Submitted By Pegs
HurtingHealing & Rough Draft
Healing & Hurting Rough Draft
Marijuana and opiates help when there’s pain you cannot naturally fight. But when abused they both get you higher than a kite. Medical Marijuana and opiates are used for pain relief, but are widely used for substance abuse.
What is Marijuana? Is it an illegal drug? Or is marijuana a medical breakthrough? The United States Government contradicts itself everyday with this issue. The United States Government allows all states to pass bills if they so choose to, allow medical marijuana to be used as treatment for patients with chronic pain and recreational use. The other states are absolutely against the legalization of medical marijuana, saying “it is immoral”.
What is the history behind Marijuana? I am going to take you on a journey ten thousand years ago in ancient civilization. Marijuana also called Cannabis was used for fiber. The humans in this time period also used the hemp seed for food. It was only natural that they discovered the medical properties of the plant. Cannabis was actually used for a list of reasons such as hemorrhoids, insomnia, headaches, pain, and even childbirth. But that was some time ago. In the 1970’s scientist were able to extract the THC from the plant. Thus making a synthetic version of the plant, and calling it Marinol. Marinol was approved from the Government and the FDA to be prescribed to patients. It was used to treat anorexia in AIDS patients, nausea, and vomiting for patients who are going thru chemotherapy. But patients preferred to smoke the cannabis plant because it would work in minutes, compared to one whole for Marinol. Thompson AJ (May 2003)
How is Marijuana abused? Marijuana abuse comes from recreational use of Marijuana. After a number of times you have used Marijuana your brain develops a mental disorder called Cannabis Dependence. People who use Marijuana for recreational purposes look for high, or the chemical released from the brain called Dopamine. Dopamine is part of the brains reward system, which is generally used for things that taste great such as food and things that feel good such intercourse. When these effects subside the person becomes very hungry, tired, and depressed. People who have Cannabis Dependence have no ambition. They usually do not care for grooming themselves; they have very low standards and do not get far in life. Their memory is affected by the rigorous use of Marijuana, so doing complicated task, taking test or studying becomes almost impossible.
“Tolerance to some of the effects of marijuana (tachycardia, lightheadedness, dry mouth, etc.) with prolonged use has been reported, with experienced smokers showing fewer effects than beginning users. As in most other drugs to which tolerance develops, there is a withdrawal syndrome. This syndrome occurs only in chronic, high-dose users. The withdrawal can begin a few hours after the last use and persist for four or five days. It involves irritability, restlessness, anxiety, decreased appetite and weight, insomnia, sweating, nausea, vomiting, mild tremors and diarrhea. Antidepressants have been used to treat the fatigue, irritability and depression; however, in most instances no medication is necessary and supportive therapy is all that is needed” Schnoll (Apr 1986). For the people that want Cannabis dependence out of there life, they must go thru family based treatments. There are no medications available for withdraw. The addict will have to use sheer willpower to quit. Copeland J (2004)
What is an Opiate? An Opiate is really just a category of narcotics that are from the dried milk of the Opium Poppy Seed Plant. “The earliest reference to opium growth and use is in 3,400 B.C. when the opium poppy was cultivated in lower Mesopotamia (Southwest Asia). The Sumerians referred to it as Hul Gil, the "joy plant." The Sumerians soon passed it on to the Assyrians, who in turn passed it on to the Egyptians. As people learned of the power of opium, demand for it increased. Many countries began to grow and process opium to expand its availability and to decrease its cost. Its cultivation spread along the Silk Road, from the Mediterranean through Asia and finally to China where it was the catalyst for the Opium Wars of the mid-1800s”. (“The Origins of Opium 2012”)
In today’s modern era, opiates have many different forms. They are called synthetic opiates. They are created in chemical laboratories and share the same chemical build, these form of opiates are called Opioids. “Another important opioid is thebaine, which is used to make opioid analgesics such as oxymorphone, oxycodone, and naloxone. Morphine extracted from opium can also be used to make heroin, an illegal opioid and a major drug of abuse in the United States.
People have known about and used opium since ancient times. Initially it was used for the treatment of diarrhea and then for the relief of pain. Today, the major medicinal use of opium is to treat extreme diarrhea. Physicians may prescribe paregoric, a preparation made from a concentrated extract of opium.” (“Ed. Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt” 2003.) When this form of opium is ingested, it combines with certain proteins in our bodies called Opioid Receptors. These receptors can be found in our brain, spinal cord, and intestinal tract. When the opioid has come in contact with the opioid receptors in our body, the opioid blocks the transmission of pain signals sent to the brain. While this occurs, the brain will induce euphoria and create a pleasurable feeling of being stress free and relaxed. After the opioid has been active in your system for a while, the opioid will make the patient drowsy and sometimes really constipated. (“The Origins of Opium 2012”)
When the opioid is used for recreational purposes, the user begins to develop a tolerance for the narcotic. When the user has passed that point, a higher dosage is needed to achieve an intoxicating high. When this situation has occurred the user has developed Opioid Dependence. The user now addict will experience psychological effects that include craving the drug, compulsive behavior, and continue to use the narcotic even knowing the negative consequences that come with it.
Fortunately, there is treatment for Opioid Dependence. There are detox rehabilitation facilities. These facilities have group and one on one classes and even administer withdrawal medication. Without the medication quitting Opioids can be very painful and intolerable. After the patient has overcome withdrawal, the dependence no longer exists. But the psychological dependence can in some cases continue. In extreme cases, hypnosis was used to help addicts overcome their addiction. “Practitioners have used hypnotic aversion therapy and hypnotic relaxation successfully to help control and ultimately end withdrawal symptoms. Furthermore, some studies have reported the positive effects of hypnotherapy for alcoholics after drinking cessation. Much of the evidence in the field, however, involves case reports and uncontrolled studies, and some investigators believe that hypnosis has only a limited effect on addiction cessation”. (Golabadi, Majid, MD; Taban, Habibollah, MD; Yaghouhi, Mohammad, MSc; Gholamrezaei, Ali, MD. Integrative Medicine11.3 (Jun/Jul 2012): 19-23.)
Recreational use of any drug is abusing the drug. When they are used for medical purposes there is still a chance for growing Marijuana and Opioid Dependence. It is all about pacing oneself and being extremely responsible. Reference: DEA museum http://www.deamuseum.org/ccp/opium/history.html (The Origins of Opium 2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis#History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legality_of_cannabis_by_U.S._state http://drugabuse.com/library/marijuana-abuse/ (Effects of Marijuana Abuse) ND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_dependence Copeland, J, Gerber, S, Swift, W. Evidence-based answers to cannabis questions a review of the literature National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre University of New South Wales A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs, December 2004
search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/894246674/citation?accountid=458 ” Schnoll (Apr 1986). http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CCX3402100176&v=2.1&u=uphoenix&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&authCount=1
Ed. Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/1030276821 Golabadi, Majid, MD; Taban, Habibollah, MD; Yaghouhi, Mohammad, MSc; Gholamrezaei, Ali, MD. Integrative Medicine11.3 (Jun/Jul 2012): 19-23.