is wrong. The reemergence of Russian autocracy under Putin, conversely, has coincided with economic growth but did not cause it. There is also very little evidence to suggest that Putin’s autocratic turn over the last several years has led to more effective governance than the fractious democracy of the 1990’s. Citizens do not have a right to choose anymore, they have to live in the system created by the government. The centralization of power in the Russian Federation has had an influence on governance and economic growth; however, these improvements would have been greater if the democracy had survived. Putin was certainly “ people’s choice”, with a support base that was remarkably close to a cross-section of the entire society. “There were even signs of an emerging personality cult” (McAllister, 2003, p. 388). Post-election surveys indicated that Putin’s supporters were remarkably evenly distributed people of different levels of educational achievement with levels of income. As I mentioned before, Putin’s remarkable public support owed by his PR company. One of relatively new ways in which he boosted his popular appeal was by holding “virtual press conferences”. His image was also enhanced by the information that was made available about his private life and childhood. But what was hidden behind this personality? “If there is any casual relationship between authoritarianism and economic growth in Russia, it is negative” (McFaul, Stoner-Weiss, 2208, p. 81). In the last several years, Russia has produced more corruption and less secure property rights. Even with no money circulating through the economy, Putin’s government has done no better and some times even worse job in providing basic public goods and services than Yeltsin’s government did during the deep economic decline of the 1990’s. While following every single move of the person, who has been associated with the realization of the “Russian Dream”, people had no time to realize that their rights are being violated. Russians got many responsibilities and lost most of the rights. The most essential rights that citizens lost, I would like to describe in this research. I could not think about the most horrible human right’s violation that a torture. Torture, the most fundamental assault on a human creature, remains in use in most countries around the world. “Russia serves as an example of why torture is so persistent in the pretrial detention context, which is inherently hedged against the interests of the accused” ( Levina, 2008, 107). The European Court of Human Rights has heard hundreds of cases emanating from Russia concerning “violations of the prohibition of torture or inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment enshrined in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights” (Council of Europe, 1963). In 2012 alone, out of the 217 trials delivered by the ECtHR regarding cases from the Russian Federation 102 found violations of Article 3. Russia’s prison population currently stands at 768 000 people, the third biggest rate of penal detention in the world. Prison conditions in Russia are dire. Severe conditions have been described by the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Torture as “cruel, inhuman and degrading” ( Levina, 2008, p. 110). Being the inmate in one of the russian prisons, it is the most horrible thing that could happen. A lot of members of the organization against the government serve time in jail. Believe me, you do not want to see that people with broken noses, arms and legs, covered with bruises all over their bodies. Not that much information about it is spread over the internet, because the Putin’s administration controls very carefully every piece of information that comes out of government facilities. But I have found one, which you will never see on TV. This video done by Innes Robertson called “Russian prisoner abuse”. In this video the inmates are beaten to death or almost to death. The most essential moment is that inmates are not resisting, which means they either got used to it or just understand that resisting will make the situation even worse. Although the presumption of guilt may exist in theory, in practice the system perpetuates the presumption of guilt. “At the root of the problem, according to a report commissioned by Russia’s ex-president Dmitry Medvedev in 2009, is an unspoken dependency of judges on government officials. In cases where there is even a minute involvement of a government officials a judge will deliberate not on the law, but on whether or not apply the law” ( Levina, 2008, p.108). And those are the words of the government official, the ex-president and the present prime-minister of this country. Sergei Magnitsky, a russian lawyer representing a UK-based investment advisory firm, was held in pretrial detention in several Moscow’s most notorious prisons. "The Magnitsky Case" in particular and the Russian context in general serve as an example of what happens when the presumption of innocence is not entrenched within the institutional structure of the criminal justice system. Mr. Magnitsky died three years ago, when he was 37 years old, in a Russian jail while awaiting trial. “His advocates say that he was jailed for investigating hundreds of millions of dollars possibly stolen from Mr. Browder's firm, and that he was beaten and denied medical care in jail” (Baker, 2013, p.3). Mr. Magnitsky's aunt, in a telephone interview, called the trial of her dead nephew ''mean and cynical'' and said the family needed no court to determine his reputation after death. ''He was a warm person,'' she said. ''He had a family and he had a favorite cat, and he had a big aquarium that his children loved'' (Leonov, 2013). The right to freedom of assembly also remains problematic in Russia, where police frequently disperse