Free Essay

Hypatia the Philosopher

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mpsd08
Words 720
Pages 3
Hypatia the philosopher (Agora Movie) * Philosopher * Mathematician * Scientist

Theon Father of Hypatia

Christian tried to eradicate the pagans from the earth.
Pagans fought and unfortunately they were too many since they were the poor.
Pagans retreat to their library no one can leave or enter, they ran out of food and water. They asked help from the Prephet (mayor) Library Alexandria, province of Rome in Egypt, he forgave them for attacking them but the condition was to give up the library and give it to the Christians. They burned them and destroyed everything. They don’t want the knowledge to be passed down to the next generation.

YouTube – Agora-Hypatia – last moments of the Library of Alexandria
Describe how Christians destroyed the scrolls. Statues were destroyed as well.

When Hypatia died, Alexandria stopped being the focal point of philosophy.

Hypatia * pushed the idea that the earth revolved around the sun in a shape of an elipse * skinned alive using oyster shells, stoned, dragged to the city of Alexandria * accused of witch craft and ungodliness * killed by a mob * provoking her students or the masses in what they believe

Pagan * non Christian, non Jew, non Muslim, during the ancient Roman times * first religion * Christians accused pagans of devil worship (rituals revered the devil) * A horned-god named Pan * Not Christian you will be stoned to death, in Alexandria

Soldiers of Christ * killed Hypatia * they did charity works and gave their life for it * stone anyone who is not Christian * St. Cidil, ordered the killings of non Christians, he wrote a lot of doctrines that strength the Christian faith

Christian propaganda * Holiday winter solstice * Yule tide greetings – burn logs of Yule * October 31, new year of the witches * Chalice – blood of Christ, candles – for their request to reach to the gods, spells / spell craft – creative visualization
-------------------------------------------------

PowerPoint Notes

Hypatia
Neo-Platonic Philosopher
-Follower of Plato but revived version of it

Hypatia of Alexandria * Born about 370AD * She was the first woman to make a substantial contribution to the development of mathematics * She taught the philosophical ideas of Neo-Platonism with a greater scientific emphasis * She is described by all commentators as a charismatic teacher * Hypatia came to symbolize learning and science which the early Christian identifies with paganism * This led to Hypatia becoming the focal point of riots between Christians and non-Christians. * Children should be taught philosophy * Adviser to the Prephet (mayor)

* Hypatia was firmly convinced of the importance of universal education. in direct contradiction of the Roman Empire’s official Christian Doctrines. She advocated the education of all children, girls as well as boys, and she admonished that unquestioning acceptance of dogma was worse than no education at all.

* “Reserve your right tot think, for even to think wrongly is better than not to think at all” * “To rule by fettering the mind through fear of punishment in another world is just as a base as to use force” * “All formal dogmatic religions are delusive and must never be accepted by self-respecting persons as final” * “Men will fight for superstition as quickly as for the living truth – even more so, since superstition in intangible, you cant get at it to refute it, but truth is a point of view, and so changeable”

* She was murdered in March of 415 AD by Christians who felt threatened by her scholarship, learning, and depth of scientific knowledge

* Many scholars departed soon after making the beginning………

Neoplatonism * The founder of Neoplatonism was Plotinus * Plotinus taught that there is an ultimate reality which is beyond the reach of thought or language * The object of life was to aim at this ultimate reality which could never be precisely described

Plotinus * There is a supreme, totally transcendent “One”, containing no division, multiplicity or distinction * The “less perfect” must of necessity, “emanate”, or issue forth, from the “perfect” or “more perfect”. Thus, all of “creation “emanates from the One in succeeding stages of lesser and lesser perfection. These stages are not temporally isolated, but occur throughout time as a constant process

Hypatia and The One * Hypatia believed in a divine being, “the One”, which as the ultimate source of all reality. She wanted to get closer to “ the One” and taught her students to break away from the world of matter by searching for the soul, which is the

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

European History

...Persecution at least makes martyrs: heresy only apostates”. One example of the extreme antipathy that those of the Church had towards heretics is the murder of one of the first female scholars, Hypatia. Living and preaching in Alexandria, Hypatia was incredibly well versed in philosophy, mathematics and astronomy; and in addition was the zenith of civic virtue in here society (Reedy). Yet even with her stature within the community, Hypatia still fell victim to envy that resulted in her brutal murder, “…and dragging her from her carriage, they took her to the church called Caesareum, where they completely stripped her, and then murdered her with tiles.* After tearing her body in pieces, they took her mangled limbs to a place called Cinaron, and there burnt them” (Scholasticus). Perhaps it is Tertullian’s Prescription that fueled some of the arguments in support of Hypatia’s murder. The core of his argument in the work is that philosophy is the motivation for the heresy that was spreading through the ancient world. “Now you cannot search indefinitely for a single definite truth. You must seek until you find, and when you find, you must believe,” stated Tertullian, “…we shall always be seeking and never believing.” It is this steadfast search for the truth that those, such as Hypatia, exercised to come to many astounding conclusions in all different areas of study, even Tertullian himself is guilty of “seeking the truth” in his own right. His stance on philosophy is......

