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Hypertensive Emergency

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Hypertensive emergency
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension (high blood pressure) with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. In case of a hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure should be substantially lowered over minutes to hours with an antihypertensive agent. Contents [hide] * 1 Treatment * 2 Incidence * 3 Definition * 3.1 Hypertensive emergency as a generic term * 4 Pathophysiology * 5 Mortality * 6 Clinical history * 7 References * 8 See also |
Several classes of antihypertensive agents are recommended and the choice for the antihypertensive agent depends on the cause for the hypertensive crisis, the severity of elevated blood pressure and the patient's usual blood pressure before the hypertensive crisis. In most cases, the administration of an intravenous sodium nitroprusside injection which has an almost immediate antihypertensiveeffect is suitable but in many cases not readily available. In less urgent cases, oral agents like captopril, clonidine, labetalol, prazosin, which all have a delayed onset of action by several minutes compared to sodium nitroprusside, can also be used.
It is also important that the blood pressure is lowered not too abruptly, but smoothly. The initial goal in hypertensive emergencies is to reduce the pressure by no more than 25% (within minutes to 1 or 2 hours) and then toward a level of 160/100 mm Hg within 2–6 hours. Excessive reductions in pressure may precipitate coronary, cerebral, or renal ischemia.[1] The diagnosis of a hypertensive emergency is not only based on the absolute level of blood pressure,…...

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