public rallies held by civil activists and political opposition. Police use excessive force and arbitrarily detain peaceful protesters. While Moscow authorities generally permitted the meetings on the 31st day of each month that has 31 days, similar demonstrations were rarely allowed in other cities. In October 2010 the European Court of Human Rights, in Alexeev vs. Russia ruling, found Russia guilty in violation of freedom of assembly for denying activists, infringing their right to hold gay pride marches. The opposition was holding a rally on Bolotnaya Ploshchad on May, 2012. A year after, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, and the right to a fair trial have been restricted by law. Now each protestor is forced to make a personal choice between good and evil and between political parties or civil society institutions. This transition is being effected in two areas. Firstly, the assembly line of repressive laws, the regime's political spin projects, and selective enforcement of the law have almost deprived protestors of the legal possibility of political participation. “The lack of levers of influence on the regime, and the lack of political representation, frustrate the active "angry citizen" even more” (Vedomosti, 2013). He cannot do anything, and not that many solutions are left to him: Leaving the country, reconciling himself to what he considers to be unjust, or protesting illegally. Secondly, the extension of the political category to any activities not linked to state initiatives makes protestors out of those who could not care less about politics but who wanted to do good deeds. “That is, the state, in trying to place public activity under its control, has gone and categorized good deeds as political and therefore subject to licensing” (Vedomosti, 2013). Four years have passed since I left Russia, but I still questioning the parliamentary elections scheduled for December 4, 2011, when the government’s refusal to register new political parties became a popular concept. Russia is coming back to the period of a one party state. In Soviet Union it was the party of communists, nowadays it is the “ United Russia”. The same food, different sauce. Before that elections people had choice. I remember my was still for communists, I was voting for liberal party. Nowadays most of parties are not exist anymore. How are responsible for that? The citizen just had to choose between following the route shown by the government or go to the other side, which will turn your life into hell. North Caucasus has always been the most difficult region in Russia. Probably, I should not even talk about it, because it is too much complicated than anyone could ever imagine. But it is my home. I was born there. In the place covered with the blood of russian soldiers and Chechen hitmen. This region is mostly called the “Home of nationalism, terrorism and separatism in the specific country”. The Caucasus region that the Tsarnaev brothers originally hail from has long been a hotbed of both terrorist activity and repressive government crackdowns. Chechen separatists gained international notoriety with hostage situations at the Moscow Opera House, a grammar school in Beslan that ended with the deaths of hundreds of children, as well as countless smaller-scale attacks in the past decade. “The number of insurgent attacks in the North Caucasus doubled in 2010 compared to 2009” (World Report, 2011). I have been witnessed several terroristic attacks myself, I lost hundreds of people I know during this occasions. Who are guilty? Who are really guilty for taking lives of the most intellectual part of society of the North Caucasus? People keep blaming each other. Chechen people said that was done by the government, Russians keep telling that all the Muslim people from the Caucasus are terrorists. The authorities make the problem of nationalism even more complicated by using torture and abduction-style detentions. According to Human Rights Watch, the security forces have engaged in significant amounts of kidnapping, torture and abuse, including a systematic, religious "virtue campaign" that at times violently targets women and reports of a campaign to frighten away or eliminate human rights activists. As I told hundred times to my caucasian friends (Chechen, Ingush, Balkarian) the government teaches russians to hate them, and that is why they hate russians. This throwing people together will never lead to anything positive. Putin seems to be a superman, who comes to the power in order to save the country, to bring stability, peace and well-being for every citizen in the country. People believed that everybody will live happily ever after. But soon they understood that fairy tails do not exist. But changing his presidency into authoritarian kingship, she makes people to loose many of th freedoms that they had before, such as freedom of assembly, freedom of choice etc. There are thousands of political prisoners in the country right now, who are actually tortured and killed in prisons. Torture endures because of the shortcomings both in the law and in the structure of criminal justice system. Overall, talking about human rights violations in Russia, one can use the word “infinite". Democracy deficits, weak institutions and poor leadership are among the main challenges to the effective realization of human rights. In Russia there is no respect of fundamental freedoms, such as freedom of speech, freedom of choice etc. “Putin was elected in the clear expectation that he would take matters in hand.” (Leahy, 2000, p. 646) It seems to me that internal social, political, and economic situation changed drastically under Putin's leadership. However, the president can not ignore the expectations of respect for individual rights while achieving his political objectives.