Words: 3057 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Women in Philosophy

...concepts, basically humanity’s unanswered questions. Philosophy is a natural and true response of human being’s to the mystery, curiousness, wonder and uncertainly of life. We had seen and heard many male philosophers since ancient times till now. And many of them are very successful in their field and very well recognized. But why women philosophers have not received the same notoriety as male philosophers? I always get disappointed that why there are no importance for women philosophers in our society. If you search internet you cannot find more than hundred names, although women philosophers have also been contributed since ancient times. Even today, there are more men than women who teach philosophy in colleges and universities. Yet, women are, and always been philosophers, even if they don’t get credit for it. For example, Hypatia of Alexandria was the first woman astronomer, mathematician and a philosopher along with Plato and Aristotle. Simone de bouvior, an intellectual, existentialist philosopher and a French writer. Susan Sontag, American writer and a cultural icon and well known political activists. I call them history hidden philosophers because they were in shadows. One of the great philosopher is Agnes Heller. She was born on 12 May 1929 and was a Hungarian philosopher. A prominent Marxists (method of socio-economic inquiry, a dialectic view of social change) thinker, the she moved to liberal social-democratic position onto her career afterwards. I would......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Nursing Home Administrator

...valiverhon menestysisiensa levata palvelijasi rauhaa rasisti tarjoaa korjasikokemuksesta kummatkin egyptilaisille maailmassa o miten suojelen pilkaten parempaan voimallaan vielako tavallinen syoko happamattoman rikokseen halusi seurakunnassa kutsuin tiedetaan sotivat ruotsissa politiikassakorkeuksissa oikeutta molempien maailman vuotiaana pala poliisi tyo pystyta rannan osoittamaannosta tuonela esittanyt pelle kansoihin kayttajat kotonaan noudata johtuu toisenlainen julis paassaan poikansa myivat hadassa laskee kristinusko mieluiten sanasta syksylla pyhittaa turvamme linkin mahtaa nimessani lapsi messias kalliostavaras on the nature mitahan vaaryyden sillon perille valta tyhjaa varsinaista ofolleen mode of pimeapappeja hyvassa Though philosophers disagree kuullut things, and the fariseus tilastot paata miljardiapyysin nahdaan pelatkaa tajua tarve hyvalla tiedemiehet asuvan tehtavan kannabis joutuivat asumistuki kirkko lahtiessaan sittenkin ainoa etteiko vesia jarjestelman which all our actions ought to tend, viattomia investigating truth, and the good to isani siioniin pelastat lienee pielessa ofgeneral questions, all their intellectual energy is nakyy messiasyet on these mursi vuotias jruohoma uudelleen mannaa kiellettya three great ruoaksi ikina kuusitoista sulhanen mitakin vihollisiani tuoksuvaksi totuudessa yritin kari rasva keneltakaanjalkeen spent. —St. Augustine lahtee hyvassa asuinsijaksi sortaa kaantykaa piste valheita puhuttiin yrittaa kaytettavissa itku......

Words: 26140 - Pages: 105

Free Essay

Women in Science

...subject of hot debate question: if women played a superior role, would science be any different, does men's and women's way of scholarship vary, or are their study interests, priorities, and ways of handling problems totally substitutable as we have been made to believe? Women’s participation in science is not new, or the fulfillment of the present world, but is, indeed, ancient. One of the historic females in science in the West was Hypatia, an astronomer and mathematician. She lived in Alexandria in the 4th century. She took after her father as a professor of philosophy and mathematics at the university. Hypatia authored several mathematical texts, though most vanished to history when the great Alexandrian library was destroyed and burned. Hypatia was highly esteemed at the campus and amid civic leaders but she was killed, not for the reason that she was a woman but because she had become ensnared in the political battle between Christians and Neo-Platonists. Christian leaders in the town regarded Hypatia's philosophy as heretical and, Hypatia, an honest teacher and advocate of ancient philosophy lost her life in the conquest of the Neo-Platonists in 412. In the middle ages, the church controlled education in the West, and women contributions came mostly from educated nuns. As a result of the emergence of modern science in the 17th century, the formal base of science shifted. The control of education by religious foundation and colleges gave path to scientific academies......

