Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

In: Science

Submitted By hihowru
Words 310
Pages 2
Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise routine.
Hyperthyroidism is the medical term to describe the signs and symptoms associated with an over production of thyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism is a condition caused by the effects of too much thyroid hormone on tissues of the body.
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease, a condition named for an Irish doctor who first described the condition. This condition can be summarized by...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Juana Davidson Hypothyroidism Professor Cocimano HTH 1105- 92016 To understand hypothyroidism, you must first understand the function of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly shaped organ at the base of your neck, measuring only 2-4 inches in diameter. (Sagmiller, 2) The principle role of the thyroid gland is to manufacture, store, and secrete the thyroid hormones, 1-thyroxine (T4) and triidothyroxine (T3). The thyroid is also responsible for storing much of the body’s supply of iodine, which is used to form T4 and T3. The hypothalamus detects a need for more thyroid hormone and signals the pituitary gland to make thyrotropin (TSH). The thyroid then adjusts its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. When the thyroid does not make enough hormones, hypothyroidism occurs. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill) Simply put, hypothyroidism is the result of an underactive thyroid. Because the thyroid controls metabolism, regulates body temperature, affects body weight, muscle strength, energy level, and fertility (Sagmill, 206), an underactive thyroid can have significant effects on individuals who are diagnosed with hypothyroidism. There are an estimated 27 million people living with hypothyroidism, the majority being female. Women are nine times more likely to develop this disease, most cases occurring during the childbearing years. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill, 1491) While not as common; men and children are still susceptible to the disease.......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...2013 Things That Can Go Wrong With the Human Body: Hypothyroidism Introduction: Over time, a significant amount of problems with the human body have evolved. These problems have been developed due to both environmental and genetic factors. Dietary changes and urbanization have also played a crucial role in the development of problems that may occur. Our bodies contain a number of functioning systems that are all imperative to our survival. Without these systems, our bodies would not function and in turn, we would cease to exist. The endocrine system serves as one of the body’s ways of sending messages to the brain. It includes a number of vital glands that keep our body’s performance stable and functional. The thyroid gland is one of the most important components in the endocrine system. It is located in the neck, just under the voice box. Its primary function is to release the hormones thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which control body metabolism, by taking iodine from our food and converting it into these hormones. When the levels of T4 and T3 become too low, the pituitary gland must produce a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which then activates the thyroid gland to generate more hormones. (Norman, 2012). If the thyroid gland does not work properly, these hormones cannot be produced on their own. This condition is known as Hypothyroidism. This paper examines the types and causes of hypothyroidism, as well as the symptoms that may occur. Possible......

Words: 2379 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Lydia Lebron Composition I ENG201 Jersey College School of Nursing Teterboro Campus Professor Toni S. Taylor, MSW Winter 2013 January 24,2014 Abstract Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is very dangerous for both mother and unborn child. There are several complications that the fetus can develop if left untreated. Many times hypothyroidism goes undiagnosed due to its symptoms similar to pregnancy. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in pregnancy for fetus brain and developmental growth as well as the mother’s health. With the right medical management hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects by mandated prescreening before, during, after pregnancy postpartum thyroiditis, educating the patient about medical treatment, medication and diet requirements and restrictions. Introduction “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”—Benjamin Franklin. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is often overlooked. Women with thyroid problems are asymptomatic and not routinely screened even during and after pregnancy (Braverman, 2012). Thyroid hormones play a critical role during pregnancy both in the development of a healthy baby and maintaining the health of the mother. With proper management, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and postpartum thyroiditis during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects and health complications to the mother by mandatory......