Baker, Peter. U.S. targets Russians for rights violations; Sanctions strain relations before high-level visits by American officials. The International Herald Tribune. April 13, 2013. p: 3. Print.

The Obama administration imposed sanctions on about two dozen Russians for human rights violations under a new law that has soured relations with Moscow, but it avoided targeting many high-level figures in Putin’s government. The administration identified 18 Russians on an unclassified list of those who will be barred from traveling to the United States and have their assets here frozen. All but two of them are tied to the death of a lawyer, Sergei L. Magnitsky, who was investigating official corruption only to be arrested and die in custody, an official said. Another smaller group is included on a classified list, two officials said.

This article tell the story of Mr. Magnitsky, who has dead in russian prison. Magnitsky is the example of the violation of human rights, and torturing people on the territory of the Russian Federation.

Human Rights Watch. World Report 2012: Russia. Human Rights Watch, 2011. Web. March, 3, 2013.

The announcement in September that Vladimir Putin would run for president in 2012 led most analysts to believe that his election is a foregone conclusion, and cast a shadow over the prospect of much needed political reform. It concludes the most important problems of Russia. There are chapters about the violation of assembly right, the situation with elections, health issues and property expropriation..

The article gives the most famous cases of human rights violation in the country, opens the theme of the North Caucasus, and gives an idea about what is going on in the country nowadays.

Leahy, Anne. Putin’s Russia. International Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2000:646. Print.

The narrative of Putin’s presidency links him to boris Yeltsin. He restored the mechanisms of governance, he allows Russia to maintain the credibility it wants. He as already spoken of intended reforms in economic and financial sectors. Overall, the personality of Vladimir Putin shows in a very attractive way in this article.

Putin presented as the inventor of democratic reform with his ability to enforce respect for rights and freedoms and to uphold the rule of law. Putin is presented as a powerful “good” for Russia, but it is still some concerns about human rights limitations.

Loenov, Leonid. Security concerns unite Russia, United States. The Prague Post. April 24, 2013. Web. May 14, 2013.

Russian-U.S. relations may be at their chilliest levels since the Cold War, but the terrorist attacks in Boston could bring about a thaw in an area rarely regarded as common ground for the two countries: counterterrorism. This was the subject of a rare direct phone call between U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin April 20 after it was revealed the two suspects, brothers Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, were of Chechen background.

Article shows that even if the relationships between government and citizens are very problematic in the North Caucasus, the government takes care about their citizens on international level.

Levina, Polina. Links between Criminal Justice Procedure and Torture: Laerning from Russia. New Criminal Law Review: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2008:107. Print.

Article demonstrates three obstacles that impede the eradication of torture and ill-treatment. There are the inadequate criminalization of torture, rules of procedures that simultaneously create incentive to torture and perpetuate impunity and inaction of courts when faced with allegations of torture.

