Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

In: Science

Submitted By airiel2004
Words 2002
Pages 9
Juana Davidson
Hypothyroidism
Professor Cocimano
HTH 1105- 92016

To understand hypothyroidism, you must first understand the function of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly shaped organ at the base of your neck, measuring only 2-4 inches in diameter. (Sagmiller, 2) The principle role of the thyroid gland is to manufacture, store, and secrete the thyroid hormones, 1-thyroxine (T4) and triidothyroxine (T3). The thyroid is also responsible for storing much of the body’s supply of iodine, which is used to form T4 and T3. The hypothalamus detects a need for more thyroid hormone and signals the pituitary gland to make thyrotropin (TSH). The thyroid then adjusts its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. When the thyroid does not make enough hormones, hypothyroidism occurs. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill) Simply put, hypothyroidism is the result of an underactive thyroid. Because the thyroid controls metabolism, regulates body temperature, affects body weight, muscle strength, energy level, and fertility (Sagmill, 206), an underactive thyroid can have significant effects on individuals who are diagnosed with hypothyroidism. There are an estimated 27 million people living with hypothyroidism, the majority being female. Women are nine times more likely to develop this disease, most cases occurring during the childbearing years. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill, 1491) While not as common; men and children are still susceptible to the disease. After the age of 65, the number of men and women with hypothyroidism evens out. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill, 2669) Due to the role iodine plays in conjunction with hypothyroidism, individuals living in iodine deficient areas are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop hypothyroidism. Pregnancy can also bring out gestational hypothyroidism in expecting mothers, roughly 1 in 50. (Everydayhealth.com)...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...2013 Things That Can Go Wrong With the Human Body: Hypothyroidism Introduction: Over time, a significant amount of problems with the human body have evolved. These problems have been developed due to both environmental and genetic factors. Dietary changes and urbanization have also played a crucial role in the development of problems that may occur. Our bodies contain a number of functioning systems that are all imperative to our survival. Without these systems, our bodies would not function and in turn, we would cease to exist. The endocrine system serves as one of the body’s ways of sending messages to the brain. It includes a number of vital glands that keep our body’s performance stable and functional. The thyroid gland is one of the most important components in the endocrine system. It is located in the neck, just under the voice box. Its primary function is to release the hormones thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which control body metabolism, by taking iodine from our food and converting it into these hormones. When the levels of T4 and T3 become too low, the pituitary gland must produce a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which then activates the thyroid gland to generate more hormones. (Norman, 2012). If the thyroid gland does not work properly, these hormones cannot be produced on their own. This condition is known as Hypothyroidism. This paper examines the types and causes of hypothyroidism, as well as the symptoms that may occur. Possible......

Words: 2379 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Lydia Lebron Composition I ENG201 Jersey College School of Nursing Teterboro Campus Professor Toni S. Taylor, MSW Winter 2013 January 24,2014 Abstract Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is very dangerous for both mother and unborn child. There are several complications that the fetus can develop if left untreated. Many times hypothyroidism goes undiagnosed due to its symptoms similar to pregnancy. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in pregnancy for fetus brain and developmental growth as well as the mother’s health. With the right medical management hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects by mandated prescreening before, during, after pregnancy postpartum thyroiditis, educating the patient about medical treatment, medication and diet requirements and restrictions. Introduction “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”—Benjamin Franklin. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is often overlooked. Women with thyroid problems are asymptomatic and not routinely screened even during and after pregnancy (Braverman, 2012). Thyroid hormones play a critical role during pregnancy both in the development of a healthy baby and maintaining the health of the mother. With proper management, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and postpartum thyroiditis during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects and health complications to the mother by mandatory......

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

...Valerie Van Beusekom Pharm D IV Paper Proposal I. Title: Subclinical hypothyroidism. The importance of screening, treating and management of patients with slightly elevated TSH levels when compared to reference ranges. II. Problem: Purpose of the Study:  Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an elevated serum TSH level with a normal serum free T4 concentration. Whereas hypothyroidism is an elevated serum TSH level along with a decreased serum T4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism the TSH level is usually above 4.5 mIU/L but not greater than 10 mIU/L. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition discovered by thyroid screening. According to the review of Helfand and Redfern, 5% to 10% of adult women have an elevated TSH level.5 Controversy persists about screening for subclinical hypothyroidism and the TSH level at which treatment should be initiated. A 1998 position paper from the American College of Physicians questioned whether there were sufficient data to recommend treatment of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.6 A 2004 publication from the US Preventive Services Task Force found that the data were insufficient to recommend for or against screening in adults.7In 2002, a consensus development panel sponsored by the American Thyroid Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Endocrine Society found insufficient evidence to support screening and recommended against treating patients with a TSH concentration......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism Treatment