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

...Valerie Van Beusekom Pharm D IV Paper Proposal I. Title: Subclinical hypothyroidism. The importance of screening, treating and management of patients with slightly elevated TSH levels when compared to reference ranges. II. Problem: Purpose of the Study:  Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an elevated serum TSH level with a normal serum free T4 concentration. Whereas hypothyroidism is an elevated serum TSH level along with a decreased serum T4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism the TSH level is usually above 4.5 mIU/L but not greater than 10 mIU/L. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition discovered by thyroid screening. According to the review of Helfand and Redfern, 5% to 10% of adult women have an elevated TSH level.5 Controversy persists about screening for subclinical hypothyroidism and the TSH level at which treatment should be initiated. A 1998 position paper from the American College of Physicians questioned whether there were sufficient data to recommend treatment of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.6 A 2004 publication from the US Preventive Services Task Force found that the data were insufficient to recommend for or against screening in adults.7In 2002, a consensus development panel sponsored by the American Thyroid Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Endocrine Society found insufficient evidence to support screening and recommended against treating patients with a TSH concentration......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

History of Hypothyroidism

...pages doi:10.4061/2011/809341 Review Article Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Substitution: Historical Aspects J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark Correspondence should be addressed to J. Lindholm, j.lindholm@ofir.dk Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 17 March 2011 Academic Editor: Marian Ludgate Copyright © 2011 J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The last part of the 19th century was a period of great achievements in medicine and endocrinology. The thyroid gland evolved from being considered a rudimentary structure to an organ related to specific diseases. The singular importance of iodine became acknowledged. Graves-Basedow’s disease was described. Surgical treatment evolved with extraordinary speed. Theodor Kocher observed that the clinical picture in patients after total thyroidectomy was similar to the one seen in cretinism. In 1850, the first case of hypothyroidism or myxedema was described. Less than 50 years later, effective treatment was introduced. Another 50 years later, autoimmune thyroiditis was ascertained as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism (in areas with no iodine deficiency). This paper gives a short survey of the history of hypothyroidism and its treatment. 1.......

Words: 8586 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

Differences Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...Differences between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Before you talk about the differences between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism you first have to know what the purpose of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland that produces hormones for your body to function. These hormones helps help the brain, heart, muscles and many other major organs. The thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck at the base of your throat. Hypothyroidism means under active thyroid and it does not produce enough hormones needed for the body. It makes your body slow down. Symptoms are fatigue, dry skin nails and hair, constipation, weight gain, heavy mensural flow, irritability, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), increased respiratory rate. In blood testing hypothyroidism shows decreased levels of T3 and T4 and increased levels of TSH. Hypothyroidism is treated by supplements of thyroid hormones and are lifelong treatments. Hyperthyroidism means over active thyroid and produces too much hormone. This causes the body to go into over drive and speed up. Symptoms are sweating, feeling hot, and racing thoughts, anxiety, fatigue, increased bowel movements, insomnia, muscle weakness, soft nails, increased moisture of the skin, tachycardia (increased heart rate). In blood testing the T3 and T4 levels are increased and the TSH levels are decreased. The treatment for hyperthyroidism is by anti- thyroid drugs and is taken lifelong. There are auto immune diseases that......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism First let’s break these words down, so we may better understand them. Thyroid=thyroid gland, Ism=process;condition, hypo=deficient;below;under;lessthan normal, hyper=above;excessive. Hypothyroidism is a condition when there is a deficiency of thyroid hormones in the body. Hyper- thyroidism is characterized by excessive amounts of thyroid hormones in the body. These conditions are extremely difference cases. There are many signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as brady- cardia- decreased heart rate, constipation, intolerance to cold, memory problems, coarse dry hair, slow speech movements, puffy face, loss of eyebrow hair and heavy menstrual periods. Medications like lithium carbonate, genetic, decreased level of iodine in the body, disturbances in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and infections. These are mainly causes of hypothyroidism. Treatment for this condition includes thyroid hormones such as thyroxine; which is a T4 hormone of the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism is caused by any growth present in the thyroid gland. Thyroid glands can be affected by a disorder called Grave’s disease, which is a immunological disorder. A sign of hyperthyroidism is a classical feature of protruding eyeball. Hyperthyroidism can also lead to thyrotoxicosis-the over production of a hormone by the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck. There is a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid drugs...