By assessing the domestic conditions that color Russia’s relationship with the European Convention on Human Rights, this article has highlighted the areas that are most susceptible to external influence and those may prove more intractable. Taking a comparative view of the influence of international mechanisms, this article has shed light on the impact they have on Russia’s human rights politics.

McAllister, Ian. White, Stephen. Putin and his Supporters, Europe-Asian Studies, Vol. 55, No. 3, May, 2003:388. Print.

Putin was certainly “ the people choice”/ The article opens the meaning of the Putin phenomenon. How secure was Vladimir Putin in his reforms? The population continued to fall. But economic growth recovered strongly, and the new administration began to assert Russian national interests more vigorously in its dealing with international community.

This article represents the story of Putin’s existence as a main person in the country. It shows the way he becomes so popular among people with different economic or social status. Above all, it reasserted the power of the central government within Russia itself.

McFaul, Michael. Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn. The Myth of the Authoritarian Model: How Putin’s Crackdown Holds Russia Back. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87, No. 1. Jan. - Feb., 2008:81. Print.

The process of democratization started before Russian independence. Mikhail Gorbachev introduced some important reforms. Putin’s rollback of democracy started with independent media outlets. Putin also made real progress in weaking the autonomy of the parliament. Russia is presented as “managed” or “sovereign” democracy. Putin built autocracy in the country. He might bring useful reforms to the country, but human rights are not considered at all.

The conventional narrative of Putin’s personality is wrong. Putin’s centralization of power has had an influence on governance and economic growth at all, the effects have been negative.

Severin, Adrian. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Belarus, January, 2006:7. Print.

As the Rapporteur mentioned in his report , his presentation at the 2nd Session of the Human Rights Council was received with much criticism. Belarus led the attack on his mandate, calling it politicized, biased, and nothing more than Cold-War propaganda. Numerous States supported Belarus in its refusal to recognize Mr Severin’s mandate.

Belarus is officially the only one dictatorship in the heart of Europe. It refuses every advise from Human rights organization, which led this country to be a subject of many sanctions. Many expert keep the opinion, that this politic comes from close relationship with Russia.

Robertson, Innes. Russian Prisoner Abuse. Youtube. Nov. 26, 2010. Web. May 11, 2013.

The video shows the situation in the prison in Russia. The relationship between the inmates and the correctional officers are obvious in this video.

This video introduces the horrible, inhumane situation in the russian prison. The prisoners are being beaten to death, while the are not resisting.

United States Department of State. 2008 Human Rights Report: Belarus. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, February 25, 2009. Web. April 15, 2013.

Since his election in 1994 as president, Alexander Lukashenko has consolidated his power over all institutions and undermined the rule of law through authoritarian means, manipulated elections, and arbitrary decrees. Subsequent presidential elections have not been free or fair, and the 28 September, parliamentary election failed to meet international standards. The government's human rights record remained very poor as government authorities continued to commit frequent serious abuses.

Belarus represents the example of dictatorship. The government further restricted civil liberties, including freedoms of press, speech, assembly, association and religion. Belarus is a subject to US sanctions for undermining democratic process and constituting an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. It shows the theoretical Russia’s future, if the authoritarian policy of Putin would remain happening.

Vedomosti. Russian editorial notes narrowing opportunities for expressing political protest. BBC Worldwide Monitoring, May 10, 2013. Web. May 12, 2013.

The article shows the changes in the Russian human rights. In a year, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, and the right to a fair trial (see also the second editorial article) have been restricted by law.

The article represents the situation of opposition in the Russian Federation. People are have mostly to choices to leave the country or to follow the rules. Criticizing of the russian government is the main point of this article.


Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Civil Society

...Human rights NGO is a non-governmental organization that works to protect human rights and end human rights violations.  The topic of “human rights” encompasses a wide range of issues, including freedom of expression, right to due process, gender equality,  and freedom from poverty and violence. Many NGOs turn to the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights in order to fully outline organizational goals. Human rights NGOs vary in their approach. Some NGOs perform extensive research in order to document human rights abuses. These organizations serve as “watchdogs,” monitoring the potentially abusive actions of governments. Many human rights NGOs work to bring public attention to human rights abuses through information campaigns, NGO member updates, and coordination with the press. By garnering public support of an issue, human rights NGOs can put intense pressure on perpetrators to end human rights abuses. Human rights NGOs work at the local, national and international level and may focus their efforts on government advocacy or grassroots organizing. Major Human Rights NGOs Amnesty International is recognized as one of the most influential human rights NGOs, with over 3 million members in 150 countries. Amnesty International conducts research, raises public awareness of human rights violations, and generates grassroots action. Amnesty International aims to ensure all people enjoy the rights outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The work of Amnesty......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Edward Snowden Persuasive Essay

...Americans charged with espionage by the U.S. government- he is a whistleblower. For this reason, in the eyes of the international community he has committed a non-violent political crime (under the assumption that he has committed a crime). Because of this and other reasons, granting Snowden political asylum is absolutely within Russia’s rights. One can witness a large effort on behalf of the US government, from the latter half of the 20th century...

Words: 2540 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Protests in Russia 2012

...The uniting power of social networks has been greatly underestimated by the Russian authorities during the recent parliamentary elections in Russia. Dissatisfaction, accumulated over the years, struck on the officials, making them pretty nervous, and forcing them to reconsider their views on the Internet's growing sway. And even though Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said he doesn’t use the Internet, particularly social networking tools, because he’s too busy with his work, it seems like the Internet became a part of his job. Alexey Navalny, a “Person of the Year 2009” by Russian business newspaper “Vedomosti” became a most recognized political activist and opposition since 2009, when he started to publish blogs exposing corruption among the members of the ruling party. His LiveJournal blog became the most readable source in RU-net. Years before Navalny, members of Russian opposition would hardly attract any public attention. There was no chance for the opposition leaders to get on central television and small public protests would typically be dispersed by heavy-handed riot police. For Navalny, social networking made everything much easier: • Nobody can shut down his account, even though several DoS attacks were performed on LiveJournal and other blogs during latest elections. • He immediately gets access to millions of people: Russia has the largest Internet audience in Europe, with number of unique users close to 51 million. • And finally, with the power of numbers,......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Conscripts’ Rights Discrimination in Kazakhstani Army

...Conscripts’ Rights Discrimination in Kazakhstani Army Turmaganbetov Azat ID 20122082 Academic Reading and Writing II (Section 2) Fall 2013 Abstract The research was conducted with a purpose to investigate and analyze the reasons of rights’ violation that conscripts face with in the army. Rising number of rights’ discrimination accidents causes the importance of the topic. The research included two interviews conducted with two man who are directly related to the army and conscripts’ rights violation and was conducted a survey among two different group of people as primary research and reading related academic articles as secondary research. The research revealed several problems such as physical violence, abuse of authority, helplessness and fear of punishment and possible ways to solve this problem that were found from the secondary research and some ways that were offered by the primary research participants. Reasons of conscripts’ rights discrimination in Kazakhstani army To date, the Kazakhstani army is experiencing a deep crisis. During recent years, a number of questions have been raised regarding the horrifying accidents that took place in Kazakhstani army. The main issue of those accidents is conscripts’ rights discrimination. It is a fact that Kazakhstani army has an experience of human rights’ violation and press makes publicized all sorts of events taking place in our army....