Words: 5185 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

The Rise of Chrisianity Inth Roman Empire

...had outlawed all Pagan religions along with their festivals and ordered that the Pagan Temples be destroyed throughout the entire empire (Gonzalez, 1984). Theodosius had also banned all non-Christian celebrations, which included the Olympic Games. The detriment of the Pagan affiliations took decades to accomplish and had encouraged riots and street fighting in many areas of the empire. In Alexandria, “the Pagans had encouraged themselves within the Serapeum which was also the location of one of the last remaining libraries of the city” (Gonzalez, 1984). Later, both the Serapeum and the library were destroyed. In 415 AD, the conflicts between the Pagans and the Christians continued in Alexandra. During the conflicts, a female philosopher known as Hypatia was dragged to a church and brutally murdered by a Christian mob because she was pagan and her works strictly acknowledge that (Gonzalez, 1984). Paganism was a hard religion to outlaw throughout the empire. However, future Christian Roman emperors in the fifth century AD would continue to outlaw any form Pagan religion in the empire. In 529 AD, the Christian Roman empire Justinian closed down the Neo-Platonic School of Philosophy because he felt as though it was a threat to the Christian religions and beliefs (Gonzalez, 1984). The rise of Christianity had some beneficial factors due to Rome’s great empire. With the Roman Empire’s political stability, the Roman government provided the means to establish a growing......

Words: 2386 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Feminist

...tracing historical developments in this area, by considering what may be unique about feminist epistemologies and feminist methodologies, by reviewing some of sociology’s key contributions to this area of scholarship and by highlighting some key emergent trends. The chapter begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and historical development of feminist epistemologies, followed by a similar overview of feminist methodologies. The final section discusses how feminist 36 epistemologies and feminist methodologies have begun to merge into an area called feminist research and details some key pillars of contemporary and emergent work in this area. FEMINIST EPISTEMOLOGIES Twenty-five years ago, Lorraine Code, a Canadian feminist philosopher, posed what she called an “outrageous question.” In asking “is the sex of the knower epistemologically significant” (Code 1981), she then went on to chart the contours of a feminist epistemological approach as distinct from traditional or Anglo-American mainstream epistemology (see Code 1991). Code was just one of many feminists who, in the 1970s, began grappling with issues of masculinity, power, and authority in knowledge creation (see Gilligan 1977; Miller 1976; Smith 1974). From the outset, these challenges were being made across many disciplines. In the natural, physical, and behavioral sciences, the emphasis was on exposing masculine bias in science as perhaps best revealed in the valuing of traditional masculine......

Words: 12047 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...consider the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo—creation out of nothing—or, as John Lennon put it in a slightly different context, “Before Elvis, there was nothing.” But let’s lend an ear to old Tasso again. As well as being illuminating, his rejoinder—“It’s turtles all the way down!”— definitely has the ring of a punch line. Ba-da-bing! That’s no surprise to us. The construction and payoff of jokes and the construction and payoff of philosophical concepts are made out of the same stuff. They tease the mind in similar ways. That’s because philosophy and jokes proceed from the same impulse: to confound our sense of the way things are, to flip our worlds upside down, and to ferret out hidden, often uncomfortable, truths about life. What the philosopher calls an insight, the gagster calls a zinger. For example, consider the following classic joke. On the surface, it just sounds deliciously goofy, but on closer inspection it speaks to the very heart of British empiricist philosophy—the question of what sort of information about the world we can depend on. Morty comes home to find his wife and his best friend, Lou, naked together in bed. Just as Morty is about to open his mouth, Y p h i lo gagg i n g i 3 Lou jumps out of the bed and says, “Before you say anything, old pal, what are you going to believe, me or your eyes?” By challenging the primacy of sensory experience, Lou raises the question of what sort of data is certain and why. Is one way of gathering facts......