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Everything You Need to Know About Hypothyroidism

...Everything You Need To Know About Hypothyroidism Abstract This paper describes in detail the disorder hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder that affects a lot of people in the United States. Women are mostly affected but men are also affected. This paper will discuss all the signs and symptoms, treatments, diet plans and a lot of other information about the disorder. This paper also discusses exactly what the disorder does and how it affects people. This disorder is very interesting. Thyroid disorders are very hard to diagnose because they have vague symptoms until the disease has reached a severe level. The thyroid is a small gland in our necks that control growth repair and metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce hormones throughout our body. According to Ignatavicius and Workman If our thyroid is not working properly it is hard to maintain adequate health. Women are more susceptible to suffer from thyroid disorders. If you have a low functioning thyroid you suffer from a disorder call hypothyroidism. This condition can originate in the thyroid or the pituitary gland. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid fails to secrete an adequate amount of the thyroid hormone. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.)This condition may form in the thyroid or in the pituitary. The most common cause of this disorder in the United States is Hashimoto’s...

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Thyroid

...essential for life and have many effects on body metabolism, growth, and development. Several different types of thyroid problems may develop including an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), and growths on the thyroid that may be nodules or cancer. As mentioned in an article from Cleveland clinic, to control metabolism, the thyroid produces hormones, T4 and T3, which tell the body's cells how much energy to use. A properly functioning thyroid will maintain the right amount of hormones needed to keep the body's metabolism functioning at a satisfactory rate. As the hormones are used, the thyroid creates replacements. The quantity of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream is monitored and controlled by the pituitary gland. When the pituitary gland, which is located in the center of the skull below the brain, senses either a lack of thyroid hormones or a high level of thyroid hormones, it will adjust Thyroid- stimulating hormones (TSH) and send it to the thyroid to tell it what to do. Thyroid disease is quite common. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the body uses energy faster than it should. This condition is called hyperthyroidism. When the thyroid doesn't produce enough hormones, the body uses energy slower than it should. This condition is called hypothyroidism. There are many different reasons why either of these conditions...

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case Study

...production r/t femur fracture DRY SKIN: Dehydration FATIGUE: Pt could be pain LABS: What labs should be ordered for patient CBC; TSH; Serum Electrolyte Levels; Kanahi Beathea Johnnie Tolbert Critical Thinking Chapter 21 From the findings the pt was presenting with s/s of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism develops when the thyroid gland fails to produce or secrete as much Thyroxine(T4) as the body needs. Because thyroxine regulates such essential functions as heart rate, digestion, physical growth, and mental development, an insufficient supply of this hormone can slow life sustaining process, damage organs and tissue in every part of the body, and lead to life-threatening complications. Hypothyroidism is very common in patients over 60 years of age, and is steadily increasing with age. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are very non-specific in all patients, even more so in the older patient. Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism may include weight gain, sleepiness, dry skin, and constipation. But lack of these symptoms does not rule out the diagnosis. To make this diagnosis in the elderly patient, you will need to palpate the patient thyroid for a lump to determine thyroid dysfunctions. Clues to possibility of hypothyroidism include a positive family history of...

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Thyroid

...essential for life and have many effects on body metabolism, growth, and development. Several different types of thyroid problems may develop including an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), and growths on the thyroid that may be nodules or cancer. As mentioned in an article from Cleveland clinic, to control metabolism, the thyroid produces hormones, T4 and T3, which tell the body's cells how much energy to use. A properly functioning thyroid will maintain the right amount of hormones needed to keep the body's metabolism functioning at a satisfactory rate. As the hormones are used, the thyroid creates replacements. The quantity of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream is monitored and controlled by the pituitary gland. When the pituitary gland, which is located in the center of the skull below the brain, senses either a lack of thyroid hormones or a high level of thyroid hormones, it will adjust Thyroid- stimulating hormones (TSH) and send it to the thyroid to tell it what to do. Thyroid disease is quite common. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the body uses energy faster than it should. This condition is called hyperthyroidism. When the thyroid doesn't produce enough hormones, the body uses energy slower than it should. This condition is called hypothyroidism. There are many different reasons why either of these conditions...