Words: 4198 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Sochi Olympics Games 2014 and Human Rights

...In Sochi will set up special "zones for meetings." The news was announced the president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Thomas Bach at a meeting of the Executive Board of the organization in Switzerland. He, however, did not go into details - so do not know where these areas will be, who is going to create and control. Thomas Bach stressed only that people who want to express their views on any issue or protest will be given the opportunity, writes USA Today, which is referenced "We welcome this measure by which everyone can express their opinion" - quoted by Bach at a press conference in Lausanne "Russian service of the BBC." Russian experts, however, resemble three months ago, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the organization of security in Sochi during the 2014 Olympics, where it is directly prohibited rallies and demonstrations during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Ibid described rules around the city of individuals - in some areas can be accessed only with the approval of the authorities, others will generally closed for public use. President's decree, in particular, defined "control zones" created in Sochi, for getting into that require a special permit and where will be enhanced inspection of vehicles by law enforcement officers. In the "forbidden zone" located around the Olympic venues, restrict access "without the overhead and operational needs." In addition, according to the document, from January 7 to March 21, 2014......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Nibm Second Semester Assignment

...Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Would you like to amend any of the articles or add a new article to the declaration? ‘CRIME AGAINST THE HUMANITY’, means that the acts of persecution or any large-scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offense above all others. Human rights are international norms that help to protect all people everywhere from severe political, legal and social abuses. The right to freedom of religion, the right to a fair trial when charged with crime, the right not to be tortured, and the right to engage in political activity are the fundamental human rights. The rights exist in morality and in law at the national and international levels. The main sources of the contemporary conception of human rights are the Universal declaration of Human rights, the treaties that followed in international organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, and the African Union. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights sets out number of human rights that countries should respect and protect, which are normally divided into six. They are Security rights that protect people against abuses of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishments, liberty, rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics through actions such as communicating, assembling, protesting, voting and serving in public office, equality rights that guarantee......

Words: 3803 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Napoleon Bonaparte and Hitler

...Napoleon Bonaparte and Hitler were very significant figures in history and are well known for their military triumphs. Napoleon is most known for his military genius and his ability to defeat immense armies with smaller forces or to simply outwit his opponents. Hitler is best known for his atrocious human rights violations and his genocide of the Jewish during World War 2. However, Hitler was another gifted military commander who was able to take Germany from a small nation in poverty to a world power that rivaled the United States and the Soviet Union. A blemish on both Napoleon and Hitler’s military resumes is that both of them failed to conquer Russia as their invasions failed. Napoleon’s invasion of Russia was similar yet different to Hitler’s invasion of Russia. Napoleon invasion of Russia was similar to Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union for many reasons. One reason that the invasion was similar was that both Napoleon and Hitler failed in their attempts. When Napoleon invaded Russia he had brought as many as 650,000 soldiers to overwhelm the Russians. However, during the invasion “The French Army barely existed as a fighting force. Napoleon watched as his army slowly died… What remained of his defeated army straggled towards safety.” Hitler also suffered a defeat when he attempted to invade the Soviet Union during World War 2. “The tremendous strain of that winter campaign, on armies which had not been prepared for it, had other serious effects. Before...

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ukraine Crisis

...Governce of Russia Explain Russian’s invasion in Ukraine and Russian’s action in Crimea by individual level of analysis Background Russia’s invasion in Crimea and Russia’s action in Ukraine were the actions in Ukraine crisis. Ukraine crisis began at the end of February 2014. The cause was the president Viktor Yanukovych refused to sign an association agreement with the European Union on 21 November 2013, and what he did arouse a series of complains in the society. Subsequently, he and his government were removed in the February 2014 revolution by an organized political movement, ‘Euromaidan’. However, people did not accepted who began to protest in flavor of close ties with Russia. Demonstrations and protests were held in Crimea aiming to leave Ukraine’s control and access to the Russian Federation, which lead to the crisis. At the last, Crimea broke away from the control of Ukraine and joined the Russian Federation. And the issues would be analyzed by the individual level analysis. Definition of Individual Level of Analysis Individual level of analysis mainly focuses on decisions made by the individual person who is the important role in the issue. It also shows the influence of the development of international politics by their interactions in 4 aspects, they are personality, perceptions, activities and choices. Putin took a very important role in making decision of action and brought big influence in Ukraine and Crimea. Types of Leader Putin is Vladimir......