...Management. Hypothyroidism treatment is an often rewarding, simple and cheap task normally undertaken in general and in sub speciality practice (Roe, 2015). Treating it in a 75-year-old male aims at enhancing the subject's symptoms, thereby allowing better adaptation to the environment. There should be a frequent regulation of the dose to maintain thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) within the lower half of the reference range. Thyroid hormones (L-thyroxine). Hypothyroidism treatment follows an oral replacement with synthetic L-thyroxine (levothyroxine) (Hennesey, 2015). It is normally administered as a single daily dose in different dosages according to the age with the elderly patients receiving a lower dose than the younger ones (Bensenor,...

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism: A Case Study

...This interview has similar findings compared to the literature results in regards to her symptoms. Although J.C. did not display all of the known symptoms of hypothyroidism, she experienced fatigue, slowed thoughts, acne, and weight gain but attributed these symptoms to her pregnancy. Her treatment consists of levothyroxine, routine blood work, and check-ups. Acne does not appear to be a common symptom of hypothyroidism. Hashimoto’s disease is a known cause and in reflection of the literature information found, she should be checked for additional immune diseases. J.C. was diagnosed with Hashimoto’s disease at thirty-two-years-old and this diagnosis is most common in thirty to fifty-year-old women (Huether & McCance, 2012). Surprisingly,...

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

History of Hypothyroidism

...pages doi:10.4061/2011/809341 Review Article Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Substitution: Historical Aspects J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark Correspondence should be addressed to J. Lindholm, j.lindholm@ofir.dk Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 17 March 2011 Academic Editor: Marian Ludgate Copyright © 2011 J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The last part of the 19th century was a period of great achievements in medicine and endocrinology. The thyroid gland evolved from being considered a rudimentary structure to an organ related to specific diseases. The singular importance of iodine became acknowledged. Graves-Basedow’s disease was described. Surgical treatment evolved with extraordinary speed. Theodor Kocher observed that the clinical picture in patients after total thyroidectomy was similar to the one seen in cretinism. In 1850, the first case of hypothyroidism or myxedema was described. Less than 50 years later, effective treatment was introduced. Another 50 years later, autoimmune thyroiditis was ascertained as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism (in areas with no iodine deficiency). This paper gives a short survey of the history of hypothyroidism and its treatment. 1.......

Words: 8586 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism Diagnosis Plan

...Diagnosis and Plan The diagnosis has been determined to be hypothyroidism due to signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing results. Signs and symptoms consistent with hypothyroidism in this patient are fatigue, constipation, weight gain, dry mouth, depression, dry and cool skin , brittle finger nails, dry and thinning hair, and positive risk factors. According to Garber et al. (2012), clinical guidelines indicate that treatment is necessary for those with primary hypothyroidism and a TSH greater than ten, with the recommendation of synthetic L-thyroxine (U.S. brand names: Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl) as monotherapy and drug of choice. The medication should be taken alone at the same time every morning thirty minutes to one hour before breakfast on an empty stomach daily....

Words: 1065 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism Research Paper

...Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism happens due to a lack of production of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism may be primary or central, primary being the more common one. The most common cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune thyroiditis which is characterized by inflammation and destruction of thyroid tissue. This happens due to infiltration of autoreactive T lymphocytes and circulating thyroid autoantibodies. Hypothyroidism is related to many genetic risk factors and is associated with many other autoimmune disorders such as hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis, and postpartum thyroiditis. One type of hypothyroidism is congenital hypothyroidism which is when an infant is born without thyroid...