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Hcs245 Week 4 Worksheet

...System Health Complete the table below for 2 diseases that you have chosen that affects the endocrine system. In each box, you are required to list 3-5 bulleted statements regarding the heading of that box. Cite your sources using APA format. This section is due in Week Four. |Chosen Endocrine Disease or |Treatment Modalities |Cultural Beliefs/Practices |Epidemiological Statistics |Available Consumer Resources |Impact on Society | |Disorder | |Affecting this Disease | |(ex. financing, information, support) | | |Hypothyroidism |Daily use of medication |“The most common psychosocial |“Up to 60 percent of those with |Websites: |“More than 12 percent of the U.S. | | |Levothyroxine |problem was exploitation by the |thyroid disease are unaware of |http://www.thyca.org/pap-fol/treating-rec|population will develop a thyroid | | |Synthetic hormone |traditional healers” (Musa, Musa, &|their condition” (ATA, 2015) |urrent-or-persistent-disease/support/ |condition during their lifetime” (ATA, | | | |Baba,......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Iodine

...trace mineral and an essential nutrient found naturally in the body (Medline Plus, 2011) The body does not produce iodine, so it is an essential part to have in diet. The body uses Iodine to produce thyroid hormones that are necessary for regulating growth, development, metabolism and temperature. Iodine is mostly found in the thyroid gland, some found in blood and muscles (About.com Health’s Disease and Condition, 2012). Iodine is found in various foods. Common foods high in iodine include iodised salt, dairy products, seafood and some breads. Iodine deficiency (a lack of iodine in the body) can lead to enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) which results in hypothyroidism (when thyroid hormone production is below normal levels). However, excessive iodine can also trigger auto-immune thyroid disease and hypothyroidism (The NZ Nutrition Foundation, 2009). The NZ Nutrition Foundation have identified that NZ soils are very low in iodine which results in low iodine levels in locally grown foods so therefore, the public need to be continually educated about the benefits of using iodised salt in their cooking References: 1. Summaries for Patients. (2012). American Thyroid Association. Retrieved from http://www.thyroid.org/patient-thyroid-information 2. The NZ Nutrition Foundation. (2009). Iodine. Retrieved from http://www.nutrition foundation.org.nz/nutrition-facts/minerals/iodine 3. Medline Plus. (2012). Iodine in diet. Retrieved......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Alterations of Thyroid Function

...Temeka Campbell NURS 337 SEC 01 Instructor Susan Growe-Rosenthal, MSN/Ed, RN Alterations of Thyroid Function April 18, 2014 Abstract Disorders of thyroid function develop as a result of primary dysfunction or disease of the thyroid gland, or secondarily, as a result of the pituitary or hypothalamic alterations. Both primary and secondary disorders result in some sort of alteration to the thyroid hormone (TH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). If these levels are elevated or showing inadequate production of the hormone, then the result would be hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Of course there are underlying causes for these hormone levels to alter such as, thyrotoxicosis, Graves’ disease, and Hashimoto disease to name a few. This paper will describe the difference between hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland in the body. It is located in the anterior part of the neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larynx. Internally, the gland is composed of hollow, spherical follicles, which have follicle cells that produce thyroglobulin. Thyroid hormone (TH) derives from thyroglobulin. Thyroid hormone is referred to as the body’s major metabolic hormone. TH is actually two iodine containing amine hormones, thyroxine or T4 , and triiodothyronine or T3. TH is regulated through negative feedback loop involving the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, and the thyroid gland. TRH, which is......

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6