Words: 1645 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Importance Of LGBT Marriage

...Why hasn't LGBT marriage been accepted in some countries yet ? Introduction LGBT has always been a familiar social issue. I am sure that everyone knows about LGBT but most of people do not really understand the meaning of it. LGBT stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. Same - sex marriage has been seen as a sign of Satan. Some people think that it is a disgusting thing and against moral. They make up lots of reason even the nonsensical thing like if homosexuality deserves equal protection, then, logically, deviant practices such as incest or bestiality must be allowed the same equal protection. That is so psychotic. In the past, the LGBT marriage issue is quite sensitive to talk about but nowadays human start to open their heart,...

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

A Glimpse Into Iran

...a Middle Eastern country governed by Islamic ideology and is a theocratic government. There are reports that, ‘Iran is one of the worst human trafficking violators in the world’ (Maher, 2013) and ‘is considered an origin, transit, and destination country for human trafficking’ (“Field listing:,” 2013, para. 52). “Iran is a “tier 3″ country in regards to trafficking, a status given to countries “whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so” (Panah, 2013). “The government did not share information on its anti-trafficking efforts with the international community during the reporting period; this impedes the collection of information on the country’s human trafficking problem and the government’s efforts to curb it” (“US report:,” 2013, para. 4). Victims of Trafficking ‘Men, women, and children are all victims of the human trafficking trade’ (“Field listing:,” 2013, para. 52). There are many reasons one may fall prey to human traffickers, but the global influences seem to be “poverty, unemployment, discrimination, a lack of social and economic opportunities, and global financial crises…” (“Iran calls on,” 2013, para. 3). According to Panah (2013) ‘children in Iran are the most exploited source of forced labor in the world.’ Because children are the most vulnerable human beings, they are easy prey for pedophiles as well. Many children who are trafficked will be used for sexual purposes at some point.......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Forum on China Africa Cooperation

...for concessionary loans and assistance in rehabilitation or construction of infrastructure of various magnitudes. Another area where the importance of FOCAC is seen is China’s political support for the ruling elite in Africa, and diplomatic support for regimes usually under pressure at forums like the United Nations, as in the case of Zimbabwe and other countries accused of various shortcomings. It is clear from this therefore that relations between China and Africa are those of feeding off each other, or principally a relationship of friends in need of each other. However, as shall be seen in this essay, there are also various problems that arise with this FOCAC, not least of which are accusations that China turns a blind eye to human rights violations in Africa as long as it benefits. For the purposes of analysing the issue of relations between Africa and China, the conceptual framework of interdependence shall be pursued. This theory argues that countries relate to each other because there is dependence on each other for various strengths. For instance, China needs African resources, while African countries need investment and loans with no political strings attached, or simply put, African leaders generally prefer investors who generally see no evil in Africa. For the purposes of this essay, the term concessionary loan shall be used to mean loans that attract negligible interest rates and/or will start to be repaid after a period like 12 months. One major importance of...

Words: 2069 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Capital Punishment

...change. These states need to abolish it on the grounds that it carries a dangerous risk of punishing the innocent, is unethical and barbaric, and is an ineffective deterrent of crime versus the alternative of life in prison without parole. Capital punishment is the most ­irreparable crime governments perpetrate without consequence, and it must be abolished. “We’re only ­human, we all make mistakes,” is a commonly used phrase, but it is tried and true. Humans, as a species, are famous for their mistakes. However, in the case of the death penalty, error becomes too dangerous a risk. The innocent lives that have been taken with the approval of our own government should be enough to abolish capital punishment. According to Amnesty International, “The death penalty legitimizes an irreversible act of violence by the state and will inevitably claim innocent victims.” If there is any chance that error is possible (which ­there always is), the drastic measure of capital ­punishment should not be taken. Also, it is too final, meaning it does not allow opportunity for th accused to be proven innocent, a violation of the Fifth Amendment which guarantees due process of law. District Judge Jed S. Rakoff of the United States Second Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan ­argued against the death penalty: “In brief, the Court found that the best available evidence indicates that, on the one hand, innocent people are sentenced to death with materially greater frequency than was......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chechnya and Russia Relations