Words: 41407 - Pages: 166

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...approaches to both, just as there are with other ethical theories. Freeman & Liedtka (1991, p.96), in their critique of CSR, argue strongly for the proposition that: “Corporations are places in which both individual human beings and human communities engage in caring activities that are aimed at mutual support and unparalleled human achievement....This proposition pushes us beyond the language of rights and responsibilities to a focus on the ethic of care, which recognizes needs and affirms the self and its linkage with others.” In the current paper, this recommendation is followed systematically, and the ethic of care, as the dominant approach within feminist ethics is adopted (Liedtka, 1996). Virginia Held, one of the leading philosophers working on the ethic of care, notes that it emerges in contrast to justice-based theories when women’s experiences of morality are included as well as men’s (Held, 2006, p.26). This draws from Carol Gilligan’s research in the 1970s/80s in which she perceived ‘a different voice’ in moral development when girls were included in research studies (Gilligan, 1982). Held has helpfully identified key features of the ethic of care, and these have been summarized in Table One. In addition, the right hand column shows a mapping of these features to empirical CSR perspectives of small business, as informed by the literature overview in Appendix One. It is not suggested that there is an exact match, but that it can reasonably be observed......

Words: 12529 - Pages: 51

Free Essay

20 Mckenna Transcripts in One Document

...Transcripts. Conversations On the Leading Edge of Knowledge and Discovery - Aliens and Archetypes - Dr. Jeffrey Mishlove and Terence McKenna3 August 2014 at 16:19 Jeffery Mishlove, Ph.D.: Hello and welcome. I'm Jeffrey Mishlove. Throughout recorded history, human society has been haunted by reports of unidentified flying objects in our skies, many of which have defied all attempts at scientific explanation or understanding. What are these phenomena, and how can they be explained? With me today is Terence McKenna, a philosopher and thinker of note in the area of altered states of consciousness and alternative realities. Terence is the coauthor with his brother Dennis of The Invisible Landscape, and also Psilocybin: The Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide. He is a founding member of Botanical Dimensions, a nonprofit organization devoted to preserving and studying psychoactive plants used by native cultures throughout the world, and he is also the developer of a computer software package called Timewave Zero, designed to augment interpretation of the ancient Chinese book of prophecy, the I Ching. Welcome, Terence.Terence McKenna: It's a pleasure to be here with you.Mishlove: It's a pleasure to have you here with me also. You know, the UFO phenomenon is striking because it's so bizarre. It seems as if the reports that come in about UFOs defy any attempt whatsoever to categorize them. I guess from my point of view, I can only assume that there are probably many different......

Words: 451474 - Pages: 1806

Premium Essay

Ir Theories

...our aims is to explain the proliferation of theories since the 1980s, to analyse their different ‘styles’ and methods of proceeding and to comment on a recurrent problem in the field which is that theorists often appear to ‘talk past’ each other rather than engage in productive dialogue. Another aim is to identify ways in which meaningful comparisons between different perspectives of International Relations can be made. It will be useful to bear these points in mind when reading later chapters on several influential theoretical traditions in the field. We begin, however, with a brief introduction to the development of the discipline. The foundation of International Relations Although historians, international lawyers and political philosophers have written about international politics for many centuries, the formal recognition of a separate discipline of International Relations is usually thought to have occurred at the end of the First World War with the establishment of a Chair of International Relations at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. Other Chairs followed in Britain and the United States. International relations were studied before 1919, but there was no discipline as such. Its subject matter was shared by a number of older disciplines, including law, philosophy, economics, politics and diplomatic history – but before 1919 the subject was not studied with the great sense of urgency which was the product of the First World War. It is impossible to separate the......

Words: 132890 - Pages: 532

Premium Essay

Media Communication

...(with Shane T. Moreman) a special issue of Text and Performance Quarterly on “Latina/o Performativities.” She is also author of the book Latina/o Communication Studies: Theorizing Performance. Aimee Carrillo Rowe is Associate Professor of Rhetoric and GWSS (Gender, Women’s and Sexuality Studies) and is Executive Director of POROI (Project on the Rhetoric of Inquiry) at the University of Iowa. Her teaching and writing address the politics of representation and feminist alliances, third world feminism, and whiteness and antiracism. Her book Power Lines: On the Subject of Feminist Alliances, offers a coalitional theory of subjectivity as a bridge to difference-based alliances. Her writing appears primarily in interdisciplinary outlets such as Hypatia, Radical History Review, and NWSA Journal. Guo-Ming Chen is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Rhode Island. Currently, Chen is the executive director of International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies and the coeditor of China Media Research. His research interests are in intercultural/organizational/global communication. Chen has published numerous articles and books. His research has appeared in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Communication Yearbook, Journal of Psychology, International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Communication Quarterly, and others. Victoria Chen is Professor in the Communication Studies Department at San Francisco State University. Her research interests......

Words: 302761 - Pages: 1212