Words: 1206 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism First let’s break these words down, so we may better understand them. Thyroid=thyroid gland, Ism=process;condition, hypo=deficient;below;under;lessthan normal, hyper=above;excessive. Hypothyroidism is a condition when there is a deficiency of thyroid hormones in the body. Hyper- thyroidism is characterized by excessive amounts of thyroid hormones in the body. These conditions are extremely difference cases. There are many signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as brady- cardia- decreased heart rate, constipation, intolerance to cold, memory problems, coarse dry hair, slow speech movements, puffy face, loss of eyebrow hair and heavy menstrual periods. Medications like lithium carbonate, genetic, decreased level of iodine in the body, disturbances in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and infections. These are mainly causes of hypothyroidism. Treatment for this condition includes thyroid hormones such as thyroxine; which is a T4 hormone of the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism is caused by any growth present in the thyroid gland. Thyroid glands can be affected by a disorder called Grave’s disease, which is a immunological disorder. A sign of hyperthyroidism is a classical feature of protruding eyeball. Hyperthyroidism can also lead to thyrotoxicosis-the over production of a hormone by the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck. There is a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid drugs...

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism Research Paper

...Hypothyroidism Bethany Ott Period 5 November 2, 2015 Hypothyroidism is very common in the United States population with one in three hundred Americans having the disease. In addition, it is believed that there are 13 million Americans that are diagnosed with hypothyroidism. The chance of a person developing hypothyroidism increases with age and being a female. Also, this disease has very unpleasant symptoms that come with it. (Gaitonde; Rowley; Sweeney, 2012) In Ancient Rome, when somebody had a goiter, which having hypothyroidism could result in, the Romans believed it was due to a certain kind of water they drank. In 1811, the discovery of Iodine was made and it was believed that it had some effect on goiters. Patients with goiters at this time in history were given a type Iodine drink to decrease the goiters size. However, there was...

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Differences Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...Differences between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Before you talk about the differences between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism you first have to know what the purpose of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland that produces hormones for your body to function. These hormones helps help the brain, heart, muscles and many other major organs. The thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck at the base of your throat. Hypothyroidism means under active thyroid and it does not produce enough hormones needed for the body. It makes your body slow down. Symptoms are fatigue, dry skin nails and hair, constipation, weight gain, heavy mensural flow, irritability, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), increased respiratory rate. In blood testing hypothyroidism shows decreased levels of T3 and T4 and increased levels of TSH. Hypothyroidism is treated by supplements of thyroid hormones and are lifelong treatments. Hyperthyroidism means over active thyroid and produces too much hormone. This causes the body to go into over drive and speed up. Symptoms are sweating, feeling hot, and racing thoughts, anxiety, fatigue, increased bowel movements, insomnia, muscle weakness, soft nails, increased moisture of the skin, tachycardia (increased heart rate). In blood testing the T3 and T4 levels are increased and the TSH levels are decreased. The treatment for hyperthyroidism is by anti- thyroid drugs and is taken lifelong. There are auto immune diseases that......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism Research Paper

...The thyroid gland, which is located in your neck is responsible for producing hormones in your body, but when the thyroid gland overproduces hormones it's called hyperthyroidism. This can be hereditary or developed over time. For me, this was passed down to me by my father who suffers from hypothyroidism, which means the thyroid gland isn't producing enough hormones. I was 13 years old when I first diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. After talking to my doctor I found out that many of my behaviors, including tiredness, sweating and mood changes are because of my hyperthyroidism. Coming home from school one of the first thing I would always do is take a nap, no matter what I would always seem to be tried. As time passed these naps would result in me sleeping for 5 plus hours. I would typically be sleeping from 4 pm to 10 pm, my whole afternoons would be spent sleeping, then at night I would finish whatever homework I can and go back to sleep.Whatever homework, I didn't...

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Everything You Need to Know About Hypothyroidism

...Everything You Need To Know About Hypothyroidism Abstract This paper describes in detail the disorder hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder that affects a lot of people in the United States. Women are mostly affected but men are also affected. This paper will discuss all the signs and symptoms, treatments, diet plans and a lot of other information about the disorder. This paper also discusses exactly what the disorder does and how it affects people. This disorder is very interesting. Thyroid disorders are very hard to diagnose because they have vague symptoms until the disease has reached a severe level. The thyroid is a small gland in our necks that control growth repair and metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce hormones throughout our body. According to Ignatavicius and Workman If our thyroid is not working properly it is hard to maintain adequate health. Women are more susceptible to suffer from thyroid disorders. If you have a low functioning thyroid you suffer from a disorder call hypothyroidism. This condition can originate in the thyroid or the pituitary gland. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid fails to secrete an adequate amount of the thyroid hormone. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.)This condition may form in the thyroid or in the pituitary. The most common cause of this disorder in the United States is Hashimoto’s...

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5