...half a million of people to Siberia and Kazakhstan in 1944. - Chechen conflict as a struggle for independence started in the 1980s with the beginning of "perestroika". On 6th September in 1991 there was a revolution in Chechnya and Dudaev captured the power. With the help of fake elections he became a president and claimed about Chechen's independence. From 1991 to 1994, thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity left the republic amidst reports of violence and discrimination against the non-Chechen population. Situation there became very unstable and even dangerous. When Russia invaded Chechnya, a bloody war ensued. Intending to crash separatist forces, this was Yeltsin’s first major confrontation. However, the supposed awesome Russian military strength inherited from the Soviet Union, turned into a disaster. Grozny was devastated. About 80 000 people died, mostly Chechen civilians, and in 1996, Russia withdrew defeated. Dudaev was killed in 1995. - In mid-November 1996, Yeltsin and Maskhadov sighned an agreement on economic relations and reparations to Chechens who had been „affected“ by the war. On 12 of may in 1997 Maskhadov and Yeltsin signed a formal treaty „on peace and the principles of Russian – Chechen relations“ that Maskhadov predicted would demolish „any basis to create ill-feelings between Moscow and Grozny“. After Chechnya got so called...

Words: 891 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Death Penalty

...change. These states need to abolish it on the grounds that it carries a dangerous risk of punishing the innocent, is unethical and barbaric, and is an ineffective deterrent of crime versus the alternative of life in prison without parole. Capital punishment is the most ­irreparable crime governments perpetrate without consequence, and it must be abolished. “We’re only ­human, we all make mistakes,” is a commonly used phrase, but it is tried and true. Humans, as a species, are famous for their mistakes. However, in the case of the death penalty, error becomes too dangerous a risk. The innocent lives that have been taken with the approval of our own government should be enough to abolish capital punishment. According to Amnesty International, “The death penalty legitimizes an irreversible act of violence by the state and will inevitably claim innocent victims.” If there is any chance that error is possible (which ­there always is), the drastic measure of capital ­punishment should not be taken. Also, it is too final, meaning it does not allow opportunity for th accused to be proven innocent, a violation of the Fifth Amendment which guarantees due process of law. District Judge Jed S. Rakoff of the United States Second Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan ­argued against the death penalty: “In brief, the Court found that the best available evidence indicates that, on the one hand, innocent people are sentenced to death with materially greater frequency than was......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Political Science

...Facts and figures about Amnesty International and its work for human rights This facts and figures sheet gives an overview of the work of Amnesty International and the work carried out by the organization in 1998. 1) The Beginning Amnesty International was launched in 1961 by British lawyer Peter Benenson. His newspaper appeal, "The Forgotten Prisoners", was published worldwide on 28 May 1961 and brought in more than 1,000 offers of support for the idea of an international campaign to protect human rights. Within 12 months the new organization had sent delegations to four countries to make representations on behalf of prisoners, and had taken up 210 cases. Amnesty International members had organized national bodies in seven countries. The first year's expenditure was £6,040. The principles of strict impartiality and independence were established. The emphasis was on the international protection of human rights: Amnesty International members were to act on cases worldwide and not become involved in cases in their own countries. 2) Today Amnesty International has more than 1,000,000 members, subscribers and regular donors in more than 160 countries and territories. There are more than 5,300 local, youth & student, and professional AI groups registered at the International Secretariat plus several thousand other youth & student groups, specialist groups, networks and coordinators in more than 90 countries & territories throughout the......

Words: 3966 - Pages: 16